Factory Acceptance Test FAT And Site Acceptance Test SAT .

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Factory acceptance test FAT and siteacceptance test SAT work instructions forelectrical and automation systems in apower plantJohan DahlBachelor’s thesisElectrical EngineeringVaasa 2013

BACHELOR’S THESISAuthor:Johan DahlDegree programme:Electrical EngineeringSpecialization:Automation TechnologySupervisor:Roger MäntyläTitle: Factory acceptance test FAT and site acceptance testSAT work instructions for electrical and automation systems in a power plant.DateNumber of pagesAppendices20.05.2013395AbstractThis Bachelor’s thesis was commissioned by ABB Power Generation, located in Vaasa. Thedepartment designs and commissions automation and electrical systems for gas, diesel,nuclear and hydropower plants.Currently there is a great variation in FAT and SAT work instructions depending on whoperforms these tests. My goal with this thesis work has been to get standard FAT and SATtemplates and the company’s goal is to get everyone to use the same templates.The thesis consists of an investigation of what is to be tested with FAT and SAT, and alsohow to do the testing. The result of this investigation is a basic template of how thesedocuments can be designed. The template applies mainly to system testing for hydropower plants, but can easily be modified for other plant types, since the system parts andfunctions designed by ABB do not differ that much between the plant types.Language: EnglishKey words: FAT, SAT, work instructions

EXAMENSARBETEFörfattare:Johan DahlUtbildningsprogram och ort:Elektroteknik, VasaFördjupning:AutomationsteknikHandledare:Roger MäntyläTitel: Utveckling av fabriks godkännandeprov FAT- och godkännandeprov efter leveransSAT- arbetsinstruktioner för el- och automationssystem i ett tDetta ingenjörsarbete beställdes av ABB Power Generation, som finns i Vasa. Avdelningendesignar och tar i bruk automations- och elsystem för gas-, diesel-, kärn- ochvattenkraftverk.För tillfället finns det en stor variation mellan FAT- och SAT- arbetsinstruktioner, beroendepå vem som genomför dessa tester. Mitt mål med ingenjörsarbetet har varit att fåstandardiserade FAT- och SAT- mallar. Företagets mål är att få dessa standarddokumentoch att få alla att börja använda samma mallar.Avhandlingen består av en undersökning av vad som ska testas med FAT och SAT, ochockså hur testningen görs. Resultatet av undersökningen är en grundläggande mall av hurdessa dokument kan designas. Mallen gäller främst systemtest för vattenkraftverk, menkan lätt modifieras för andra anläggningstyper, eftersom systemens delar och funktionersom designats av ABB inte skiljer sig så mycket mellan olika anläggningstyper.Språk: engelskaNyckelord: FAT, SAT, arbetsinstruktioner

TABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACTABSTRAKT1.2.3.Introduction . 11.1.The commissioner . 11.2.Purpose. 21.3.FAT (Factory Acceptance Test) . 31.4.SAT (Site Acceptance Test). 3Hydropower theory . 42.1.Hydropower introduction . 42.2.Plant overview . 52.3.Main systems and components . 72.3.1.Flow control equipment . 82.3.2.Turbine . 82.3.3.Generator . 92.3.4.Low voltage systems . 102.3.5.High voltage & medium voltage systems . 102.3.6.Automation . 102.3.7.Protection relays . 202.3.8.Excitation . 32The standard templates . 343.1.General . 343.2.AC800 S800 . 343.3.800xA and panel . 353.4.Turbine modules . 35

3.5.Excitation . 353.6.Protection relays . 364.Discussion . 365.List of references . INAVRMTUHMITWhMVADescriptionAsea Brown BoveriFactory Acceptance TestSite Acceptance TestElectromagnetic CompatibilityDeutsches Institut für NormungAutomatic Voltage RegulatorModule Termination UnitHuman Machine InterfaceTerawatt hoursMega volt ampere

11.IntroductionThis Bachelor’s thesis is about FAT and SAT work instructions and commissioningdocuments for the automation and the electrical systems in a power plant. Standard documentsare needed for the business unit. Information about the main systems and components in apower plant and the electrification around it is also partly covered. More information about thebackground for this thesis is found in chapter 1.2. At a meeting held on 8 Feb 2013 it wasdecided that the thesis work will be restricted to hydro power plants.1.1.The commissionerABB is a global leader in power and automation technologies with a turnover of about 40billion USD in year 2011. ABB resulted from the merger of the Swedish corporation ASEA(Allmänna Svenska Aktiebolaget) and the Swiss company Brown Boveri & Cie (BBC) in1988, but its history spans over 120 years.ABB’s success has been driven particularly by a strong focus on research and development.The ABB Group operates in approximately 100 countries around the world and employs about145,000 people. ABB has offices in around 87 countries and their head office is located inZürich, Switzerland. The firm’s shares are traded in Zürich and the Stockholm StockExchange in Sweden since 1999, and the New York Stock Exchange in the United States since2001.The ABB Group consists of five main divisions:-Power Products-Power Systems-Discrete Automation and Motion-Low Voltage Products-Process Automation

2ABB’s slogan is “Power and productivity for a better world”. /1/This thesis has been commissioned by ABB, Power Generation. The office is located inStrömberg Park in Vaasa and is part of the Power Systems division. The Power Generationdepartment plans automation cabins for different power plants, e.g. diesel, gas, nuclear andhydro power plants.1.2.PurposeAt the moment there are no standard FAT or SAT work instruction documents. Both testersand commissioners have variations of their testing/commissioning documents. The main goalof this thesis was to create standard testing documents, so that the business unit will get ABBstandard FAT/SAT material and so that all testers/commissioners will use the same templates.Better quality can also be reached if everyone starts using identical templates.Another possible goal of this thesis work is to create an Excel macro that produces thesetemplate documents according to which project properties you choose.

31.3.FAT (Factory Acceptance Test)Factory Acceptance Tests are done at the factory to make sure that certain requirements aremet, which results in high quality products. The tests are normally done with the customer,and also, in certain more demanding cases, with a third party inspection agency.Although all cabins should be fault-free when they arrive from the subcontractors thatassemble them, faults sometimes occur. Therefore these factory acceptance tests are needed.At a FAT, installations are double checked so that they match the drawings for the specificproject. Functions that should work when cabins are installed at site are also simulated tocheck the automation functionality. All possible faults, deviations and wishes are also noted.1.4.SAT (Site Acceptance Test)Site Acceptance Tests are done at the specific places where commissioning is done. Thesetests are also done to make sure that certain requirements and a high quality are met amongstABB’s projects and to offer customers quality testing and documents. Normally the same testprocedures as at FAT are followed, plus procedures that cannot be done at FAT. E.g. breakercontrol is excluded from FAT but done at SAT.The results of the SAT are noted in the test protocols and then signed by both the customerand the commissioner.

42. Hydropower theoryHydroelectric power generation involves storing a hydraulic fluid (normally water) andconverting the energy of the fluid into mechanical energy in a turbine, and converting themechanical energy into electrical energy in an electric generator.This form of renewable energy production is the most widely used form of renewable energy,and accounts for 16% of the global electricity generation, which was 3427 TWh of theelectricity production in 2010. It is expected to increase another 3,1% each year for the next 25years. /12/2.1.Hydropower introductionHydropower has been used since ancient times to operate various mechanical devices, such aswatermills, sawmills, textile mills, lifts etc.The first hydroelectric power plants came into use in the late 1800s. They provide significantflexibility in base load, peak and energy storage applications. The initial capital costs ofhydropower plants are high, but thanks to low operating costs, simplicity, low operating andmaintenance costs, high reliability and long service life, they make a very cost-effective optionof generating electricity. /12/Some valuable operating characteristics are their fast responses for starting, loading, unloadingand following system load variations. Other advantages are their ability to start up withoutpower from the power grid (“black start capability”) and to transfer rapidly from generationmode to condenser mode, and the pumped storage application.Capacities of hydroelectric power plant units can range from a few kilowatts to nearly 1 GW.Multi-unit plants can range up to around 20 GW. /11/

52.2.Plant overviewThere are three main types of hydroelectric plant arrangements, classified according to themethod of controlling the hydraulic flow:1. Run-of-the-river plants, which have small amounts of hydraulic fuel storage and thuslittle control of the flow through the plant.2. Storage plants, which have the ability of storing large amounts of hydraulic fuel andthus the ability to control flow through the plant on a daily or seasonal basis.3. Pumped storage plants, in which the direction of rotation of the turbines is reversedduring off-peak hours, pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir,thus storing energy for production of electricity during peak hours. /11/The storage plant type is the most common type of large hydroelectric power plant. Figure 4below shows a model of this type of plant.

6As it can be difficult to get a good understanding of how the different power plant partsinteract for a person not familiar with hydroelectric power plants, a short introduction of howthe different parts cooperate is presented below.First there is a reservoir containing hydraulic fuel, which is connected to the penstock andcontrol gate. The control gate controls the amount of water flowing into the penstock beforereaching the turbine, which then starts rotating when water flows through it.Figure 4. Inside a hydropower t-parts.gif)

7PowerhouseInside the powerhouse there is a series of different electrical components. The turbine is thefirst component after the penstock, and is connected mechanically to a generator, whichproduces electricity when the turbine rotates at a certain speed.The generator is then connected to a transformer by a busbar, before transforming theproduced electricity to the power grid.Inside the powerhouse there is also a series of electrical cabins that control and protect thecomponents mentioned above in the power plant network: automation, protection andexcitation cabins. This thesis focuses on these cabins and the testing of them.The systems and components inside the powerhouse are more thoroughly described in thefollowing chapter.2.3.Main systems and componentsA power plant and its automation and electrical system are very complex, and thus only th

på vem som genomför dessa tester. Mitt mål med ingenjörsarbetet har varit att få standardiserade FAT- och SAT- mallar. Företagets mål är att få dessa standarddokument och att få alla att börja använda samma mallar. Avhandlingen består av en undersökning av vad som ska testas med FAT och SAT, och också hur testningen görs.