Architectural Design And Construction

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Architectural Design and ConstructionInstructor’s ManualDEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICESCenters for Disease Control and PreventionNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Architectural Design and ConstructionInstructor’s ManualDEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICESCenters for Disease Control and PreventionNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

DisclaimerMention of any company or product does not constitute endorsement by NIOSH. In addition,citations to Web sites external to NIOSH do not constitute NIOSH endorsement of thesponsoring organizations or their programs or products. Further more, NIOSH is not responsiblefor the content of these Web sites.Ordering InformationThis document is in the public domain and may be freely copied or reprinted. To receive NIOSHdocuments or other information about occupational safety and health topics, contact NIOSH atTelephone: 1–800–CDC–INFO (1–800–232–4636)TTY: 1–888–232–6348Web site: www.cdc.gov/infoor visit the NIOSH Web site at www.cdc.gov/nioshFor a monthly update on news at NIOSH, subscribe to NIOSH eNews by visitingwww.cdc.gov/niosh/eNews.DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2013–133March 2013Safer Healthier PeopleTMPlease direct questions about these instructional materials to theNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH):Telephone: (513) 533–8302E-mail: [email protected] Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual

ForewordA strategic goal of the Prevention through Design (PtD) Plan for the National Initiative isfor designers, engineers, machinery and equipment manufacturers, health and safety (H&S)professionals, business leaders, and workers to understand the PtD concept. Further, they are toapply these skills and this knowledge to the design and redesign of new and existing facilities,processes, equipment, tools, and organization of work. In accordance with the PtD Plan, thismodule has been developed for use by educators to disseminate the PtD concept and practice withinthe undergraduate engineering curricula.John Howard, M.D.Director, National Institute forOccupational Safety and HealthCenters for Disease Control and PreventionPtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manualiii

ContentsForeword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiAcknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Learning Objectives and Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Introduction to Prevention through Design (PtD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Construction Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Construction Accidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Scaffolding Accidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Falls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Site Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Site Activities Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82Excavations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96Excavation Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102Electrocution Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104Building Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114Fragile Roof Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130Ladder Placement Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136Skylight Installation Fatality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140Unguarded Skylight Fatality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148AC Unit Maintenance Fatality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178Building Decommissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194Other Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196Test Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manualv

AcknowledgmentsAuthors:Michael Behm, Ph.D.Cory BoughtonThe authors thank the following for their reviews:NIOSH Internal ReviewersPamela E. Heckel, Ph.D., P.E.Donna S. Heidel, M.S., C.I.H.Thomas J. Lentz, Ph.D., M.P.H.Rick Niemeier, Ph.D.Andrea Okun, Ph.D.Paul Schulte, Ph.D.Pietra Check, M.P.H.John A. Decker, Ph.D.Matt Gillen, M.S., C.I.H.Roger Rosa, Ph.D.Peer and Stakeholder ReviewersMichael J. Buono, A.I.A., LEED A.P.Joe Fradella, Ph.D.Kihong Ku, Ph.D.Matthew Marshall, Ph.D.Gopal Menon, P.E.Virginia L. Russell, F.A.S.L.A., LEED A.P.James Platner, Ph.D.Georgi Popov, Ph.D.Deborah Young-Corbett, Ph.D., C.I.H., C.S.P., C.H.M.M.viPtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual

IntroductionThis Instructor’s Manual is part of a broad-based multi-stakeholder initiative, Prevention throughDesign (PtD). This module has been developed for use by educators to disseminate the PtDconcept and practice within the undergraduate engineering curricula. Prevention through Designanticipates and minimizes occupational safety and health hazards and risks* at the design phaseof products,† considering workers through the entire life cycle, from the construction workersto the users, the maintenance staff, and, finally, the demolition team. The engineering professionhas long recognized the importance of preventing occupational safety and health problems bydesigning out hazards. Industry leaders want to reduce costs by preventing negative safety andhealth consequences of poor designs. Thus, owners, designers, and trade contractors all have aninterest in the final design.This manual is one of four PtD education modules to increase awareness of construction hazards.The modules support undergraduate courses in civil and construction engineering. The fourmodules cover the following:1.2.3.4.Reinforced concrete designMechanical–electrical systemsStructural steel designArchitectural design and construction.This manual is specific to a PowerPoint slide deck related to Module 4, Architectural designand construction. It contains learning objectives, slide-by-slide lecture notes, case studies, testquestions, and references. It is assumed that the users are experienced professors/lecturers inschools of engineering/architecture. As such, the manual does not provide specifics on how thematerials should be presented. However, background insights are included on most of the slidesfor the instructor’s consideration.Numerous examples of inadequate design and catastrophic failures can be found on theInternet. If time permits, have the students seek, share, and analyze appropriate and inadequatedesigns. The PtD Web site is located at www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ptd. The National Institutefor Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation(FACE) Reports can be found at www.cdc.gov/niosh/face/. Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA) Fatal Facts are available at index.htm.A “hazard” is anything with the potential to do harm. A “risk” is the likelihood of potential harm from that hazardbeing realized.†The term products under the Prevention through Design umbrella pertains to structures, work premises, tools,manufacturing plants, equipment, machinery, substances, work methods, and systems of work.*PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual1

Slide 1Learning Objectives and OverviewPhoto courtesy of ThinkstockArchitectural Design and ConstructionEDUCATION MODULEDeveloped by Michael Behm , Ph.D.Cory BoughtonEast Carolina UniversityArchitectureNOTES TO INSTRUCTORSThis module presents safe-design considerations pertaining to architectural design andconstruction. It contains specific examples of common workplace hazards related to constructionand illustrates ways design can make a difference. There are several case studies to facilitate classdiscussions. One section of slides presents the Prevention through Design (PtD) concept, anotherset summarizes architectural design principles, and a third set illustrates applications of the PtDconcept to real-world construction scenarios.This education module is intended to facilitate incorporation of the PtD concept into yourarchitectural design course. You may wish to supplement the information presented in thismodule and may assign projects, class presentations, or homework as time permits. Sectionsmay be presented independently of the whole. Presentation times are approximate, based on ourpresentation experience.2PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual

Slide 1To activate the features embedded in some slides, please “enable content,” make this a “trusteddocument,” and view the slides in “slide show” mode. To show the presentation file in slideshowmode, press F5. Each slide is accompanied by speaker notes that you can read aloud while theslide is projected on the screen. The audience does not see the speaker notes. When you clickon “Use Presenter View” on the Slide Show tab, your monitor displays the speaker notes but theprojected image does not.Thank you for using this module. To report problems or to make suggestions, please contact theNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH):Telephone: (513) 533–8302E-mail: [email protected] courtesy of ThinkstockPtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual3

Slide 2Guide for InstructorsSlidenumbersApprox.minutes5–2845Site Planning29–3410Excavation35–4010Building Elements41–6550General Considerations66–685Building Decommissioning69–715Recap72–735References and Other Sources74–88—SlidesIntroduction to Prevention through DesignArchitectureNOTESThe first two slides of the presentation provide acknowledgments and general information.Learning objectives are delineated on Slide 3. Slide 4 contains the Overview. Slides 5 through 28introduce the PtD concept and can be covered in approximately 45 minutes. The topic of slides 29through 34 is site planning. Slides 35 through 40 present the hazards associated with excavation.Slides 41 through 65 provide specific examples of Prevention through Design opportunities forvarious building elements. Lifting and inhalation hazards are presented on slides 67 through68. PtD also applies to building renovation and decommissioning; see slides 69 through 71. Asummary is contained on slides 72 and 73. References are provided on slides 74 through 88.Additional time may be required to discuss the case studies.4PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual

Slide 2PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual5

Slide 3Learning Objectives Explain the Prevention through Design (PtD) concept. List reasons why project owners may wish to incorporatePtD in their projects. Identify workplace hazards and risks associated withdesign decisions and recommend design alternatives toalleviate or lessen those risks.ArchitectureNOTESAfter completing this education module, you should be able to do the following: 6Explain the PtD conceptDescribe motivations, barriers, and enablers for implementing PtD in projectsList three reasons why PtD improves business value.PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual

Slide 3PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual7

Slide 4Overview PtD concept Site planning Excavation Building elements General considerations DecommissioningPhoto courtesy of ThinkstockArchitectureNOTESThis is an overview of the PtD topics covered in this module. Many of you are not familiarwith PtD, so we spend a few minutes discussing what the concept is. Next we summarize thesafety concepts pertaining to site planning and excavation. Then we discuss specific buildingelements and general safety considerations. Finally, we look at specific hazards associated withdecommissioning a building.8PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual

Slide 4PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual9

Slide 5Introduction toPrevention through Design (PtD)Introduction to Prevention through DesignEDUCATION MODULEArchitectureNOTESLet’s start by introducing PtD.10PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual

Slide 5PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual11

Slide 6Occupational Safety and Health Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)www.osha.gov–––––Part of the Department of LaborAssures safe and healthful workplacesSets and enforces standardsProvides training, outreach, education, and assistanceState regulations possibly more stringent National Institute for Occupational Safety andHealth (NIOSH) www.cdc.gov/niosh– Part of the Department of Health and Human Services, Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention– Conducts research and makes recommendations for theprevention of work-related injury and illnessArchitectureNOTESAll employers, including structural design firms, are required by law to provide their employeeswith a safe work environment and training to recognize hazards that may be present. They alsomust provide equipment or other means to minimize or manage the hazards.Designers historically have not been familiar with the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act(OSH Act) standards because they were rarely exposed to construction jobsite hazards. However,with the increasing roles that designers are playing on worksites, such as being part of a designbuild team, it is becoming increasingly important that they receive construction safety training,including information about federal and state construction safety standards.The Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1970, Public Law 91-596 (OSH Act) [29 USC* 1900],was passed on December 29, 1970, “To assure safe and healthful working conditions forworking men and women; by authorizing enforcement of the standards developed under theAct; by assisting and encouraging the States in their efforts to assure safe and healthful workingconditions; by providing for research, information, education, and training in the field ofoccupational safety and health; and for other purposes.” The construction industry standards* United States Code. See USC in Sources.12PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual

Slide 6enforced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are found in Title 29Part 1926 of the Code of Federal Regulations [29 CFR 1926].The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is part of the Departmentof Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The NationalOccupational Research Agenda (NORA) is a partnership program to stimulate innovativeresearch and improved workplace practices. Unveiled in 1996, NORA has become a researchframework for NIOSH and the nation. Diverse parties collaborate to identify the most criticalissues in workplace safety and health. Partners, then, work together to develop goals andobjectives for addressing these needs. Participation in NORA is broad, including stakeholdersfrom universities, large and small businesses, professional societies, government agencies,and worker organizations. NIOSH and its partners have formed ten NORA Sector Councils:Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing; Construction; Healthcare & Social Assistance; Manufacturing;Mining; Oil and Gas Extraction; Public Safety; Other Services; Transportation, Warehousing& Utilities; and Wholesale and Retail Trade. The mission of the NIOSH research program forthe Construction sector is to eliminate occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities amongindividuals working in these industries through a focused program of research and prevention.SOURCESCFR. Code of Federal Regulations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office ofthe Federal Register.NIOSH FACE reports [www.cdc.gov/niosh/face/]Fatal Facts Accident Reports Index [www.setonresourcecenter.com/MSDS Hazcom/FatalFacts/index.htm]OSHA home page [www.osha.gov/]USC. United States Code. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual13

Slide 7Construction HazardsConstruction Hazards Cuts Electrocution Falls Falling objects Heat/cold stress Musculoskeletal disease TrippingGraphic courtesy of OSHA[BLS 2006; Lipscomb et al. 2006]ArchitectureNOTESA construction worksite by its nature involves numerous potential hazards. A portion of the workis directly affected by weather. Workers interact with heavy equipment and materials at elevatedheights, in below-ground excavations, and in multiple awkward positions. The composition of the siteworkforce changes over the project. Work may be done autonomously or in coordination with others.The construction worksite is unforgiving to poor planning and operational errors.For these reasons, pre-job construction-phase planning is used as a best practice to systematicallyaddress potential hazards. Project-specific worker safety orientations prior to site work also playan important role. PtD practices, by systematically looking further upstream at design-relatedpotential hazards, extend these pre-job measures. PtD can help identify potential hazards so thatthey can be eliminated, reduced, or communicated to contractors for pre-job planning.14PtD Architectural Design and Construction Instructor’s Manual

SOURCESBLS [2006]. Injuries, illnesses, and fatalities in construction, 2004. By Meyer SW, Pegula SM.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Safety, Health,and

(OSH Act) standards because they were rarely exposed to construction jobsite hazards. However, with the increasing roles that designers are playing on worksites, such as being part of a design-build team, it is becoming increasingly important that they receive construction safety training, including information about federal and state construction safety standards. The Occupational Safety .