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SLING-THROWING AS A Patricia Carroll --- Transcription Antoni Genovart EspinosaChapter ITHE SPORT OF HURLING A SLING1.- OriginThe sport of hurling a sling comes from the historictradition of the Balearic slingers who, with exceptionalskill, used this artefact for their own survival- as ahunting tool and also as a weapon against their enemies.2.- DefinitionIt's a discipline of athletics that, by means of a sling, astone is propelled at an object or target. In certaincompetitions a tennis ball or similar can be used as aprojectile instead of a stone.3.- FormsThere are two forms that are essentially based on skilland force, they are:ABILITY TO SHOOT ON TARGETThis is achieved by the slinging of stones (*) at a target.The following are the distances to be taken intoconsideration:TARGET15, 30, 45, 60 & 90 paces (a pace is equivalent to 65 cm)(*) In promotional, school or similar competitions,tennis balls or like can be used instead of stones.DISTANCEAs the name implies the idea is to hurl the stone as far aspossible using the sling.4.- The form of hurling.Any traditional method of throwing is permitted(over-head, sideways, diagonal etc) provided that the stone does two full circles before being thrown. It is

not considered valid the accompanying of an up and down movement, guiding the stone with the arm. Incase of any doubt about the orthodoxy of a style of throwing, the Referee-judge is the one to decide.5.- Form of dressThe thrower may use any form of dress of normal use, either street or sporting apparel. The thrower should,if the judge-referee so requests, at the beginning of the competition and during the same, wear somewhereeasily visible, either on the chest or back that should be visible at all times.Chapter IITHE PANEL OF COMPETITION Patricia Carroll --- Transcription Antoni Genovart Espinosa1.- Its composition.In all official competitions, the panel of judges shouldbe at least as follows:Referee-judge, main judge and secretary-judgeIn the discipline of long distance there will also be a'fall' judge, should it be considered necessary.Their functions will be as follows:1.1.- The Referee-JudgeThis is the person with maximum responsibility over thecompetition and his decisions are indisputable. Hecontrols the competition and he is the one who ratifies oroverrules the decisions of the other judges.He is the one responsible for making sure that the Rulesare applied and he decides on any technical question thatmay arise during the competition and that apparently isnot contemplated in the Rules.LONG DISTANCEHe will check that the measurements of the ground, thetarget etc. as well as the slings and stones are standard.He will assign the tasks to the other judges.He may exclude any participant for inappropriateconduct and he will make decisions 'in-situ' when facedwith any objections or complaints that may occur as

regards the behaviour of any participant.He is authorised to change the location of thecompetition if, in his opinion, the circumstances warrantthe change, which will only be demonstrated afterhaving finished a complete round of inspection.He can decide to declare null a round or competition,order its repetition either the same day or on another daythat he designates, should he decide that there hasexisted sufficient cause to vary the fairness of the resultof the same.He will determine, in the case of a draw, which throwhas been closest to the mark, after consultation with theother judges should he so require.1.1.- The Main JudgeHe will decide the order of throwing. He will declarewhether a throw is null, failed or valid by means of theuse of the following flags:Null: Vertical red flag.Failed: Horizontal red flagHit on frame: Horizontal white flagHit on target: Vertical white frameHe will situate himself at or behind the extension of thetable or throwing-line, at a distance that will allow himto keep a close eye on any possible infraction on the partof the throwers.WAY OF MEASURINGThe rest of the judges, as well as carrying out theirfunctions, will also watch out for any possibleinfractions on the part of the throwers and also theimpact of the stones. The main judge, in case of doubt,will consult with the rest of the panel and afterdeliberation will announce the final decision.In the discipline of long distance throwing all validthrows will be shown as the target and will later bemeasured.1.1.- The Secretary-JudgeIt will be up to him to make up the official record of thecompetition, as per the format of the official federation,taking note of the full name of the participants by orderof inscription, noting the club that they belong to, or ifnone their place of residence.

He will check that all those who are registered arepresent and eliminate the no-shows from the list.He will note down on the Results sheets the verdictscorresponding to each throw:- The capital letter N designates a null throw.- The capital letter F designates a failed throw.The scoring that corresponds to the distance of thethrow, depending on whether the hit is on the frame oron the target itself, in the case of the later the figure willbe circled for better visibility.The length of the throw, in distance events.Give an account of the judges who have refereed thecompetition.Following the instructions of the Referee-judge, he willtake note of any possible incidents during thecompetition.On the conclusion of each stage of the competition, hewill immediately fill in the Results sheet, signed by allthe judges and he will announce the results toparticipants and public.1.1.- The 'Fall' JudgeHe will act only in long distance competitions. He willplace himself at one extreme bordering the throwingsection, wearing adequate protection. He will observewhere the stones land.If they land within the designated area, he will raise awhite flag and go to the area where the stone has fallen,holding one extreme of the white tape used to measurethe distance of the throw.If the stone falls outside the area he will raise a red flag.Chapter IIITHROWING RANGE, TARGET, SLING

Traslation: Patricia Carroll --- Transcription Antoni Genovart Espinosa1.- Firing RangeThe competition will take place in an earthen field orwith grass etc. It should be flat, free of obstacles andmeasure a minimum length depending on the kind ofcompetition to be held.2.- Protective Netting/CageIn one end of the playing field, at the narrower extreme,it is recommended to install a cage where all of thethrows in the competition should take place. The saidcage is for the protection of judges and spectators.The measurements are as detailed in figs. 1 & 2.The frame should be of a resistant material. The nettingshould be placed so that it is not stiff and can absorb theimpact of the stones, without bouncing back against thethrower.The cage should be covered with netting in all itssurface area, including the top.CAGEShould there not be a cage/frame installed, theJudge/Referee can authorise another kind of protection,or make sure that the participants and spectators are atleast 10m away from the throwing line.3.- The Line marking void throws.There will be a plank 10cm wide X 3cm thick and 2mlong.The plank will be hinged in the middle so that it can befolded for transportation.4.- Central axisIn the central axis of the cage/frame there will be anidentifying line with the same characteristics as theaforementioned, from the lower edge of the frame to the'void' line.

5.- TargetIt will be placed at the appropriate distance, dependingon the kind of competition being held, at thecontinuation of the axis that passes through the centre ofthe cage/frame.It will be made up of a square wooden frame, measuring1,20m and 3cm thick.With the centre in the crossing of the diagonals of theframe, a metal circle is placed 50cm in diameter and atleast 1mm thick. It will be separated 2cm from the frameby a passing screw.The whole unit is then suspended at a height of 1,60m,from the centre of the same to ground level by means oftwo supports 1m long 3cm in diameter or 5 X 5cm. Oneor two of the planks or slats will be placed at the back tomake sure that it is held firm.The target should offer guarantees as to its stability andability to support the impact of stones weighing 250 gr.or less.NULL LINEIt will be placed as vertical as possible.In the 'ball' category, the target can be a piece of woodwith a painted target and sustained by ropes or nails.6.- SlingsThe slings can be made from pita fibre, straw, oakum,linen, cord, skin, hair, wool, etc or any other material ofvegetal or animal origin. The use of slings made frommaterials of mineral, metal or any synthetic nature(plastic or derivatives) is considered to be against therules.No limit is set as to the shape or weight of the sling; itall depends on the Referee-judge to decide what can beclassed as a sling.Its maximum length (doubled in the middle) cannot bemore than 1 m.7.- StonesIn all competitions the stones used as projectiles shouldbe of natural origin, that is to say they should not haveundergone any process of artificial fabrication.Any type of stones may be used, with no limit on size orshape, excluding however those which contain any

magnetic minerals.The Organising body of each competition will put at thedisposal of the slingers a basket of stones, wherepossible from a torrent, which can be used by them, orthey may choose to use their own stones.The throwers, on being asked by the Referee-judge,should show and put at the disposal of the panel ofjudges the stones they intend to use.If the Referee-judge observes any anomaly in the stones,he can make the throwers use the stones provided by theorganising body, and should they refuse to do so theymay be excluded from the competition.Chapter IVTHE RUNNING OF THE COMPETITION.NULL & VOID THROWS.LONG : Patricia Carroll --- Transcription Antoni Genovart Espinosa1.- Throwing orderThe participants will make their throws by order of inscription, in each of the rounds. Each competitorcan make 2 series of 2 throws in each series. Those who manage a throw on target will be allowed onefurther throw to try to better the others.In certain competitions, with the authorization of the federation, 5 throws can be made, without the rightto an improvement throw.2.- Trial throwIn the competition ground, each thrower can, where possible, make a single trial throw that does not scorefor competition purposes. These trial throws will take place by order of inscription and under thesupervision of the judges. Once the competition has officially started no type of trial throw will bepermitted, either on the competition grounds or in the vicinity.3.- ThrowsThese will be made from inside the mandatory cage, or from behind the null & void line and the throw

will be taken from a stationary position indicated by the main judge/referee.4.- Other items of clothingThe participants are not allowed to wear protection gloves, nor use any kind of item that may help withthe throw.The use of bandages or sticking plasters in hands or wrists is not permitted, except in the case of an openwound or cut. Wristbands are allowed.5.- New incorporationsOnce the competition has started, in the appropriate category, it will not be permitted for any newparticipant to join the competition who was not present at the start with the judge before the beginning ofthe throwing, although previously inscribed. In the event of a justifiable delay, the judge can authorise theincorporation of the thrower in the round being disputed.6.- Renounce a throwIf a competitor decides to renounce taking any of the throws due to him, this will be considered a nullthrow, except when the referee judge decides otherwise.7.- Knocking down of the targetShould the target fall down, due to the impact of a throw, this will not automatically be declared a nullthrow. If the area where the stone has impacted is visible, the points will be adjudicated in the normalway. Should this not be the case, then the throw will be repeated , after the target has been assured inplace.8.- Retrieval of the stonesFor the retrieval of the stones, once the round or throw has finished, for safety reasons the thrower shouldwait until authorised by the main judge or the Referee -judge.NULL THROWA throw is considered null, and it will be so declared by the Judge, when one of the following occurs:9.- Throwing TimeIf the thrower takes more than a minute to take the throw from the moment he is authorised to do so bythe Judge. Should this occur on more than two occasions in the same competition, the Referee judge willbe obliged to exclude him from the competition. However the points he has scored up until his exclusionwill be valid. If when placing the stone or ball in the sling it should fall, before taking a swing, thethrower will be allowed put in place but should not surpass the maximum time limit.10.- Stepping on the null lineIf the thrower steps on the null line/board or any part of his body touches the ground past the null lineeither during or after the throw.11.- Strike any part of the cage

If the stone should strike any part of the cage when being thrown, emerge sideways or backwards.12.- Fall outsideIn long distance should the stone fall out with the designated sector (see fig. 1)13.- Double interruptionShould the thrower interrupt the swinging of the stone on two occasions, after having been authorised tothrow.14.- Falling of stone when being placed in the sling.The thrower will be allowed to have another try should the stone fall when being placed in the sling.POINTS SYSTEM15.- ScoringThe points system used in the competition will be as follows:Distance30 paces45 paces60 pacesFrame1 point2 points2 pointsTarget24416.- Zero scoreAny failed or null throw will score zeroTHE RULES APPLYING TO LONG DISTANCE THROWING17.- Measurement of the throwsEach thrower will make 5 throws, one per series.The best attempt of each thrower will be taken into account, however all of the throws will be measuredand noted down, for consideration in the case of a draw. The unit of measurement to be used is metres ¢imetres rounded down to the lower par.18.- How to take measurementsThe throws will be measured by the judges counting the distance between the lower line of the null line towhere the stone finally comes to a stop. Of the stone, the part nearest the central point of throwing willcount.

19.- Should the stone breakIn the event that the stone should break into two or more pieces on hitting the ground, the largestpiece will be taken into account by the judges.20.- Numbering of the stonesThe identification of the stones in this discipline is by numbering them in accordance with thenumber figuring on the back of each competitor and the number of attempts. And so thecompetitor with the number 3 on his back with his second throw should throw the stone bearing thenumber 32. The organising body should make available to the judges the means of carrying out thesaid marking.21.- Protection of the 'fall' judgesOne or two of the 'fall' judges will be duly protected from the impact of the falling stones.22.- A valid throwIn order that the throw may be considered valid, the stone has to land and stay within thedesignated area, as per the measurements set. Should the stone touch the line the throw will beclassed as null.Chapter VTIES ACCURACY & Patricia Carroll --- Transcription Antoni Genovart EspinosaACCURACY1.- First drawIn the accuracy discipline should a tie occur for any of the places in the classification, preference will begiven to the thrower who has had most throws on target throughout the competition.CLARIFICATION:For example, in a competition on 30 paces:Thrower AThrower B1ºF12ºF13º2F4ºFN5ºFNTotal2 points2 pointsIn this case the winner would be thrower A since he has more hits on target than thrower B.2.- A tie for the 2nd timeShould the throwers still be tied, with the same number of null throws by both throwers, the winner or the

classifier will be the one who has fewer null throws throughout the competition.3.- A tie for the 3rd timeIf there is still a tie, in the first three places in the classification, an additional throw will be taken,classifying the one who gets closest on target. In case of doubt, the throws will be repeated. The throwwill be made from the shortest distance that they have competed in.4.- Other tiesTies in other positions will be classified as equals.DISTANCE5.- How to decide in the case of a drawWhen there is a tie, the second and even third throw will be taken into account if need be. Should a tiestill exist, one or several throws can be taken until a winner emerges.For the rest of the positions in the case of a draw, they will be classified as equals.COMPLAINTS/APPEALS6.- Procedure to followAny complaint regarding how the competition is being run should be made verbally, in the first instance,and directed at the Referee- judge.In case of disagreement the complaint should be made again this time in writing and should beaccompanied by 6 which will be returned should the complaint be accepted. This can be handed overimmediately that the anomaly has occurred or a maximum of 10 minutes after the competition hasfinished. The organising body will not hand over the trophies until this time has passed or until thecomplaint has been resolved.7.- ObservationsNot withstanding the aforementioned, the participants, and only they, can make observations to the judgesbut only when they are moderate in their tone and language.Any personal complaint made in an incorrect manner, in the opinion of the referee judge, will result in thetotal exclusion of the thrower from the competition where the incident occurs and the appropriatenotification made to the federated competition committee.Chapter VICOMBINED EVENTS.

TEAM tion: Patricia Carroll --- Transcription Antoni Genovart Espinosa1.- Combined classificationThe organisers can convoke trials or events based on different distances, adding up all the points scored ineach, so as to achieve a combined classification. An example would be an event combining the distances30 & 45 paces or 30 & 60 paces, or any combination of the distances that the rules allow.2.- Team competitions2.1 These can be disputed over distances of 15 or 30 paces.The first distance is reserved for competitions using balls or of lesser categories. In the throws at 30 pacesthe participant can be men, women, juveniles. Mixed teams are permitted.The teams are made up of a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 4.2.2 The score will be the total of the points awarded to each team member.2.3 In the case of a draw, the winner will be the team that has had the greater number of hits on target.Should the draw persist then it will be the team whose 4th member in order of points has managed to getthe highest score. If it is still a draw, the winner will be the team who has the thrower with the highestscore. As a last resort, one member of each of the drawing teams will take one or more addition throwsuntil a winner emerges.Chapter VIIDEFINITION OF “AFICIONADO”(AMATEUR) AND Patricia Carroll --- Transcription Antoni Genovart Espinosa1.- Amateur sportThe sport of hurling a sling is defined as an amateur sport, which means that those who practise it do sofor love of the sport itself, as a means of recreation and with no interest in obtaining any economic gainfrom the competitions.

2.- The exclusion of cash prizesConsequently in this type of competitions it is not permitted to play for cash prizes and any player ororganisation contravening this precept will be sanctioned.3.- It is not allowed to accept money in any shape or formThe participants are not

not considered valid the accompanying of an up and down movement, guiding the stone with the arm. In case of any doubt about the orthodoxy of a s