Feedback Mechanisms - Crewscience

1y ago
92 Views
17 Downloads
888.26 KB
6 Pages
Last View : 2d ago
Last Download : 1m ago
Upload by : Albert Barnett
Transcription

Feedback MechanismsHow do organisms regulate complex systems through chemical interactions?Why?The heating system of a house works to keep the temperature constant. If the house gets too cold,then the heat automatically turns on to warm the house. The heat stops when the preset temperature isreached. This is an example of a feedback mechanism. Organisms use many feedback mechanisms toeither maintain or amplify important chemical systems. This could happen at a molecular level to coordinate the function of a single enzyme or it could happen throughout the body to regulate the organism’sinternal temperature.Model 1 – Positive and Negative FeedbackSignal is sent.StimulusNegativeFeedbackSignal is sent.ResponseStimulus is decreased.StimulusPositiveResponseFeedbackStimulus is increased.1. What two types of feedback mechanisms are illustrated in Model 1?Positive and Negative2. Define the words below as they are used in everyday language.Stimulus - Something that causes a reaction to occurSignal - message sent i.e. phone callResponse - reaction to a stimulus i.e. move away from a hot object3. Identify at least three similarities in the two types of feedback mechanisms in Model 1.Three similarities: Stimulus, signal, responseFeedback Mechanisms1

4. Imagine that you have just gotten a puppy. In the course of playing with the puppy you throw aball and the puppy chases after it. You then say “Good job!” and rub the puppy’s head to showhim he did what you wanted him to do.a. Is the puppy likely to chase the ball the next time you throw it? Justify your reasoning.Yes, please justify your answer.responseStimulusb. Identify the portions of the scenario as stimulus or response.stimulusPuppy chases the ball. for humanfor dogresponse“Good Job” and head rub.c. Is this scenario an example of positive or negative feedback? Justify your reasoning using thewords “stimulus” and “response.”Positive feedback because the net result is an increase in the dog's good behavior5. Later that day your puppy urinates on the couch. You then say “No, bad dog!” and place thepuppy outside.a. Is the puppy likely to urinate on the couch again? Justify your reasoning.No, please justify your answer.b. Identify the portions of the scenario as stimulus or response.reduce pee response Puppy urinates on the couch.stimulusfor humanfor dogresponsestimulus“No, bad dog!”c. Is this scenario an example of positive or negative feedback? Justify your reasoning using thewords “stimulus” and “response.”Negative feedback because the net result is an decrease in the dog's bad behavior6. Which of the feedback mechanisms in Model 1 would be most useful for amplifying a conditionthat is advantageous for the organism?Use positive feedback7. Which of the feedback mechanisms in Model 1 would be most useful for stopping a conditionthat is detrimental or limiting a condition to specified levels?Use negative feedback2POGIL Activities for AP* Biology

Model 2 – Thermoregulation in HumansHypothalamus senses thattemperature is too low.Sends out signalsto heat the body.Blood vessels inskin constrict,reducing heat loss.Temp.too low.Muscles beginto shiver,generating heat.Body temperatureincreases.Temp.too high.Normal BodyTemperature36 – 38 CHypothalamus senses thattemperature is too high.Sends out signalsto cool the body.Blood vessels inskin dilate toradiate heat.Sweat glandsincrease sweatproduction.Body temperaturedecreases.8. Examine Model 2. Based on what you see in the model, propose a definition for“thermoregulation.” Thermo heat or temp, regulation regulate/controlthermo regulation to regulate heat/temp9. According to Model 2, what portion of the brain contains sensors that monitor bodytemperature? Hypothalumus10. According to Model 2:a. What are two mechanisms the body uses to cool itself?Sweat and Dilateb. What are two mechanisms the body uses to heat itself?Shiver and Constrict11. Consider the feedback loop that cools the body when it is too warm.a. Identify the “stimulus” and “response” in the feedback loop.Stimulus heat, response sweatb. Is this feedback loop positive or negative feedback? Justify your reasoning.negative because net effect reduces temp and reduces need to sweatFeedback Mechanisms3

12. Consider the feedback loop that heats the body when it is too cold.a. Identify the “stimulus” and “response” in the feedback loop.stimulus cold, response shiverb. Is this feedback loop positive or negative feedback? Justify your reasoning.Negative because net effect reduces need to shiver to maintain homeostasisRead This!Many of the systems in the body are delicate. They function only under a specific range of parameters.Enzymes will denature if they get too hot or cold or if the pH of the solution they are in is too high or toolow. Cells will not be able to process glucose for energy if the concentrations of oxygen in the blood are nothigh enough. Feedback mechanisms are used to keep the body in homeostasis. That is, many systems are inplace that monitor and regulate important parameters of the body and keep them within normal levels.13. Consider the state of homeostasis—maintaining conditions within certain limits. The bodyneeds multiple mechanisms to keep all types of systems in check.a. Would a positive feedback loop ever be helpful in maintaining homeostasis? Justify your reasoning.Yes, Justify (fighting a tiger or bear)b. Would a single negative feedback loop ever be helpful in maintaining homeostasis? Justifyyour reasoning.Yes, Justify (maintaining temp)Model 3 – Childbirth and ContractionsHypothalamusreleases oxytocin.Baby pushesagainst the cervix.Uterine wallscontract.4POGIL Activities for AP* Biology

14. According to Model 3, what is the stimulus and what is the response during childbirth?Stimulus baby pushes against cervix, response body releases oxytocin to allow more contractions15. What hormone, released from the hypothalamus, increases the intensity of contractions?oxytocin16. When the intensity of contractions increases, will the stimulus increase or decrease?increase17. Is childbirth an example of a positive or negative feedback system? Justify your answer.positive, justify18. What will eventually stop the stimulus and thus stop the childbirth feedback loop?Birth of child19. Below are several descriptions of processes that occur in the human body. For each one identifythe stimulus and the response and state whether the process is positive or negative feedback.a. When human tissue, such as skin or a blood vessel, is torn or cut, the cells near the damagesend out a signal that activates platelets in the vicinity. As the platelets begin to form a plug,they release more chemical signals to attract more platelets and other clotting factors until thebleeding is stopped.damaged skin stimulus, platelets activated and form clots responseb. When a person has not taken in sufficient water they become dehydrated. This may cause aloss of blood pressure, which will trigger the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from thehypothalamus and pituitary glands. This hormone signals the kidney to allow reabsorption ofwater by the blood vessels to bring the blood pressure back to normal conditions.dehydration stimulus, triggered release of ADh responsec. When a human increases physical activity, the amount of fuel burned in its cells also increases,which in turn increases the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the blood. The CO2 reacts withwater in the blood to make a weak acid, which lowers the pH of the blood. Sensory cells inthe medulla of the brain register this drop in pH and send signals to the diaphragm and heartto increase respiration. This will clear the CO2 from the bloodstream.increased CO2 stimulus, increased respiration responseFeedback Mechanisms5

Extension Questions20. Draw a diagram similar to Models 2 and 3 for one of the feedback mechanisms in Question 19.Draw a diagram21. Relate the common phrase “a vicious cycle” to feedback loops.It's a loop or cycle. explain.22. Choose one of the following feedback mechanisms found in nature.Terrestrial plants and their water supply.The hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine and responses to stress.Hormones and ovulation.Lactation in mammals.a. Research the mechanism to determine the stimulus and the response.b. Diagram the feedback loop(s) involved.c. Be prepared to present your findings to the rest of the class.Please research6POGIL Activities for AP* Biology

Yes, please justify your answer. for human stimulus response for dog response Stimulus Positive feedback because the net result is an increase in the dog's good behavior No, please justify your answer. for human stimulus response for dog reduce pee response stimulus Negative feedback because the net result is an decrease in the dog's bad behavior