U.S. Joint Forces Command

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U.S. Joint Forces CommandJoint Meteorological & Oceanographic(METOC) Handbook1st JMOC Edition, April 2011

Joint METOC HandbookMEMORANDUM FOR: Distribution List1. This publication is the 1st edition of the Joint METOC Handbook (JMH) as written toaccompany the Joint METOC Officers Course (JMOC). This document is a complete revision ofthe 4th edition, 2002 release. It was compiled from inputs by Senior METOC Officers, formerand current Joint Force METOC Officers, and METOC experts in various Service organizations.2. The Handbook reflects comments from across the METOC community: CombatantCommands, US Joint Forces Command's Component Commands, Service headquarters, andleading Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps METOC organizations. The purpose of thisHandbook is to serve as a reference tool for prospective Joint Force METOC Officers (JMO) onthe infrastructure, policies, principles, and responsibilities inherent in providing joint METOCsupport to the warfighter and in conducting Joint METOC operations. This Handbook can alsoserve as a guide for Combatant Command Senior METOC Officers.3. The JMH does not constitute a requirements document or initial doctrine. Joint Publication 359 serves as joint doctrine for METOC Operations. This Handbook serves solely to provide theJMO, his or her staff, and Service and functional component METOC units, an easy to usemanual to help plan and execute METOC support for joint operations.4. This document is to be updated annually by a Joint METOC team. Due to thedisestablishment of USJFCOM, updates will be led by the METOC Operations Officer,Joint Staff J-39 ROD. This handbook is intended to be a living document and your commentsand suggestions are welcomed.CHRISTY G. COWANCommander, U.S. NavyUSJFCOM Senior METOC OfficerDISTRIBUTION: CDistribution authorized to U.S. Government Agencies and their contractors involved in jointmeteorological and oceanographic (METOC) operations; 1 April 2011. Other requests for thisdocument shall be referred to METOC Operations Officer, Joint Staff J-39 ROD in accordancewith DoD Directive 5230.24.i

Joint METOC HandbookRECORD OF CHANGESChangeNumberDate ofChangeDateEnteredPosted ByiiRemarks

Joint METOC HandbookTable of Contents1. USAF METOC1a.Background and Overview1b.Air Force Forces (AFFOR) METOC Organization3c.Air Force Weather Support to Joint & Air Force Organizations3d.Air Force METOC Capabilities: Personnel and Equipment6e.Air Force METOC Data Sources12f.Air Force Weather Products and Services13g.Key Air Force METOC Organizations Contact List202. USA METOC26a.Background and Overview26b.Army METOC Organization27c.METOC in the Army Tactical Structure28d.Army METOC Capabilities: Personnel and Equipment31e.Battlefield Weather Teams (BWT)33f.Army METOC Products33g.Key Army METOC Organization Contact List343. USN METOC35a.Background and Overview35b.Navy METOC Organization36c.Navy METOC Capabilities: Personnel and Equipment48d.Navy METOC Operations / Employment52e.METOC Data Communication Procedures54f.Key Naval METOC Centers and Facilities Contact List544. USMC METOC56a.Overview56b.USMC METOC Organization56c.USMC METOC Capabilities: Personnel and Equipment59d.USMC METOC Hardware59e.USMC METOC Operations / Employment63f.USMC METOC Contact List645. Special Operations Forces (SOF) METOC67iii

Joint METOC Handbooka.SOF METOC Organization67b.SOF METOC Production Centers70c.SOF METOC Operations / Employment70d.SOF METOC Data Sources71e.Key SOF METOC Staff Organization Contact List716. Joint METOC Staffs – Joint Staff, Combatant Commands73a.Combatant Commands (CCMD)73b.Joint COM82k.USSTRATCOM83l.USTRANSCOM847. Joint METOC Organization86a.The Senior METOC Officer (SMO)86b.The Joint METOC Officer (JMO)89c.The METOC Operations Support Community (MOSC)93d.Joint METOC Coordination Organization (JMCO)95e.Joint METOC Coordination Cell (JMCC)96f.The Joint Task Force98g.Joint Task Force METOC1138. Joint METOC Planning117a.Joint Documents117b.Types of Command118c.Types of Joint Operation Planning119d.The Joint Operation Planning Process (JOPP)121e.Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment (JIPOE)122f.METOC in Mission Analysis123iv

Joint METOC Handbookg.Joint Plan Phasing124h.Contingency Plans125i.METOC in the Plans126j.Types of Orders131K.The SMO and Operations and Exercises134l.The JMO in Joint Planning for Operations and Exercises1359. Management: Personnel, Equipment & Training140a.Combatant Commander(CCDR) Permanent Staffs140b.Billet Changes140c.Contingency Operations Staffs141d.Manning Requirements146e.Exercise Manning Requirements149f.The Joint Urgent Operational Needs (JUON) Process149g.Service Methods to Shorten Acquisition Timelines151h.The JOPES Planning System153i.Time-Phased and Deployment Data, TPFDD156j.METOC and the TPFDD159k.METOC and the JCIDS Big Picture163l.METOC in Joint Training16510. METOC Operations167a.Quality Control & After Action / Post Deployment Reports167b.Joint METOC Operations – Doctrine and Instructions170c.Joint Operations Area Forecast (JOAF)171d.KQ Identifiers171e.Sensing Strategy / Collection Plan172f.Domestic / Interagency METOC OPS175g.International / Allied / Coalition / Foreign METOC OPS17711. METOC Document Examples181a.METOC LOI181b.Annex H195c.Joint Operational Area Forecast (JOAF)205d.Briefing Slides21212. METOC Impacts on Operations221v

Joint METOC Handbooka.METOC Thresholds: Characterizing Environmental Threats to Operations221b.Tri-Service Integrated Weather Effects Decision Aid (T-IWEDA)221c.Special Operations Thresholds223d.The Maritime Domain224e.The Land Domain226f.The Air Domain234g.Operational Application of Critical METOC Thresholds239h.Space Weather and Impacts on Systems.243Appendix A – Environment definitions with the JCA numbering scheme252Appendix B – JTFHQ METOC Tasks254Appendix C – Recommended Reading263Joint / DOD / d/Coalition/Foreign266Interagency References268Appendix D – Joint METOC Web-Based Resources270Useful Websites - NIPR270METOC websites - SIPR274GLOSSARY275PART I – Abbreviations and Acronyms275PART II- Terms and Definitions281vi

Joint METOC HandbookList of FiguresFigure 1: The AFW Weather Operations Concept Model . 1Figure 2: Air Force Weather Functional Alignment . 3Figure 3: Air Force Weather Agency Organizational Structure . 4Figure 4: Air Force Global Weather Centers . 5Figure 5: Air Force OWS Geographic Areas of Responsibility . 6Figure 6: Army Operational Unit Diagram (from army.mil) . 27Figure 7: Navy METOC Organization . 36Figure 8: Location of Fleet Marine Force Activities . 57Figure 9: METOC-AFSOC Organization . 68Figure 10: METOC-NAVSPECWAR Organization . 69Figure 11: Special Operations Forces (SOCOM M115-2) . 71Figure 12: Geographic Combatant Commands Area of Responsibility (AOR) (From UCP 2008). 73Figure 13: METOC Operations Support Community (From JP 3-59, Meteorological andOceanographic Operations) . 95Figure 14: METOC Hierarchy in Support of a JTF (From JP3-59, Meteorological andOceanographic Operations) . 98Figure 15: Typical Joint Task Force Headquarters Structure (From JP 3-33, Joint Task ForceHeadquarters) . 99Figure 16: Joint Task Force Component Commands (From JP 3-33, Joint Task ForceHeadquarters) . 102Figure 17: JFACC Organization (From JP 3-33, Joint Task Force Headquarters) . 104Figure 18: Air Tasking Order (ATO) Planning Cycle (From JP 3-30, Command and Control ofJoint Air Operations) . 106Figure 19: Notional JFLCC Organization (From JP 3-33, Joint Task Force Headquarters) . 108Figure 20: Notional JFMCC Organization (From JP 3-33, Joint Task Force Headquarters) . 110Figure 21: Notional JSOTF Organization (From JP 3-33, Joint Task Force Headquarters) . 112Figure 22: Joint Strategic Planning (From JP 5-0, Joint Operational Planning) . 120Figure 23: The Steps of the Joint Operation Planning Process (From JP 5-0, Joint OperationPlanning). 121Figure 24: JIPOE Process (From JP 2-01.3, Joint and National Intelligence Support to MilitaryOperations) . 123Figure 25: Notional Operational Plan Phases (From JP 5-0, Joint Operation Planning). 125Figure 26: Joint Operation Planning Products (From JP 5-0, Joint Operation Planning) . 132Figure 27: Joint Operational Planning Activities, Functions and Products (From JP 5-0, JointOperation Planning) . 134Figure 28: JMD Format (From CJCSI 1301.01C) . 142Figure 29: The IA Process (From CJCSI 1301.01C) . 145Figure 30: The RFF Process (From GFMIP) . 149Figure 31: The JUON Process (From CJCSI 3470.01). 151Figure 32: TPFDD Format (From AFM 10-401V2). 159Figure 33: The Joint Lessons Learned System (From CJCSI 3150.25D). 170Figure 34: Sample "Geyerware" Slide . 213Figure 35: Example Impacts on Operations Slide – Bar Graph. 214vii

Joint METOC HandbookFigure 36: Example Impacts on Operations – 3-Day. 214Figure 37: Example Impacts on Operations – 5-Day outlook . 215Figure 38: Example Impacts on Operations: Spreadsheet Format . 215Figure 39: Example Impacts on Operations: Geographic Overlay . 216Figure 40: Example Impacts on Operations: Beddown Conditions. 216Figure 41: Example Impacts on Operations: Maritime. 217Figure 42: Example Impacts on Operations: JFMCC . 217Figure 43: Example Impacts on Operations: Graphical Format ―Picnic Weather‖ . 218Figure 44: Example Impacts on Operations: Graphical Beddown . 218Figure 45: Example Impacts on Operations: Operational Level . 219Figure 46: Example Impacts on Operations: Meteogram . 219Figure 47: Example Impacts on Operations: Climate . 220Figure 48: Altitudes of the stabilized cloud top and cloud bottom as a function of total energyyield for surface or low air bursts. . 228Figure 49: Idealized unit-time reference dose-rate contours for a 10-megaton, 50-percent fission,surface burst (30 mph effective wind speed). . 229Figure 50: Corresponding actual dose-rate contours (hypothetical). . 229Figure 51: Example course of action (COA) decision matrix . 240Figure 52: Long-range planning matrix example . 241Figure 53: Aeromedical evacuation decision aid . 242Figure 54: Weather threat Analysis for typical MC-130P mission profile (AFSOC) . 243Figure 56: Solar Cycle (From 2WS/WXZ SMO Brief) . 244Figure 57: Aerospace Environment (From 2WS/WXZ SMO Brief ) . 245Figure 58: Space Weather Impacts (From 2WS WXZ SMO Brief) . 246Figure 59 : Space Environment Slide (From JAAWIN-S Space). 248Figure 60: Space Environment Discussion Slide (From JAAWIN-S Space) . 251viii

Joint METOC HandbookList of TablesTable 1: Military SATCOM Attributes. 52Table 2: MetMF(R) Frequency Requirements . 61Table 3: Possible JMCO Organizations . 96Table 4: Tactical AFFOR UTC's and Description . 160Table 5: Individual Air Force Weather Augmentees . 161Table 6: Tactical Army Weather Support UTCs and Description . 161Table 7: Navy METOC Personnel UTCs . 162Table 8: Navy METOC Equipment UTCs. 162Table 9: USMC Forces UTCs . 163Table 10: JSOTF HQ METOC UTCs . 163Table 11: IWEDA Impact Code . 222Table 12: Typical UNCLAS METOC Impacts on Carrier Ops . 224Table 13: Typical UNCLAS METOC Impacts on RAS Ops . 224Table 14: Typical UNCLAS METOC Impacts on Amphibious Ops . 225Table 15: Typical UNCLAS METOC Impacts on LCAC Ops . 225Table 16: Typical UNCLAS METOC Impacts on Minesweeper Ops . 225Table 17: Typical UNCLAS METOC Impacts on Mine Warfare Ops . 225Table 18: Typical UNCLAS METOC Impacts to Army Operations . 230Table 19: Intensities of Aircraft Icing . 234Table 20: Icing Severity Conditions . 235Table 21: Intensity of Turbulence (Aircraft) . 235Table 22: This is Table 2.5 from AFWA/TN-98/002 (rev 31 March 2008) . 236Table 23: Turbulence intensities for different categories of aircraft (based on Table 2.5 fromAFWA/TN-98/002 (rev 31 March 2008) . 236Table 24: Typical UNCLAS METOC Impacts on USAF Operations . 238Table 25: NATO documents with METOC relevance . 267ix

Joint METOC HandbookExecutive SummaryThe Joint Meteorological and Oceanographic (METOC) Handbook (JMH) serves as a primaryreference for the new Joint METOC Officer Course (JMOC). The intention of the JMH is toprovide the Joint METOC Officer (JMO), associated METOC staff, and Service and functionalcomponent METOC personnel, an easy-to-use reference manual to assist in the planning andexecution of METOC support for joint operations. Some information previously included isbetter found through on-line sources which are more easily updated, and a web-based resourceslisting is included as an appendix.The JMH describes existing Joint METOC structure, how METOC personnel and organizationsare integrated into the combatant command and JTF structures, and what METOC resources areavailable. Separate chapters cover METOC capabilities and support to operational forces withinService organizational structures.It is important to understand the joint operational planning process and how the METOC officerfits into that process. The duties and responsibilities of the Senior METOC Officer (SMO) andJMO and their interaction during a joint operation are important concepts. The coordinationbetween the JMO and his Service and functional component METOC units is vital to the successof joint METOC operations. The concept of ―one theater, one forecast,‖ highlighted in JointPublication 3-59, is the cornerstone of METOC support to a joint operation.Joint METOC personnel should understand the capabilities of Service level METOC equipmentand tactical and fixed communication systems for interoperability. The sources of METOC dataand available products and services from various METOC production sites and theater leveloperational commands are useful for any military operation.The latest JMH version is available on the Joint Doctrine Education and Training ElectronicInformation System (JDEIS).x

USAF METOC1. USAF METOCThis chapter describes U.S. Air Force METOC organizational structure,command relationships, and support capabilities and requirements,including typical USAF METOC and communications equipment.a. Background and OverviewAir Force Weather (AFW) forces, as part of the Joint team, deliveraccurate, consistent, relevant, and timely environmental products andservices anywhere in the world, tailored to the operational requirements of supported jointforces.Figure 1: The AFW Weather Operations Concept ModelExecuting their core competencies to collect, analyze, predict, tailor, and proactively integrateenvironmental threat information into commanders‘ decision cycles and command and control(C2) systems, AFW enables commanders at all levels to anticipate, mitigate, and exploit theweather optimizing air, space, cyberspace, and ground operations to the advantage of alliedobjectives and the detriment of the

b. Air Force Forces (AFFOR) METOC Organization 3 c. Air Force Weather Support to Joint & Air Force Organizations 3 d. Air Force METOC Capabilities: Personnel and Equipment 6 e. Air Force METOC Data Sources 12 f. Air Force Weather Products and Services 13 g. Key Air Force METOC Organizations Contact List 20 2. USA METOC 26 a. Background and .