SpillwayTypes of spillwayDesign Flood(hydrologic design)Hydraulic DesignSpillway Crest Gates
Spillway A spillway is a structure constructed at or near the dam site todispose of surplus water from the reservoir to the channeldownstream.
Contd The essential requirements of a spillway– It must have adequate discharge capacity– It must be hydraulically and structurally safe– The surface of the spillway must be erosion resistant– The spillway must be so located that the spillway discharge doesnot erode or undermine the downstream toe of the dam– It should be provided with some device for the dissipation ofexcess energy– The spillway discharge should not exceed the safe dischargecapacity of the downstream channel to avoid its flooding.
Contd Types of Spillway– The spillways can be classified into different types based on thevarious criteriaA. Classification based on purpose– Main (or service) spillway– Auxiliary spillway– Emergency spillwayB. Classification based on control– Controlled (or gated) spillway– Uncontrolled (or ungated) spillway
ContdC. Classification based on prominent feature––––––––Free overfall (or straight drop) spillwayOverflow or Ogee spillwayChute (or open channel or trough) spillwaySide-channel spillwayShaft (or morning glory) spillwaySiphon spillwayConduit (or tunnel) spillwayCascade spillway
Contd Topography and Geology Topography and geology, with selected subsurface explorations,have greater influence on the location and type of spillway thanany other factors.– Ogee spillway : Most commonly used as the integral overflowsection of a concrete dam– Chute spillway: Adopted in a site where a suitable foundationwith moderate depth of excavation is available wheretopography of the site permits the use of a relatively shortchannel– Side channel spillway: Suitable for earth or rock-fill dams innarrow canyons and for other situations where direct overflow isnot permissible
Contd– Shaft spillway/Tunnel spillway : Used advantageously at damsites in narrow canyons where abutments rise steeply– Siphon spillway: Used when there is a desire for an automaticoperation without mechanical parts and the discharge to bepassed is small– Free over-fall spillway: Suitable for arch
ContdClassification of Spillway(shown in Vischer et al,San Francisco,1988).
Contd Component Parts of a Spillway A spillway generally has the following component parts Entrance channelControl structureDischarge channel (or waterway)Terminal structure (energy dissipator)Exit channel
Hydrologic Consideration The required spillway capacity is usually determined by floodrouting which is equal to the maximum outflow rate The following data are required for the flood routing- Inflow flood hydrograph- Reservoir-capacity curve(indicating the reservoir storage atdifferent reservoir elevations)- Outflow discharge curve(Spillway rating curve)- indicating therate of outflow through spillways at different reservoirelevations.
Economic Consideration The analysis seeks to identify an optimum combined cost of thedam-spillway combination.Figure- Comparative costs:spillway-dam combinations.A:Minimum cost: gatedspillway,B: Minimum cost: ungatedspillway (shown in USBR,United States,1960).
Spillway-Hydraulic Design Free Overfall Spillway A free overfall spillway (or a straight drop spillway) is a type ofspillway in which the control structure consists of :– a low-height, narrow-crested weir and the downstreamface is vertical or nearly vertical so that the water fallsfreely more or less vertical The overflowing water may discharge as a free nappe, as in the caseof a sharp-crested weir, or it may be supported along the narrowsection of the crest The water flowing over the crest drops as a free jet clear of thedownstream face of the spillway-suction pressure should beavoided
Contd In order to protect the stream bed from scouring an artificial pool isusually constructed by excavating a basin in the bed and thencovering it with a concrete apron-(Plunge pool construction) If the tail water depth is adequate, a hydraulic jump may form afterthe jet falls from the crest, which can be used for the dissipation ofenergy. However, a long flat apron would be required to containthe hydraulic jump
Contd Ogee (overflow) spillway The ogee or overflow spillway is the most common type of spillway.It has a control weir that is ogee or S-shaped The structure divides naturally into three zones: the crest, the rearslope, and the toe The shape of the crest of the ogee spillway is generally made toconform closely to the profile of the lower surface of nappe (sheetof water) of a ventilated jet issuing from a sharp-crested weir An ogee-shaped spillway is an improvement upon the free overfallspillway(the jet will be guided to glide on a channel)
Contd The nappe-shaped profile is an ideal profile because at the designhead, the water flowing over the crest of the spillway alwaysremains in contact with the surface of the spillway as it glides over it No negative pressure will develop on the spillway surface at designhead
Contd Shape of the crest of the overflow spillway(spillway crest profile) Normally the crest is shaped to conform to the lower surface of thenappe from a fully aerated sharp-crested weir The shape of the ogee-shaped spillway depends upon– Head over the crest,– Height of the spillway above the stream bed or the bed of theentrance channel– The inclination of the upstream face of the spillway Several standard shapes of the crests of overflow spillways aredeveloped by U.S.B.R. at Waterways Experiment Station(WES)-Shapesare called WES standard spillway shapes
Contd Early crest shapes were usually based on a simple parabola designedto the fit the trajectory of the falling nappe in the general formPrinciple of derivation of crest profile
Contd The profiles are defined as they relate to the coordinate axes at theapex of the crest. The portion upstream of the origin is defined as a compound circulararc. The portion downstream is defined by the equationEquation for the D/S profilewhereHd Design headK & n are constants whose values depend on the upstream inclinationand velocity of approach. The shape downstream of the crest axis further symbolized by theequation for WES standard spillway shapes
Contdwhere– X and Y are coordinates of crest profile with origin at the highestpoint of the crest.– Hd design head including velocity head of the approach flow.– K and n are parameters depending on the slope of the upstreamface.
Contd Typical WES standard shapes
ContdComparison of Spillway Crest Profiles
Contd The curved profile of the crest section is continued till it meetstangentially the straight sloping surface of the downstream face ofthe overflow dam At the end of the sloping surface of the spillway, a curved circularsurface, called bucket, is provided to create a smooth transition offlow from the spillway surface to the river downstream of the outletchannel The bucket is also useful for the dissipation of energy and preventionof scour
Contd The radius R of the bucket can be approximately obtained from therelationWhereV: is the velocity of flow at the toe of spillway (m/s)Hd: is the design head
Contd The velocity of flow V may be approximately determined from therelationWhereZ: is the total fall from the upstream water level to the floor level atthe d/s toe,Ha: is the head due to velocity of approach,y :is the depth of flow at toe andg: is the acceleration due to gravity.
Contd Generally, a radius of about one-fourth of the spillway height is foundto be satisfactory.whereP: is the height of spillway crest above the bed
Contd Upstream profile of the crest(a) Vertical upstream face The upstream profile of the crest should be tangential to the verticalface and should have zero slope at the crest axis The upstream profile should conform to the following equation withusual notations It may be noted that the values of x are negative according to thechosen axes of coordinates
Contd It may be noted that the values of x are negative according to thechosen axes of coordinates The maximum absolute value of x is 0.270 Hd, for which the value ofy is equal to 0126 Hd when the u/s face is vertical
Contdb) Sloping upstream face The coordinates of the upstream profile in the case of slopingupstream face can be determined from Table Slopes of 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3(H:V). For intermediate slopes the valuesmay be interpolated
Values of y/Hd for the u/s profile
Contd Discharge Characteristics Choosing as an example the rectangular weir without sidecontraction, the basic equation of the discharge is as follows
Contd No allowance was made for the local losses of energy, therefore,the result need to be multiplied by an experimental factor, which issmaller than the unity and is generally called the dischargecoefficient (Cd), For smaller velocities the value ofcan be neglected
Contd It is important to mention, that while Cd is a dimension less value,the value of C always has a dimension, and is generally given inunits of m ½ /s
Contd The discharge characteristics of the standard spillway can also bederived from the characteristics of the sharp crested weirQ CLe (H H v )3/ 2Where:Q- dischargeC- Coefficient which depends on u/s and d/s flow conditionLe- effective crest lengthH- head on the crestHv- approach velocity head
Contd Where crest priers and abutments are shaped to cause sidecontractions of the overflow, the effective length, Le, will be lessthan the net length of the crestLe L' 2(NK p K a )( H H V )Where:L’- net length of the crestN- Number of piersKp- piers contraction coefficientKa- abutment contraction coefficient
ContdPier conditionSquare nosed pier with corners rounded on aradius equal to about 0.1 of the pier thicknessRounded nosed piersPointed nose piersAbutment conditionSquare abutments with head wall at 90o todirection of flowRounded abutments with head wall at 90o tothe direction flowRounded abutments with head wall placed atnot more than 45o to the direction of flowKp0.020.010Ka0.200.100
Contd Side channel spillway The crest of the control weir is placed along the side of the dischargechannel. The crest is approximately parallel to the side channel atthe entrance The side channel spillway is usually constructed in a narrow canyonwhere sufficient space is not available for an overflow spillway.
ContdTypical layout of a side channel spillway
Contd Analysis of flow in a trough
Contd Referring the figure the differential equation of the flow profileignoring channel friction is given by
Contd Since the discharge increases linearly with the distance, the velocitycan also be assumed to vary with x in some arbitrary manner
Contd The constants a and n are arbitrary and may be selected in such a wayas to produce a profile that will most economically conform to the siteconditions. It can be seen that when n 1/2, the profile will be linear, concavedownward for n 1/2 and concave upward for n 1/2
Contd A procedure without imposing any relationship between the averagevelocity V and distance x has been suggested by USBR (1977), as which can be applied to calculate the water surface profilein a step-by-step manner. Q1 and V1 and Q2 and V2 are the discharge and velocity atthe beginning and end of a small distance Δx.
Contd The effect of channel friction and uneven velocity distribution can beintroduced considering that A Q/V (at respective locations),,and
Contd This can be solved by a trial method, in conjunction with therelationship for the critical depth, for a given channel section If Xc L, the total length of the channel, it would mean that theflow upstream of the critical flow section would be sub-critical anddownstream of it will be supercritical
Contd Siphon spillway A siphon spillways operates on the principle of siphonic action. Thereare basically two types of siphon spillways– Hood or Saddle siphon (as shown in Figure 1)– Volute siphon(as shown in Figure 2)
Contd All necessary precautions must be taken to ensure that the vacuum ismaintained and that it does not become so excessive as to causecavitation The maximum negative pressure at the spillway crest is theoretically10 m of water at sea level Allowing for the vapor pressure of water, loss due to turbulence,etc., the maximum net effective head is rarely more than about 7.5mWhich means that the initial velocityin any siphon cannot exceed about12 m/s at the inlet
ContdHydraulic Design Consideration The following characteristics are relevant in the hydraulic design ofsiphon spillways:––––––Discharging capacityPriming depthRegulating flowEffect of waves in the reservoirCavitationVibration
Contd Discharging Capacity The flow in the throat section of a saddle siphon can be idealised as afree vortex, so that
Contd This velocity should be the same at all sections along the siphonbarrel unless there is expansion or contraction of the section
Contd when the siphon is running full, the velocity is given by the total headHTotal head H (from reservoir level upto the tail water level)
ContdEnergyEquation(Enterance andExit) The required outlet area Ao can then be calculated from Vo
Contd The discharge in the volute siphon can also be calculated in thesame way by assuming that the flow entering the funnel at the liptakes a circular path
ContdCd may be assumed to be 0.70, however, model observations haveshown this to be as high as 0.85
Contd Chute spillway A chute spillway (or trough spillway or open channel spillway)consists of a steep sloped open channel called a chute or trough,which carries the water passing over the crest of spillway to theriver downstream
Contd Shaft spillway A shaft (or morning glory) spillway consists of a large vertical funnel,with its top surface at the crest level of the spillway and its lower endconnected to a vertical (or nearly vertical) shaft.
Contd The free overfall the discharge is given by:Q 2C d πDc 2 g H 3 / 23 The drowned (submerged) regime, the discharge is given byQ 1C d 1πD 2 [2 g ( H Z )]1 / 24
Contd Stepped Spillways(Cascaded spillway) It is ideally suited for very high dams in which the energy cannot bedissipated by a hydraulic jump or a bucket
Contd Spillway Crest Gates The following factors influence the decision whether a spillway shouldbe gated or ungated: Safety of the dam Cost economics Operational problems Downstream conditions Special considerations
Contd From the standpoint of operation, the spillway crest gates can bedivided into four groups: Mechanical Semi-mechanical Automatic type fusible Automatic type restoring
Contd The common types of mechanical gates include radial, vertical lift,and flap gates
Contd Spillway Crest Gates Various types of gates have been evolved to control the flow of waterover the spillway when the reservoir is full.I.Flashboardsi.Temporaryii.permanenti.Stop logs & needlesii.Rectangular lift gatesiii.Radial (Tainter) gatesiv.drum gatesv.Rolling (roller) gatevi.Tilting (Flap) gate
Contd Stilling Basinstructure of mild slope whose purpose is to confine all orpart of the hydraulic jump or other energy reducing action anddissipate some of the high kinetic energy of the flow A channel The stilling basin is designed to insure that the jump occurs alwaysat such a location that the flow velocities entering the erodibledownstream channel are incapable of causing harmful scour.
Contd Hydraulic jump characteristics relevant to its application to the energydissipation are: Classification of jump Length, including length of the roller Conjugate depth and energy loss Turbulence characteristics Air entrainment by hydraulic jump
ContdHydraulic jump equationJump head loss equation:Energy dissipation efficiencyJump height:y2 1 ( 8 F12 1 1)y1 2y2 1) 3 E j( 8 F12 1 3) 3y1 4 y 2 / y1y116( 8 F12 1 1( E jE1 E j / y1E1 / y1y2 y1 132 8 F1 1 y122 ( 8 F12 1 3) 38( 8 F12 1 1)(2 F12
Ogee (overflow) spillway The ogee or overflow spillway is the most common type of spillway. It has a control weir that is ogee or S-shaped The structure divides naturally into three zones: the crest, the rear slope, and the toe The shape of the crest of the ogee spillway is generally made to conform closely to the