FCAT 2.0 Grade 10 Reading Sample Questions

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Grade 10FCAT 2.0 ReadingSample QuestionsThe intent of these sample test materials is to orient teachers and students to the types ofquestions on FCAT 2.0 tests. By using these materials, students will become familiar with thetypes of items and response formats they will see on the actual test. The sample questions andanswers are not intended to demonstrate the length of the actual test, nor should studentresponses be used as an indicator of student performance on the actual test. Additionalinformation about test items can be found in the FCAT 2.0 Test Item Specifications athttp://fcat.fldoe.org/fcat2/itemspecs.asp.The FCAT 2.0 Reading tests and sample questions and answers are based on the 2007Next Generation Sunshine State Standards.The sample questions for students and the sample answers for teachers will only be availableonline, at s for Answering the Reading Sample QuestionsMark your answers on the Sample Answer Sheet on page 15. If you don’t understand a question,ask your teacher to explain it to you. Your teacher has the answers to the sample questions.

SAMPLE10FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsRead the article “The Enigma of the Echidna” before answering Numbers 1 through 7.THE ENIGMA OF THE ECHIDNABy Doug StewartScientists are continually perplexed by this egg-laying Australian mammal’sunpredictable behavior and strange physical characteristics.One of the most remarkable sights that biologistPeggy Rismiller has seen in her years exploringthe Australian bush is that of an echidnasunbathing. The short-beaked echidna, or spinyanteater, ordinarily resembles a spiky ball, likesome kind of terrestrial sea urchin. To warm upon a cool morning, however, it will stretch out onthe ground, its body flat, and lift its spines to letin sunlight. “It’s amazing to see,” Rismiller says.“It looks like a rug with spines.”On a continent teeming with weird mammals, theechidna is one of the weirdest. It has a beak likea bird, spines like a hedgehog, eggs like a reptile,the pouch of a marsupial and the life span of anelephant. Elusive and unpredictable, echidnascontinue to perplex the scientific world with theiroddities. “They’re such an independent, enigmatic animal,” says Rismiller. “Every time youthink you know what they’re going to do, they do something different.”“Echidna” commonly refers to the short-beaked echidna, which is found across Australia. Asecond genus, the long-beaked echidna, lives in Papua New Guinea.The first detailed description of the echidna was published in England in 1792. A decadelater, another account included a meticulous drawing by Captain William Bligh, who hadfeasted on roast echidna years earlier during a post-mutiny stopover in Australia. Bligh hadthe foresight to sketch the strange animal before eating it. Not until 1884 did the scientificworld learn to its amazement that both platypuses and echidnas laid eggs.Since then, Australians have adopted the short-beaked echidna as a national mascot of sorts.It’s among the most widely, if sparsely, distributed of all Australian mammals—wanderingand burrowing its way across rain forest, desert, bush, swamp and seashore. The echidna’sPage 2FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsFlorida Department of Education

SAMPLEFCAT 2.0 Reading Sample Questions10total numbers are unknown. “You can’t do the usual mammalian trapping surveys becauseyou can’t trap them,” says Rismiller. “Even food won’t lure them.” Concerned that theirfuture welfare is not assured, Australia has officially listed them as a protected species. Inher 15 years of living in a pristine area for wildlife not far from Adelaide, Rismiller hasbecome the world’s foremost authority on the short-beaked echidna. Rismiller and herpartner, biologist Mike McKelvey, work at the rustic Pelican Lagoon Research andWildlife Centre on South Australia’s remote Kangaroo Island. The two operate the facilityas a nonprofit educational trust that specializes in low-impact field research. It’s the sort ofplace where computers are solar-powered and rain provides drinking water. Volunteerssweep bat guano from the tables each morning.Rismiller works only with live, free-ranging animals, which is a challenge as echidnas arehard to find and harder to catch. When she arrived, she and her colleagues searched for300 hours before encountering their first one. Small, dark, wary and virtually silent, anechidna in plain sight can resemble a low, nondescript bush. Rismiller now sees to it that aquarter of the four dozen echidnas roaming the Pelican Lagoon area of Kangaroo Islandcarry radio transmitters epoxied to a spine on their backs. (Traditional radio collars won’tfit, echidnas being essentially neckless.) Still, tracking even radio-tagged echidnas isn’teasy. “They’re built low to the ground,” says McKelvey, “and they spend a lot of time inburrows and caves, which block the signal.” Moreover, a single spine can be a precariousattachment point. Says Rismiller, “I call one of the echidnas here our 10,000 malebecause he’s shed so many transmitters.” He may have learned to scrape them offbetween rocks.Rismiller, who also studies tiger snakes, admits she’s obsessed with echidnas. “They’resuch wonderful, attractive, enigmatic animals. They have a rolling, waddling gait. Theirspines make them look formidable, but they’re really quite gentle animals. To see theirlittle beaks and their little eyes looking up at you, it’s Lord of the Rings1 all over. Youthink: ‘Here is a wise little gnome.’ ”Adult echidnas are roughly the size and weight of newborn humans, but helpless they’renot. Their short legs, heavy, backward-pointing rear claws and broad shoulders arewell-suited to powerful digging. Alone among mammals, echidnas can dig straight down,disappearing in minutes. Natural escape artists, echidnas can also dig through woodengarage doors and heavy plastic storage bins. Metal walls are a better deterrent, but they’renot unbreachable, as researchers at the University of Melbourne discovered recently. Agroup of captive echidnas there were confined to a pen with corrugated-iron walls. “Afterthree days,” Rismiller says, “the researchers found the drinking bowls had been stacked ina corner, and all the echidnas had climbed out.”1Lord of the Rings: title of a fantasy trilogy by British author J.R.R. Tolkien (1892–1973)Page 3FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsFlorida Department of Education

SAMPLE10FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsWhile hatchlings have an egg tooth for breaking out of the shell, adults are utterlytoothless. They use their hard, skin-covered beaks, an extension of the skull, to rootaround vegetation, plow through soil and pry up rocks in a search for ants, termites,worms, grubs and other food. The short-beaked echidna’s scientific name, Tachyglossusaculeatus, is apt: fast-tongued and spiny. The animal slurps up prey with a long stickytongue that darts in and out of its beak.Aussies may refer to echidnas casually as “porkies,” but their spines have little in commonwith a porcupine’s quills. Echidna spines lack barbs and are never thrown from the body.What’s more, a porcupine can’t use its quills to climb a rock crevice or right itself whenupended, as an echidna can. “Echidna spines are actually modified hairs,” says Rismiller.“They have a long root that goes into a special muscle layer no other mammal has.” Theanimals can thus move spines individually or in small groups—to protect their heads, forexample. “When you pick one up, the spines on its head will stand up straight while thoseon its back will lay flat.” This muscle control isn’t always voluntary.Rismiller suspects that spines may aid in the species’ survival in an unexpected way. Likeother mammals, echidnas are hairy and milk-bearing, but their blood is only lukewarm. Anactive echidna’s innards usually range between 88 and 91.5 degrees F, or 31 to 33 C. (Aninactive echidna can be much cooler; to conserve energy, it can go into torpor, letting itsbody drop to as low as a few degrees above freezing.) “Cold doesn’t deter them,” saysRismiller, “but if their body temperature rises above 33 Celsius [well below what’s normalfor humans] heat stress will kill them.” Echidnas have no sweat pores, nor do they pant.Might their spines, so deeply embedded in well-vascularized tissue, be capable ofdissipating excess heat? The idea for now is conjecture, but Rismiller hopes to pursue it.Much about echidna behavior is a mystery. “It’s because they’re so difficult to study,” shesays. “They’re hard to find, they’re solitary, they make no noise and they travel greatdistances.” Their wanderlust is one reason they’re ill-suited to captivity. Attempts torelocate them inevitably fail; even after a 30-kilometer drive, says McKelvey, “the animalis back almost before the humans are.” Echidnas have no routines. They’re active dayor night, regardless of weather. They lack permanent dens, choosing instead to sleep inwhatever burrow or cave is handy. They don’t socialize and they haven’t been known tofight. They forage in a home territory as large as 250 acres yet don’t defend it. They tendto ignore any creatures they encounter, except when the time comes to mate.After a three-week gestation, the female lays a single soft leathery egg about the size of anAmerican dime. The baby echidna, or puggle, hatches in ten and a half days and remainsin the pouch to suckle.Page 4FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsFlorida Department of Education

SAMPLEFCAT 2.0 Reading Sample Questions10Like a newborn kangaroo, the puggle is essentiallya mobile embryo: Its extremities are transparent, itseyes and backbone unformed, its forepaws capableof grasping but its hind legs mere buds. In twoweeks, the hatchling gains 100 times its birthweight, growing from a third of a gram to about30 grams. At seven or eight weeks, when the pugglestarts to grow spines, the mother evicts it from herpouch (understandably) and places it in a nurseryburrow. Thereafter, she visits for feedings every five or six days. In about seven months,the juvenile has a full complement of spines and claws and is foraging on its own.Thanks to its armored exterior, an adult echidna has few native predators. On KangarooIsland it has none, though a large monitor lizard called Rosenberg’s goanna preys onspineless burrow young. Introduced predators are a bigger threat. Feral cats attackburrowing young as well as torpid adults. On the mainland, predators include dogs, feralpigs, foxes and dingoes. The echidnas’ customary defense is to roll into a ball. Outsideconservation areas, habitat loss and fast-moving vehicles are perhaps the species’ gravestthreat, however. (An echidna spine can puncture a tire, but it’s always after the animalhas died.)Those animals that evade mishaps compensate for their low-speed, slow-breeding life-styleby often living 50 years or more. A Kangaroo Island local told Rismiller he had beenwatching the same full-grown echidna wander about his farm since he was a boy 45 yearsearlier. When she asked how he could be sure it was the same animal, he replied, “Easy. Itonly has three legs.”A final oddity about these very odd creatures: The echidna’s neocortex, associated withreasoning and personality in humans, accounts for nearly half its brain’s volume, comparedto about 30 percent in so-called higher mammals. “What are they doing with it, that’s thequestion,” says Rismiller. “I think they’re using it to play tricks on me, that’s what I think.They use it to get rid of their transmitters.”“The Enigma of the Echidna” by Doug Stewart. Reprinted by permission of the author. Copyright 1996–2003. Published in the National WildlifeFederation, Oct/Nov 2003. All rights reserved. “14 day old baby echidna (Puggle)”: Reprinted by permission of Mike McKelvey, Photographer. All rightsreserved. “Echidna”: Staffan Widstrand/CORBIS.Page 5FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsFlorida Department of Education

SAMPLE10FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsNow answer Numbers 1 through 7 on your Sample Answer Sheet on page 15. Base youranswers on the article “The Enigma of the Echidna.”1Read this excerpt from the article.“They’re such an independent, enigmatic animal,” says Rismiller.“Every time you think you know what they’re going to do, they dosomething different.”In the excerpt, Rismiller is discussing23A.the echidnas’ solitary habits, which make the animals difficult to locate.B.the echidnas’ instincts, which make the animals able to successfullyavoid capture.C.the unpredictable behavior of echidnas, which makes the animals puzzlingsubjects to study.D.the mysterious nature of echidnas, which makes the animals difficult toclassify appropriately.Rismiller supports the idea of low-impact field research byF.drinking rainwater and using solar energy.G.employing volunteers and using metal pens.H.tracking echidnas in their natural environment.I.attaching transmitters to the spines of echidnas.Which of the following is NOT a factor that makes tracking echidnas with radiotransmitters challenging?A.Echidnas spend time in caves.B.Transmitters are difficult to attach.C.Transmitters are difficult to acquire.D.Echidnas are built low to the ground.Page 6FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsFlorida Department of Education

SAMPLEFCAT 2.0 Reading Sample Questions456710According to the article, what is one echidna characteristic that is shared withother mammals?F.the production of milkG.the size of the neocortexH.the use of spines for climbingI.the use of the beak for rootingAccording to the article, the main similarity between echidnas and porcupinesis theirA.special muscles.B.physical appearance.C.capacity to move their spines.D.ability to use their quills to climb rocks.The greatest danger to echidnas outside conservation areas is posed byF.feral cats and dingoes.G.monitor lizards and foxes.H.introduced predators and scientific research.I.decreased living space and human intrusion.According to the information presented in the article, all of these factors account forthe uncertainty in determining total echidna population in Australia EXCEPTA.the failure of traditional trapping methods.B.the difficulty of attaching radio transmitters.C.the ruggedness of the terrain where echidnas dwell.D.the distribution of echidnas throughout the continent.Page 7FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsFlorida Department of Education

SAMPLE10FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsRead the “Quest-4 Cell Phone––User Manual” before answering Numbers 8 through 12.Quest-4 Cell Phone — User ManualUSING THE CALENDARThe calendar in your Quest-4 cell phone is a convenient way to keep track of importantreminders; tasks that need to be completed; people who must be called; and special eventssuch as concerts, ball games, graduations, and vacations. Your Quest-4 cell phone will hold upto 300 calendar entries.CALENDAR SYMBOLSCalendar entries may be categorized into four types:RemindersStudy for an exam, prepare for a speech, pick up your childafter school, etc.CallsCancel a doctor’s appointment, make a restaurantreservation, renew library books, etc.TasksReset your smoke alarms, water the lawn, change the oilin your car, etc.EventsAttend the school musical, your family reunion, thecounty fair, etc.ADDING CALENDAR ENTRIESFrom the main menu, choose Calendar. Press OK.From the calendar menu, use the UP and DOWN arrows to choose New Entry. Press OK.Choose Category. Press OK. Choose the icon that corresponds to the type of entry youwant to make (Reminders, Calls, Tasks, or Events). Press OK.Enter a word or phrase that identifies your calendar entry (Track Meet, Piano Recital,etc.). Next, enter the date and time of the event.Choose Ring Tone or Preset Melody to remind you of this date. Press OK.If you would like an advance reminder, you can choose the number of minutes or hoursprior to the event when you wish to be alerted. Press SELECT at the bottom right of thedisplay. Your task or event is scheduled.ACCESSING CALENDARSFrom the main menu, choose Calendar. Press OK.Choose Week View mode or Month View mode.If you choose Week View mode, the current week will display. To choose a different week of thecurrent month, choose Change Week at the bottom left of the display, and use the RIGHT and LEFTarrow keys to select 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 (first week, second week, etc.). In Week View mode, the daysare listed in a column, with an icon or icons next to days that have entries from your personalcalendar. Clicking on the icon will display a screen with the details of that entry.Page 8FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsFlorida Department of Education

SAMPLEFCAT 2.0 Reading Sample Questions10If you choose Month View mode, the display is similar to a calendar with columns and rows.The current month will display with the current day highlighted. The RIGHT and LEFT arrowsallow you to move forward and backward through the days of each week. The UP and DOWNarrows allow you to move up and down to different weeks. Once the DOWN arrow has moved tothe last week of the month, the next click of the DOWN arrow advances the display to thefollowing month. After the UP arrow reaches the first week of the month, the next click of theUP arrow key changes the display to the preceding month. Dates with entries from yourpersonal calendar are highlighted in blue. To obtain Week View mode when in Month Viewmode, simply highlight any day in the desired week and choose Week at the bottom left ofthe display.DELETING CALENDAR ENTRIESFrom the main menu, choose Calendar. Press OK.Choose Month View.Highlight the date of the entry to be deleted. Press OK.Select the entry to be deleted. Choose Options at the lower right of the display. ChooseErase. Press OK.To erase everything for an entire month, highlight the month name at the top of thedisplay. Choose Options and then choose Erase. Press OK.To erase all entries, choose Options and then choose Erase All. Press OK.MAKING EMERGENCY CALLSEven if your Quest-4 cell phone is not activated, you can still use it to make an emergency call.Your Quest-4 phone supports the country-specific emergency numbers 112, 911, 999, and 08.Under normal circumstances, these numbers can be used to make an emergency call in anycountry that uses one of these emergency numbers.To determine a local emergency number, choose Phone Book from the main menu. Press OK. Usethe UP and DOWN arrow keys to scroll to Special Numbers. Press OK. Choose SOS Numbers.Press OK. A list of locations and corresponding emergency numbers displays.ENHANCED EMERGENCY SERVICE (EES)Your Quest-4 cell phone features an embedded Global Positioning System (GPS) chip. If youshould experience an emergency in a location where a GPS signal is available, your phone willautomatically seek information and report your approximate location when you make a call to anemergency number; however, it is important that you report your location as specifically aspossible to the operator who handles your emergency call in case the area is not equipped toreceive GPS information.“Quest-4 Cell Phone––User Manual” property of the Florida Department of Education.Page 9FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsFlorida Department of Education

SAMPLE10FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample QuestionsNow answer Numbers 8 through 12 on your Sample Answer Sheet on page 15. Base youranswers on the “Quest-4 Cell Phone––User Manual.”8Read this sentence from the user manual.To obtain Week View mode when in Month View mode, simplyhighlight any day in the desired week and choose Week at the bottom left ofthe display.In which sentence does mode have the same meaning as in the sentence above?9F.She reacted to the change in the mode of the teacher’s voice.G.The instructor asked the students to find the mode of a set of numbers.H.She switched the computer’s application from keyboard to voice mode.I.The subway is her favorite mode of transportation when she visits the city.The CALENDAR SYMBOLS chart is different from the other text features in the usermanual because itA.lists events in order of i

FCAT 2.0 Reading Sample Questions The intent of these sample test materials is to orient teachers and students to the types of questions on FCAT 2.0 tests. By using these materials, students will become fam