Indian Writing In English (ENGBA 604) Unit : II Chapter .

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Paper IVIndian Writing in English (ENGBA 604)Unit : IIChapter : 1 Tughlaq by Girish KarnadAbout Author :Girish KarnadGirish Karnad (19 May 1938 – 10 June 2019 was an Indian actor, film director,Kannada writer, playwright and a Rhodes Scholar, who predominantly worked in SouthIndian cinema and Bollywood. His rise as a playwright in the 1960s, marked the comingof age of modern Indian playwriting in Kannada, just as Badal Sarkar did in Bengali,Vijay Tendulkar in Marathi, and Mohan Rakesh in Hindi He was a recipient of the 1998Jnanpith Award, the highest literary honour conferred in India.

LiteraryNavya movementN otable worksTughala k 1964Taledan daSpouseDr Saraswathy GanapathyChildrenRaghu Karnad, Shalmali Radha

For four decades Karnad composed plays, often using history and mythology to tacklecontemporary issues. He translated his plays into English and received acclaim. His playshave been translated into some Indian languages and directed by directors like EbrahimAlkazi, B. V. Karanth, Alyque Padamsee, Prasanna, Arvind Gaur, Satyadev Dubey, VijayaMehta, Shyamanand Jalan, Amal Allanaa and Zafer Mohiuddin He was active in the worldof Indian cinema working as an actor, director and screenwriter, in Hindi and Kannadacinema, and has earned awards. He was conferred Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan bythe Government of India and won four Filmfare Awards, of which three are FilmfareAward for Best Director – Kannada and the fourth a Filmfare Best Screenplay Award. Hewas a presenter for a weekly science magazine programme called "Turning Point" thataired on Doordarshan in 1991.For literature Sangeet Natak Akademi award and Varthur navya Award – 1972Padma Shri – 1974Padma Bhushan – 1992Kannada Sahitya Parishat Award – 1992Sahitya Academy award – 1994Jnanapith Award – 1998Kalidas Samman – 1998Rajyotsava Award Honorary degree by University of Southern California, Los Angeles – 2011National Film Awards 1971: Best Direction: Vamsha Vriksha (with B. V. Karanth)1971: Best Feature Film in Kannada: Vamsha Vriksha1973: Second Best Feature Film: Kaadu1977: Best Feature Film in Kannada: Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane[17]1978: Best Screenplay: Bhumika (with Shyam Benegal and Satyadev Dubey)1978: Best Feature Film in Kannada: Ondanondu Kaladalli1989: Best Non-Feature Film: Kanaka Purandara1990: Best Non-feature Film on Social Issues: The Lamp in the Niche1992: Best Film on Environment Conservation: Cheluvi1999: Best Feature Film in Kannada: Kaanuru HeggadathiFilmfare Awards South 1972: Filmfare Award for Best Director - Kannada – Vamsha Vriksha1974: Filmfare Award for Best Director - Kannada – Kaadu1978: Filmfare Award for Best Director - Kannada – Ondanondu Kaladalli1983: Filmfare Award for Best Actor - Kannada - Ananda BhairaviFilmfare Awards HindiFor Cinema

1980: Filmfare Best Screenplay Award: Godhuli (with B. V. Karanth)1980: Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award: Aasha: Nominated1982: Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award: Teri Kasam : NominatedKarnataka State Film Awards 1971-72 First Best Film – Vamsha Vriksha1971-72 Best Dialogue Writer – Vamsha Vriksha1973-74 Second Best Film – Kaadu1989-90 Best Supporting Actor – Santha Shishunala Sharifa1995-96 Best Supporting Actor – Sangeetha Sagara Ganayogi Panchakshara Gavai1999-00 Second Best Film – Kanooru HeggadithiOthers Gubbi Veeranna Award for his services to theatre (as a playwright)Karnad served as the director of the Film and Television Institute of India from 1974 to 1975, theIndian co-chairman for the Joint Media Committee of the Indo-US Sub-Commission on Education andCulture from 1984 to 1993, chairman of the Sangeet Natak Academy from 1988 to 1993, andpresident of Karnataka Nataka Academy from 1976 to 1978.Honorary Doctorate from University of Southern California, Los Angeles – 2011 1996Dr.T.M.A.Pai Konkani Distinguished Achievement Award for Performing Art. Other works Evam Indrajit (English) by Badal Sircar. Tr. by Girish Karnad. 1974. Works in translation Yayati. Oxford University Press.Yayati (Hindi). Tr. by B. R. Narayan. Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd, 2008. ISBN 81-7119-627-6.Tughlaq: A play in 13 scenes, Oxford Univ. Press, 1972Tughlaq ( Assamese )Translation Utpal Datta Assam Publication Board 2005 Nagamandala(Assamese) Translation Utpal DattaAssam Publication Board 2005Hayavadana, Oxford University Press, 1975.Tughlaq (Marathi), Tras. Vijay Tendulkar. Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7185-370-6.Three Plays: Naga-Mandala; Hayavadana; Tughlaq. Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN 0195637658.Tughlaq (Hindi). Tr. by B. V. Karanth. Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd, 2005. ISBN 81-7119-790-6.Collected plays Vol 1: Tuglaq, Hayavadana, Bali: The Sacrifice, Naga-Mandala. Oxford UniversityPress. 2005. ISBN 0-19-567310-7.Collected Plays: Taledanda, the Fire and the Rain, the Dreams of Tipu Sultan, Flowers and Images: TwoDramatic Monologues: Flowers : Broken Images, Vol. 2. Oxford University Press, USA. 2005. ISBN 019-567311-5.Three plays by Girish Karnad. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-563765-8.Cheluvi (Assamese) Translation Utpal Datta Tughlaq By Girish Karnad

Plot:‘Tughlaq’ is Karnad’s second play written in 1964; theplay was originally written in Kannada and thentranslated in Kannada by Karnad himself. It is all aboutthe life of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq who has ruledin India in 14th century. There is a lot of controversyamong the historians about the character of Tughlaq butKarnad has presented this man as a man of opposites.The central theme of the play is the complexity in thecharacter of Sultan Tughlaq, who has both the elementsgood as well as evil. He is a visionary man as well as manof action. Other characters also present Tughlaq’sdual personality; his close associates Barani and thescholarly historian Najib are practical politician like him.From the very first scene we come to know about thecomplex personality of Tughlaq, he can be considered as alearnt and an intelligent man. He has abilities to learn andcuriosity to know and he is master in playing chess, he hasthe knowledge of ‘Quran’more than any sheikh, and also agood reader who has read Greek, farcical and Arabicliterature. Tughlaq wanted his life as a garden of roses,where even thrones also give delight; his imaginationexpresses his sense about literature.

The character of sultan Tughlaq can be comparedwith Christopher Marlow’s “Dr. Faustus” who has samehunger of knowledge and he had a tragic end and sametragic end Tughlaq has also faced. He wanted to make anew India, and for him it was very difficult but he isready to explain what people don’t understand,“How he can explain tomorrow to those,who have not even opened their eyesto the light of today.”But theneven i remember few things like Tughlaq changedcapital from Delhi to Daultabad, and from there again toDelhi.Tughlaq written by Girish Karnad in 1964, is his best lovedplay, about an idealist 14th-century Sultan of Delhi,Muhammad bin Tughluq, and allegory on the Nehruvianera which started with ambitious idealism and ended up indisillusionment.

Karnad shows the evolution of Tughlaq from an idealist toa tyrant lusty for power and fame, something anyone, anyIndian for that matter can relate to easily especially peoplewho are familiar with the Nehruvian Era of Indian politics.Girish Karnad's play Tughlaq explores the character of oneof the most fascinating kings to occupy the throne in Delhi,namely, Mohammed-bin-Tughlaq. He ruled for 26 years, aperiod of unparalleled cruelty and agonising existence forhis subjects.He's fascinating because though he was one of the mostlearned monarchs of Delhi, and had great ideas and agrand vision, his reign was also an abject failure. Hestarted his rule with great ideals — of a unified India, ofHindus and Muslims being equal in the eyes of the state (heabolished the onerous tax Jaziya on the Hindus) and theSultan being the first among equals.He understood the value of money as not deriving from itsintrinsic worth but from the promise behind it: andintroduced copper coins. Yet in 20 years his reign haddegenerated into an anarchy and his kingdom had becomea "kitchen of death". Girish Karnad's play explores whythis happened.The play was immensely popular at the time it wasproduced (1964). India had, within the same span of nearly20 years (a mere coincidence?), descended from a state ofidealism to disillusionment and cynicism, and hence the

play found a chord that resonated in the minds of manypeople at that time. The issues posed by the play remainrelevant even today, not only in a political sense, but alsofor organisations.The play recaptures the significant events starting shortlyafter Tughlaq's ascension to the throne: his proclamations ofidealism, his calling upon his people to be a part of thebuilding of a new empire, of prosperity, peace and amity.But he ascended the throne by dubious means, killing hisfather and brother during prayer time, though no one wassure. This led to a lack of credibility among his followersfrom the time he ascended the throne — no one believed whathe professed. The play outlines his clever plots to eliminatehis opponents and his surviving an assassination attempt byhis own courtiers. This was a turning point in his life: hedecided to shift his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad,ordered every single subject to move from Delhi, bannedprayer altogether, and imposed unspeakable cruelties on hissubjects. The miseries of the people during the journey, thecorruption that was huge and endemic, and Tughlaq'sprogressive alienation and isolation from his people aredramatically portrayed. The play ends with scenes of utterchaos and misery in the kingdom, and Tughlaq being leftalone, having been abandoned by those who survived him,that is.Major Characters in the Play

- In the play, Tughlaq emerges as aheadstrongTughlaqistic ruler. He is vulnerable, andy admits his mistakes and allowso be punished publicly. He moves hisDaulatabad because it is a city d bythe Hindus. This move will further oftogetherness and communal unity. thischaracter, the idealism of then era is commented upon. Guilty of, Tughlaq is often on the defensive whentioned of his crime. His

uncompromising generosity and sense of social justiceembraces all religions and treats them in an impartialfashion. This character is a device that represents ascathing critique of the nationalist notion of communalharmony and religious co-existence, the very ideals thatwere valorized before independence but later turned in toan anti-climax with the partition of India.The opening scenes reflect the idiosyncrasies andeccentricities of this character. He contemplates to equatethe value of copper coins with silver dinars. In order toestablish himself as a worthy ruler, he exposes himself topublic scorn and invites public condemnation. He hastensthe process of his own nemesis through a series of badlycontrived measures at projecting himself as a tolerantand efficient ruler. His irrational and erratic methods areseverely criticized by his courtiers and citizens. Heemerges as a shrewd contriver and a mercilesslyambitious ruler. He is responsible for the assassination ofSheikh Muhammad, his severest critic, who accuses himof parricide and of being un-Islamic. He stabsShihabuddin when he tries to conspire against him. He isdoomed because of his own follies and failures, andbecomes an insensitive murderer. The height of hisinsanity is reflected in the later episodes of the play. Helater becomes a divided self, and suffers from innerturmoil and contradictions. His ultimate isolation in aworld turned alien gives a tragic dimension to the play.

Tughlaq might be perceived as an over-ambitious alienemperor, who aims to rebuild new cities and empires,

subjecting the culture of a people to colonial strain. Eachscene represents the progressive degradation anddehumanization of Tughlaq, leading to his tragicdownfall.The step-mother of TughlaqconstantlyStep-mother-death for the unwarearlier scenes ofthe play. She isonflictingemotions, heroverfor her son is incontradictioneness of the fact that he is guiltyofappearstroubled, andconfides intier andpolitician. Sheis ojected as anembodiment ofconcern. Shelatermurders.in er

son fromultimate ruin.s her to be stoned to rantedact.Muhammad is very manipulative,witty, inative, secretiveand ruthless, AzizAziz-

Brdes his ironic parallel .Like him, from thebeginning Aziz is clear about what he is tofuture (when he reaches his destination). Inuit of realizing his dream to be rich by hookook, he manipulates the decision of thernment giving compensation to those whosehas been confiscated by the state. He is aim but in order to get the compensation heises himself as a ahmin. Thus he puncturesalloon of the king‘sre policies .If Muhammad is confident thatything will be settled after he reachestabad , Aziz is also confident of his plans. HeAazam, ―There

is money here .We will make a pile by the time we reachDaultabad.If Muhammd has disguised his true self andposes to be a very religious and benevolent king, Azis isdisguised as a Brahmin (though he is a Muslim washerman). Ironically, he appears as a Brahmin and ends upas a special messenger to the king. He becomes aninstrument in exposing the cruelty and corruptionprevalent in Muhammad‘s regime when he refuses to helpa woman with a dying son in her lap and asking for helpfor his medical aid. Aziz expects money from her knowingfull well that her husband is bed-ridden and she ishelpless. Asked by Aaziz why he doesn‘t let her go to thedoctor, very stoically he says,‖It is a waste of money. I amdoing her a favour. For Muhammad and Aziz politicsholds a common interest. Aziz‘s comments about politicsare ironically true:Politics ! It is a beautiful worldwealth, success, position, power-yet it is full of brainlesspeople, people not with an idea in their head. When Ithink of all the tricks in our village to pinch a few tornclothes from people if one uses half that intelligence here,one can bet robes of power. It is a fantastic world. LikeMuhammad he also makes use of religion and caste forhis personal gains. He knows that even if the Hinduwoman is not allowed to leave the camp, she cann‘tcomplain against him as she takes him for a Brahmin.Complaining against a Brahmin to a Muslim, accordingto a Brahminical dogma, will send her to hell which she

never desires. Furtermore, he is cruel like Muhammad intaking life of someone. He kills Ghiyas-uddin and starts

dancing after that which shows that he has no regrets ofany sort after killing someone. His singing and dancingover a dead body reminds us of the neurotic self of theemperor. After killing Ghiyas-ud-din and putting on hisrobes he asks the horrified Aazam, ―How do I look, eh?The great grandson of the Khalif. Laugh, the fool youlaugh. Celebrate! What are you crying for?. . Dance,dance. . (sings). When he is to present himself before theking, he aptly defines himself , I am your majesty‘s truedisciple. Indeed, Aziz appears as his shadow‘ or the otherMuhammad‘. It is perhaps because of this parallelismbetween them that Muhammad pardons him even for hisgrave misdeeds.Aazam- He is a close friend of Aziz and his partner in theplay. Both of them are vagabonds, and live mostly byrobbery and deception. Aziz is undeniably the morecunning of the two. Aazam‘s actions are staged on asmaller scale, and Aziz‘s actions have largerramifications. They constantly comment upon andanalyse the policies of the Sultan and provide a variety ofperspectives on the political climate of the play.Najib- He is a politician and a shrewd contriver, a Hindu,who later embraced Islam. In most of the scenes, he isseen advising the Sultan on matters of political action anddiplomacy. He is an advocate of ruthless politicalexpansion and domination, and presents a perfectcontrast to Barani, the historian. In the words of the

Sultan ―he wants pawns of flesh and blood. He doesn‘thave the patience to breathe life in to these bones ‖ Herepresents the more rational aspects of Tughlaq‘s self andis a constant companion in terms of royal political affairs.Sheikh-Imam-ud-Din- He is a maulvi and probably theharshest critic of Tughlaq. He openly proclaims Tughlaqto be un-Islamic and invites his hostility. He gives publiclectures and condemns Tughlaq as guilty of parricide. Hetries to influence the general public through hisinflammatory speeches deriding the actions of the Sultan.He is later murdered in a cleverly crafted plot of theSultanScene-wise Analysis of the PlayScene-IThis scene opens in front of the Chief Court of Justice inDelhi, where a group of predominantly Muslim citizensshare their views on the political climate of the region. Thefew Hindu citizens are also involved in this casualexchange of dialogues. They discuss in detail the policies ofthe Sultan and their several implications. Tughlaq‘sbenevolence to Hindus is critiqued from variousperspectives. Tughlaq announces the proposed shift ofcapital from Delhi to Daulatabad, since Daulatabad had amajority of Hindu population. He projects hismagnanimity towards Hindus and appropriates this

quality as a political strategy. This decision of his isconstantly viewed with disfavour by many of his Muslimsubjects. His whimsicality and idealism are openlycondemned.Aziz, the foil to the character of Tughlaq, is alsointroduced in this scene. He appears in the guise of aBrahmin and he wins a case against the Sultan himself.This is a parody of the Sultan‘s declaration that he canalso be acquitted in the court of justice. Aziz traps Sultanin his own noose. He wins the game that the Sultan hadstarted in a fit of ambitiousness. Aziz and his closeassociate Aazam are then seen shifting their attentiontowards making money by deceiving people on their wayto Daulatabad, the new capital.Scene-IIThe scene shifts from the public space of the court toTughlaq‘s chamber in his palace, where he is seen playingchess. The game of chess is a powerful symbol in the play,which could be perceived as symptomatic of the Sultan‘salienation from his surroundings. In most of the importantscenes, he is found isolated from the rest of his kingdomand passionately involved in the game of chess. Tughlaq‘sstep-mother reprimand‘s him for his recklessness inmatters of his own security. She rebukes him for notinitiating action to counter Ain-ul-Mulk‘s anticipatedattack on Tughlaq‘s kingdom.Muhammad Najib the politician and Zia-ud-din Baranithe historian, two important acquaintances of the Sultan,

are introduced in this scene. They offer differentperspectives on a single issue and therefore representconflicting points-of-view on political matters. While Najibis rational, pragmatic, and a shrewd contriver,Barani is full of human sympathy and concern for theSultan and his kingdom. Najib is a man of action, where asBarani is a man of forethought and restraint in courtlymatters. Najib is actively involved in plotting andcontriving political strategies and plans for the Sultan.Tughlaq‘s crime of parricide is mentioned in this scene,and his insecurity and eccentricities are referred to. Hemurders his own father and brother for the cause of therealization of his political ambition. The step-mother‘sanxieties over the whimsical nature of Tughlaq areaddressed to Barani, in who she confides. She advisesBarani to keep Tughlaq away from some of his advisors,who might mislead him.Scene-IIISheikh Imam-ud-din meets Tughlaq in Delhi, and thismeeting turns out to be a strategic point in the play. He isthe harshest critic of the Sultan and his policies. He openlyaccuses Tughlaq of parricide and inflames the hatred ofhis opponents. He is considered to be the chief agent instirring the fires of discontent in the kingdom. Both Sheikhand Tughlaq wait in front of a mosque for an anticipatedaudience. Tughlaq supposedly arranged this meeting sothat Sheikh, his harshest critic, could meet his subjects and

address them in a gathering. The Sheikh is disappointed asnot a single listener turns up at the proposed hour of themeeting.He blames Tughlaq for having craftily managed to keepaway his citizens from his address.What appears to be Tughlaq‘s openness and magnanimityis in fact a cunningly contrived political move. Sheikhaccuses him of being un-Islamic and of challenging thecentral tenets of the religion. Both of them engage in awitty repartee justifying their own positions. Towards theend of the scene Tughlaq convinces Sheikh, whose physicalattributes resemble those of his, to go counter Ain-ulMulk‘sattack in the guise of the Sultan. He purportedly requestshim to act as a messenger of peace. The rationale for hisweird decision, in Tughlaq‘s opinion, was that Ainul-Mulkwill never proceed when he sees the Sheikh, a holy man,conveying a message of political compromise.Scene-IVThe Step-mother shares her anxieties about Tughlaq withShihab-ud-din, another courtier. The sudden andunexpected death of Sheikh Imam-ud-din is announced inthis scene. Imamud-din‘s death is testimony to the successof the Sulan‘s plans. The Sultan cunningly plots Sheikh‘sdeath in the battlefield in a bid to counter Ain-ul-Mulk,and is easily and effortlessly absolved of his guilt. Thismurder by Tughlaq acquaints the readers with the darkerside of his character. His soaring ambition compels him tocurb all dissension, and this is a step in that direction. The

actual reason for Sheikh‘s death in the battlefield and theSultan‘s hand in the murder are explained in some detailby Ratansingh, who narrates the events to Shihab-uddinand says that it was a cleverly conceived murder.Scene-VThe scene shifts to a house in Delhi, where Sihab-ud-dinand Ratansingh, the Amirs and the Sayyids are involvedin a discussion that aims to curb the tyranny of the Sultan.The Amirs attempt to influence Shihab-ud-din by talkingabout the adverse effects of the Sultan‘s policies on them.They project the Sultan as blasphemous, and imploreShihab-ud-din to act on their behalf. They reveal theunderbelly of the Sultan‘s seemingly tolerant nature. TheSultan had prevented the citizens from attending Sheikh‘saddress even as he was waiting in front of the GreatMosque and getting disappointed as they did not turn upfor the gathering.Fires of discontent about the Sultan‘s tyrannical behaviourand despotic domination are seen to soar high in thisscene.The proposed shift of capital from Delhi to Daulatabadis vigorously debated. In the opinion of the Amirs, thisshift is a trap to dis-empower them, since Daulatabad is aplace with a majority of Hindu population.The Amirs, along with Ratansingh successfully manageto persuade Shihab-ud-din to engage in the plot of themurder of the Sultan. It is decided by common consensusthat Tughlaq would be murdered on the day of hisDurbari-khas, at the time of prayer. Although Shihad

strongly opposes such a move, he eventually condescendsto the plan. The plan is presented as advancing the causeof Islam, and the murder of the Sultan is presented as anact of deliverance from tyranny and insecurity. Towardsthe end of the scene, Shihab is still in two minds about theappropriateness of the proposed act of murder.Scene-VIThe Amirs meet the Sultan for the Durbar-i-khas, andvarious issues are taken up for discussion and negotiation.The sultan announces that copper currency would beintroduced in his kingdom and that it will have the samevalue as silver dinars. This move further disappoints theAmirs. Shihab-ud-din advises the Sultan not to move toDaulatabad, as it might invite the hatred of many of hiscitizens. The Sultan remains adamant about the proposedshift and doesn‘t listen to the suggestion made by Shihab.The Amirs, along with Shihab initiate the plan for themurder by the time of the muezzin‘s call for prayer, butare immediately held captive by Sultan‘s Hindu soldiers.Shihab-ud-din is mercilessly stabbed by the Sultan himselfin a fit of rage. Tughlaq emerges as a brute and amerciless murderer in this scene. Any amount of sympathythat the readers might have had for him in the earlierscenes is lost after this episode. He announces that thecorpses of all the conspirators must be hanged publicly forpeople to learn a lesson. He also bans all prayer in hisKingdom, but Najib advises him to suspend all prayer tillthe anticipated arrival of Ghiyas-ud-din Abbasid, adescendent of the Khalifa.

Scene-VIIThe setting for this scene is the route from Delhi toDaulatabad, where Aziz, still dressed as a Brahminswindles innocent citizens on their way to the new capitaland makes money out of it. Aziz is presented as aworldlywise and cunning person. He lives by cheatingothers of their money. He manipulates the orders anddecisions of the Sultan and cons people in the name oflaw. When Aazam questions him, he answers: ―You‘vebeen in Delhi for so many years and you‘re as stupid asever. Look at me. Only a few months in Delhi and I havediscovered a whole new world—politics! My dear fellow,that‘s where our future is— politics! It‘s a beautifulworld—wealth, success, position, power—and yet it‘s fullof brainless people, people with not an idea in their head.‖He sufficiently justifies his actions and invents newmethods of cheating fellow citizens with every changingcircumstance.Scene-VIIIThe scene quickly shifts to Daulatabad, the new capital.The two sentries guarding the fort comment on theprogression of events on the way to Daulatabad. Thefamily of the older official died on the way and heconsiders himself to be unfortunate enough to have

survived this calamity. They discuss the rather unhappyand sombre state of affairs in the fort. Tughlaq suddenlyarrives on the spot and opens his heart out to the youngsentry:―Nineteen. Nice age! An age when you think you canclasp the whole world in your palm like a rare diamond. Iwas twenty-one when I came to Daulatabad first, andbuilt this fort. I supervised the placing of every brick in itand I said to myself, one day I shall build my own historylike this, brick by brick.‖He reminisces the moment when he had arrived with hiscitizens to Daulatabad. He was overflowing with hope andenthusiasm, which eventually died out. His disturbed andperplexed state of mind is exposed in this scene. He suffersfrom qualms of conscience and inner agony. The news ofarmies marching towards his kingdom unnerves him. Heconfides in Barani, the historian, who provides timelyadvice to him by suggesting that it is high time heconsidered giving up the ruthless bloodshed and murder.The scene ends with the shocking news of the suddenmurder of Najib, the courtier and a close associate ofTughlaq.Scene-IXAziz and Aazam wait for ―goods‖ which were supposed toarrive soon. They discuss various methods of making aliving by cheating people and Aziz is exposed to bemischievously intelligent. Aziz orders Ghiyas-ud-dinAbbasid, the person claiming to be the descendant of the

Khalifa to be kidnapped. A man arrives with the ―goods‖,i.e. Abbasid, and hands him over to Aziz. Aziz thenmurders him and dresses himself up as Ghiyas-ud-din

Abbasid. Disguise, which forms an integral part of thetheatrical techniques used in the play, is once again usedto magnify the theme of parallelism between Aziz and theSultan. Aziz once again cleverly manages to manipulatethe orders of the Sultan. He makes the best strategic use ofthe political climate of Daulatabad and steps in thedisguise of a holy man who was invited by the Sultan. Theobservance of prayer would only be resumed after thearrival of this muchawaited guest.Scene-XThe Step-mother questions Tughlaq and reprimands himfor his erratic and illogical behaviour. The proposal ofequating the value of copper coins and silver dinars hadled to a huge problem. Around five hundred carts ofcounterfeit coins had to be exchanged for silver dinars,and the step-mother fears this might adversely affect theeconomy. Tughlaq is disturbed by the death of Najib, hisadviser in political matters. He orders many of the Amirsand their families to be killed for not being able to revealthe name of the murderer. On hearing of theseinnumerable deaths, the step-mother reveals the fact thatshe had Najib poisoned to death as she apprehendedfurther violence. Tughlaq is further agonized by thisrevelation. He is torn apart and becomes mentallyunstable. He orders her to be stoned to death for hercrime. Tughlaq is further isolated from his surroundings.

He goes to the extent of even murdering his step-mother,one of the very few people close to him. He appears to behelpless:―God, God in Heaven, please help me. Please don‘t let goof my hand. My skin drips with blood and I don‘t knowhow much of it is mine and how much of others. I startedin Your path, Lord, why am I wandering naked in thisdesert now? I started in search of you. Why have I becomea pig rolling in this gory mud? Raise me. Clean me. Coverme with YourInfinite Mercy. I can only clutch at the hem of Your cloakwith my bloody fingers and plead. I can only beg—havepity on me. I have no one but You now. Only You. OnlyYou You You You ‖Barani announces that the descendant of the Khalif hasarrived and it is a time for resuming prayer in thekingdom.Scene-XIThe citizens do not rejoice on hearing the news of thearrival of the holy man. They are further perplexedbecause in their opinion, prayer is not a befitting solutionfor death and famine. People have been mercilesslymurdered, many others have starved to death in the longrun. Prayer can no more save their starving frames.Tughlaq welcomes Abbasid, who is Aziz in disguise. Heuses high flown words and honorary titles for him, which,

seen in the context of the play, sound hilarious since thereaders are aware of the fact that it is Aziz in disguise. AHindu woman who lost her child on the way toDaulatabad recognizes Aziz, but is silenced. Riots followthis episode, since this is supposed to be yet anothercleverly contrived measure at defeating the will of

Paper IV Indian Writing in English (ENGBA 604) Unit : II Chapter : 1 Tughlaq by Girish Karnad About Author : Girish Karnad Girish Karnad (19 May 1938 – 10 June 2019 was an Indian actor, film director, Kannada writer, playwrigh