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1Dot Card and TenFrame ActivitiesBy Kara KolsonSuzanne MoleManuel SilvaNumeracy ProjectWinnipeg School Division2005-2006Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

2SubitizingSubitizing is the ability to recognize dot arrangements in differentpatterns.Since children begin to learn these patterns by repetitive countingthey are closely connected to their understanding of the particularnumber concept. Quantities up to 10 can be known and named withoutthe routine of counting. This can help children in counting on (from aknown patterned set) or learning combinations of numbers (seeing apattern of two known smaller patterns).Young children should begin by learning the patterns of dots up to 6.Students should also associate the dot patterns to numbers,numerals, finger patterns, bead strings, etc. You can then extendthis to patterns up to 10 when they are ready.Subitizing is a fundamental skill in the development of number sense,supporting the development of conservation, compensation, unitizing,counting on, composing and decomposing of numbers.For example:We want children to learn that there are 5 dots in this pattern or arrangement; five is more than four; a set of 5 objects can be separated into a set of two objects anda set of three objects, etc.; five counters, no matter how arranged, still retains the samenumerical quantity; the associated oral name for a set of five things is “five”Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

3There are two types of subitizing: perceptual and conceptual.Perceptual Subitizing: recognition of number patternConceptual Subitizing: recognition of number pattern as composite of parts and whole spatial (dot arrangements), temporal (attaching number tosounds), kinesthetic (finger patterns), rhythmic (hand-clapping) spatial arrangements of sets influences how difficult they are tosubitize (rectangular easiestlinearcircularscrambledmost difficult) different arrangements lead to different decompositions of thatnumberOral Numbers: Generally, students are ready to use oral numbers ifthey know that a set does not alter the number of objects in the set.Numerals: Generally, the use of numerals with dot patterns shouldoccur after children have made solid connections between the oralnames for numbers and sets.For more information, please refer to John A. Van De Walle, Elementaryand Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally.Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

4Dot Card ActivitiesActivities:1. Counter Match (Materials: dot plates or dot cards, paper plates, counters)Students place one counter on top of each dot (dot plate or card). Theycompare the number of counters to the number of dots. Students dumpcounters onto an empty plate and compare the number of counters to thenumber of dots on the dot plate.2. Double Counter Match (Materials: dot plates, paper plates, variety of counters)Place two empty plates, one on either side of a dot plate or card. Studentsmake equivalent sets in each plate using a different type of counter. Studentsdescribe how all three plates compare.3. Make the Pattern (Materials: dot cards, numeral cards, paper plates, counters)Hold up a dot card and have your students make the same pattern they see ontheir own plate using counters. Ask them how many dots they see and how theysee them. To extend, place two empty plates down. Place a dot card in thecenter. Students build a set that is one less on one plate and one more on theother. Do the same activity by holding up numeral cards.4. Dot Card Flash (Materials: dot cards, hole-punched cards, bingo chips, overhead)Flash a dot card then hide, or briefly display on an overhead a hole-punchedcard, an overhead dot card or bingo chips. Students state the number, hold upa dot card or numeral, or construct the arrangement.5. Dot Card Match (Materials: dot cards)Students sort different arrangements of the same number. Discuss thenumber of dots in each group; which group has the most, least, etc.6. Number/Numeral Match (Materials: dot cards)Teacher states a number or holds up a numeral card and students find thecorresponding dot card.Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

57. Which One is Out? (Materials: dot cards)Students determine which card does not belong in a set where all but onerepresent the same number.8. Dot Card Trains (Materials: dot cards)Students arrange a random set of dot cards in order (from 1-6 and back down).Extend to trains from 1-10.8. Concentration (Materials: 2 sets of dot cards or plates)Place dot cards face down in a 5x4 array. Students take turns turning over twocards trying to find a match.10. Dot Card Challenge (Materials: 2 sets of dot cards in 2 colours)Each student gets 1 set of cards. Each student turns over the top card oftheir pile and identifies the amount. The student with the larger number takesboth cards.11. Addarama (Materials: 2 sets of dot cards in 2 colours)Each student gets 1 set of cards. Each student turns over their top card. Bothstudents add the two dot cards together. The first student to say the totalamount out loud gets both cards. To extend, have each student turn over twocards and find the total of their cards. The student with the greatest amounttakes all the cards.12. Finger Dot Match (Materials: dot cards, numeral cards, finger cards)Teacher holds up fingers (i.e. 2) and asks students how many fingers.Students imitate and state number. Students then find a dot card with thatmany dots. Teacher then holds up 2 fingers and one more. Students imitateand state number. Students find a plate with 3 dots. Continue with otherfinger patterns to 10.13. Clothespin Match (Materials: dot plates or cards, clothespins)Students choose a dot plate and attach the corresponding number ofclothespins on the edge of the card.Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

614. Popsicle Stick Match (Materials: popsicle sticks, dot cards)Students match popsicle sticks with different dot arrangements on dot cards.15. Dice/Card Match (Materials: dice, dot cards)Roll the die or dice and have students find a dot card with the same amount.16. Combination Target Match (Materials: dot cards)Teacher holds up a dot card. Students find two plates that have as many dotsas the target plate. Similarly, teacher holds up a numeral card or states anumber or students choose a numeral card and find two plates that togetherhave the total number of dots named by the numeral card. Challenge studentsto find more than one combination.17. Dot Card/Ten Frame Match (Materials: dot cards, ten frames)Students match a dot card to a ten frame with the same amount.18. Snap (Materials: 2 sets of dot cards in 2 colours)Students play in pairs. Each student gets 1 set of cards. Each student flipsover their top card. If they are the same amount, they say “SNAP”. Thestudent who says “SNAP” first gets both cards.19. I Wish I had (Materials: dot cards)Teacher holds up a dot card (i.e. 5) and says, “I wish I had 7”. The studentstates how many more dots are required and finds the dot card (missingaddend) with that amount.20. Make Ten (Materials: bingo-dabbed plates that have been marked with theregular 0 to 10 dot patterns with an extra 5 (12 plates in all))Place dot plates face up in an array. Students take turns removing 2 dot platesthat add up to the target number “10”. Challenge students by placing dotplates face down.Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

7Five-Frame/Ten-Frame ActivitiesIntroductionFive frames and ten frames are one of the most important models to help studentsanchor to 5 and 10.Five frames are a 1x5 array and ten frames are a 2x5 array in which counters or dotscan be placed to illustrate numbers.The five frame helps students learn the combinations that make 5. The ten-framehelps students learn the combinations that make 10. Ten-frames immediately modelall of the facts from 5 1 to 5 5 and the respective turnarounds. Even 5 6, 5 7 and5 8 are quickly seen as two fives and some more when depicted with these powerfulmodels.For students in kindergarten or early first grade who have not yet explored a tenframe, a good idea is to anchor to five by beginning with a five frame.Starting with Five-Frames:Activities:1. Building Sets (Materials: blank five frame mat, counters)Call out a number to the students, such as 4, and have them show that amounton their mat. They may place the counters in any manner. Ask if they can placethe 4 counters down in a different way. Try other numbers from 0-5. Haveyour students make observations about their placement of counters.- It has a space in the middle.-It’s two and two.Numbers greater than 5 are shown with a full five-frame and additionalcounters on the mat but not on the frame.Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

82. Roll and Build (Materials: five frame cards, dice)Students roll one die or two dice and build that amount on their five framemat.3. Memory (Materials: two sets of five frame cards)Place the five frame cards face down in an array. Students take turns turningover two cards. They identify the amount on each card. If they are the samethey take both cards. Play goes to the next players.4. Challenge (Materials: two sets of five frame cards in 2 colours)Each student gets 1 set of cards. Each student turns over the top card oftheir pile and identifies the amount. The student with the greater amounttakes both cards.5. Five Frame Flash (Materials: large five frame cards)Flash a five frame card to your students and ask them to identify how manydots they saw. To challenge students ask them to identify one more or one lessthan the amount of dots. To extend, have them tell you how many empty spacesthere are or how many more are needed to make 5.6. Five Frame Trains (Materials: at least two sets of five frame cards)Students sequence a random set of five frame cards in order from 1 to 5 andthen back to 1, etc. Students practice counting forwards and backwards outloud. Extend by turning over one card in the train and have students identifywhich number was turned over.7. Make 5 (Materials: two sets of five frame cards)Place the cards face up in an array. Students try to find two cards thattogether total 5. To challenge students turn the cards face down.8. Dice Match (Materials: die, five frame cards)Roll the die and have students find the five frame card that has the sameamount. If they roll a 6, they roll again.Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

9Starting with Ten Frames:Activities:1. Building Sets (Materials: blank ten frame mats, double ten frame mats, counters)Call out a number from 1-10 and have students build that amount on their tenframe. Students fill the first row first. Call out a different number and havestudents build the new number. Observe to see which students can simply addor remove counters and those that must begin from 1. Continue with differentamounts. Extend to a double ten frame building numbers to 20.2. Roll and Build (Materials: ten frame cards, dice)Students roll two dice and build that amount on their ten frame mat.3. Memory (Materials: two sets of ten frame cards)Place the ten frame cards face down in an array. Students take turns turningover two cards. They identify the amount on each card. If they are the samethey take both cards.4. Challenge (Materials: two sets of ten frame cards in 2 colours)Each student gets 1 set of cards. Each student turns over the top card oftheir pile and identifies the amount. The student with the greater amounttakes both cards.5. Ten Frame Flash (Materials: large ten frame cards)Flash a ten frame card to your students and ask them to identify how manydots they saw. To challenge students ask them to identify one more or oneless than the amount of dots. To extend, have them tell you how many emptyspaces there are or how many more are needed to make 10.6. Ten Frame Trains (Materials: at least two sets of ten frame cards)Students sequence a random set of ten frame cards in order from 1 to 10 andthen back to 1, etc. Students practice counting forwards and backwards outloud. Extend by turning over one card in the train and having students identifywhich number was turned over.Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

107. Make 10 (Materials: two sets of ten frame cards)Place the cards face up in an array. Students try to find two cards thattogether total 10. To challenge students turn the cards face down.8. Dice Match (Materials: dice and ten frame cards)Roll the dice and have students find the ten frame card that has the sameamount. If they roll 11 or 12, they roll again.9. What’s the Difference? (Materials: at least three sets of ten frames, 50counters)5 cards are spread out face down and the rest are placed in a pile facedown. The students take turns turning over the top card in the pile as wellas one of the spread cards. They then determine the difference betweenthe two cards and take that amount of counter. The card that was turnedover from the spread pile is flipped over again. Play continues until all ofthe cards from the pile have been used. The player with the most counterswins. Observe to see what strategies students are using to find thedifference and to get the most counters.10. Ten Frame Difference Challenge (Materials: two sets of ten frame cards in2 colours, 50 counters)Students play the game like the traditional “War” game. Each studentturns over the top card from their pile. Each identifies their amount. Thestudent with the largest takes as many counters from the pile as thedifference between the two cards. Play continues until all the counters aregone. The winner is the player with the most counters.11. Fish (Materials: at least two sets of ten frames)Students play in groups of 2 to 4. Deal each player 4 cards. Spread the restin the center like a fish pond. Students take turns asking another if theyhave a card with an amount that is the same as one of their cards. If theyhave the card they give it to the player. If they do not they draw a cardfrom the pile. Play continues until one player gets rid of all their cards, orall the cards are matched.Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

1112. 10 Fish (Materials: ten frame cards)Play the game like “Fish” only the object of the game is to ask the otherstudents for a card that will add to yours to make a sum of ten.13. Ten Plus/Nine Plus (Materials: 2 sets of ten frames in 2 colours)Place one 10 ten frame card face up in the center. Place the other cards ina pile face down. Students take turns turning over the top card and addingit to “10”. Play the game “Nine Plus” like ten plus only use the nine card asthe card to add the other numbers to.14. 0-20 Numeral/Ten Frame Match (Materials: two sets of ten frame cards,0-20 numeral cards)Spread the 0-20 numeral cards face up in order. Students take turnsturning over two ten frame cards and finding the total. If the numeral cardmatch is there, they take the card. The winner is the player with the mostnumeral cards.Winnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

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17Dot cards can be used to enhance numbersense.Help students with their ability to subitize(recognition of domino and dice patterns).Simply copy onto card stock, laminate, cutout .and enjoy!Source: John Van De WalleWinnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project

Large Quinary Five Frame CardsWinnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project18

Large Quinary Five Frame CardsWinnipeg School DivisionNumeracy Project19

Large Five Frame CardsWinnipeg School Division20Numeracy Project

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Five Frame CardsWinnipeg School Division31Numeracy Project

Small Ten Frame CardsWinnipeg School Division32Numeracy Project

Small Ten Frame CardsWinnipeg School Division33Numeracy Project

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Dot Card/Ten Frame Match (Materials: dot cards, ten frames) Students match a dot card to a ten frame with the same amount. 18. Snap (Materials: 2 sets of dot cards in 2 colours) Students play in pairs. Each student gets 1 set of cards. Each