COHERENCECOOKBOOK:BUILDINGRESILIENCEIN AN INTEGRATED WAYIngredients and recipes for civil societyorganisations to ensure disaster risk reduction,sustainable development, and climate changeadaptation are addressed coherentlyi
ContentsINTRODUCTION1WHAT’S IN THIS COOKBOOK?2WHAT DOES COHERENCE LOOK LIKE?3HOW WERE THE KEY INGREDIENTS AND RECIPES CREATED? 4CSO ROLES IN BUILDING RESILIENCE COHERENTLY5The Importance of Vertical Coherence:7Understanding the Political EnvironmentKEY INGREDIENTS FOR COHERENCE9Which Recipes Feature Which Key Ingredients?16RECIPES OF COHERENCE – MASTER CHEFS IN ACTION18ii
IntroductionThe Global Network of Civil Society Organisations forDisaster Reduction (GNDR) is a network of over 850member organisations committed to working togetherto improve the lives of people affected by disastersworldwide. Recently, we set forth to launch a seriesof cookbooks, containing key ingredients and recipeson how to engage in disaster risk reduction (DRR)effectively. This is our second cookbook, following the‘Cookbook on Institutionalising Sustainable CBDRM’,and is packed with key ingredients and recipes forcoherent action in disaster risk reduction, climate changeadaptation and sustainable development. The word‘coherence’ describes efforts to integrate the goals,targets and strategies of international frameworks forthose activities. It is defined as:“An approach, processes and actions tointegrate implementation of the SustainableDevelopment Agenda, Sendai Frameworkfor Disaster Risk Reduction, Paris Agreementand New Urban Agenda; in order to increaseefficiency, effectiveness, and the achievementof both common and respective goals.”1There is great value in ensuring coherence across thevarious international frameworks that aim to guidecountries towards ensuring a better and more resilientlife for people around the world. Taken individually, noneof them engage with the full spectrum of shocks and riskdrivers that might affect a community. Taken together,they reflect the range of risks and means of addressingthem to secure sustainable development.Synergies between policies, programmes and institutionsneed to be highlighted and supported by the alignmentof actions. Coordinating actions taken to deliver eachframework can also help to avoid duplication, maximisegains and manage compromises. As each frameworkseeks to ‘build resilience’ and manage risk using differenttimeframes, geographical focuses, scales and sectors,coherence offers a means to address the complexity ofthe real-world challenges facing national governments.While coherence is applied to linking frameworks andpolicies at institutional level, integration is often usedto describe drawing together activities at the locallevel to achieve maximum impact, building coherentcommunities. Civil society organisations (CSOs) areimportant actors at this level. Because of their ability tobuild bridges between different local and institutionalactors and draw in different sources of information andexpertise, they are particularly well placed to take thelead in integrating a range of activities to ensure thatthey work coherently.This cookbook is supported by the German FederalMinistry for Economic Cooperation and Development(BMZ), through their Global Initiative on Disaster RiskManagement (GIDRM), which is being implementedby the Deutsche Gesellschaft für InternationaleZusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. The GIDRM project aimsto strengthen the German contribution to improvedisaster risk management worldwide and to supportthe implementation of the Sendai Framework for DRR(SFDRR). GIDRM supports selected international andnational, governmental and non-governmental actorsin their ambition to achieve coherence between SFDRRand the Paris Climate Agreement, as well as the Agenda2030 for Sustainable Development and the New UrbanAgenda, with regards to planning, implementing andreporting on disaster risk management. The projectidentifies national and subnational examples ofsuccessful agenda-coherence. This cookbook is based onfieldwork in two countries, the Philippines and Mexico,and draws on over seventy case studies from Asia, Africaand Latin America.We are grateful to all of those who participated in thecreation of this cookbook through contributing recipes,responding to discussion papers and sharing informationin key respondent interviews and focus group meetings.1. Adapted from Pearn, G. ‘Guidance Note: Coherence Concepts And Practices’.Draft, November 2018. GIZ1
What’s in this Cookbook?This cookbook presents a series of recipes for buildingcoherence, and highlights the important role CSOsplay in this process. The recipes are adapted from casestudies from a wide range of localities around the worldwhich illustrate coherence in action. These case studiesreveal a number of success factors – presented here asingredients – employed by CSOs to enhance coherencewhen working on resilience at the local level. The nextsections will outline the role that CSOs play in ensuringcoherence, as well as the unique relation with localgovernments. This cookbook then includes 10 recipesfrom coherence chefs from countries in Asia, Africaand Latin America.TerminologyCOHERENCEAn approach involving processes and actions to integrateinternational frameworks for disaster risk reduction(DRR), climate change adaptation (CCA) and sustainabledevelopment to increase efficiency, effectiveness, and theachievement of both common and respective goals.INTEGRATIONThe application of a coherent approach at thecommunity level through considering all aspects of riskand resilience and forming collaborations to addressthese factors, building resilient livelihoods.RESILIENT LIVELIHOODSResilient livelihoods result from both resilience toshocks and stresses (‘bounce back’) and the agencyand independence of households and communities tonot only secure and maintain, but also further developlivelihoods (‘bounce forward’).22. There is no clear definition of the concept of “resilient livelihoods”,however this paper discusses it in further detail: https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/523ac7384.pdf2
WHAT DOES COHERENCE LOOK LIKE?Much good work is being done through specific projectsaddressing health, agriculture, livelihoods, water,sanitation and many other aspects of community life.Integrated programmes consider the whole needs of thecommunity: the risks they face, the impacts of climatechange and the options for sustainable development.They adopt a coherent approach.For example, the town of Tillabéri in Niger faces thespecific problem of regular flooding caused in part byrunoff from Féri-Féri hill on the edge of town, whichhas become deforested through firewood collection toprovide cooking fuel. A local CSO took an integratedapproach to this problem, collaborating with thecommunity, local government and other CSOs tosecure land rights and develop a sense of ownershipof the hill. They worked together with all local actorson a wide range of activities including reforestation,planting of other vegetation and anti-erosion works.Flooding has been reduced, livelihoods have beencreated in animal husbandry and sustainable firewoodcollection, and the environment has been restored.The outcomes of this recipe include both increasedresilience to risks people face, and improved livelihoods.Many of the recipes in this cookbook have similaroutcomes of strengthening resilience and livelihoods– building resilient livelihoods – not only reducing riskbut promoting sustainable development.This local level work is termed horizontal coherence– linking together actions related to the variousframeworks and goals between local actors. This isimportant as it’s at the local level that frameworks movefrom policy to action, transforming lives and livelihoodsin local communities through building cooperationbetween actors, moving on to coordination of activities,and forging collaboration based on building partnershipsand acting together.As well as horizontal coherence, it is also importantto link local action vertically to national, regional andglobal frameworks, policies and action, and some recipesin this cookbook illustrate this. Objectives and policiescan flow vertically from international frameworks tothe local level to influence action. Resources may alsoflow to the local level. Local knowledge and monitoringmay flow the other way, from local to national andinternational scales. This is vertical coherence. Often,building resilient livelihoods locally depends on takingaction in both horizontal and vertical coherence (See‘The Importance of Vertical Coherence: Understandingthe Political Environment’ p7).3
HOW WERE THE KEY INGREDIENTSAND RECIPES CREATED?A number of steps resulted in the creation ofthis cookbook:1. GIDRM conducted an initial investigation intocoherence at the institutional and national levels,exploring how coherence of the SustainableDevelopment Agenda, the Sendai Framework forDisaster Risk Reduction, and the Paris Agreementon Climate Change could be pursued in practice inAsia-Pacific countries. They investigated coherentplanning, implementation, and reporting atthe local, sub-national and national levels.2. GNDR conducted desk research to produce an initialdiscussion paper on what local level coherencelooks like.3. The discussion paper was circulated to all GNDRmembers and to others with an invitation tocontribute case studies reflecting recipes forcoherence.4. From the 73 case studies received, an analysis wasconducted to identify those which were focused onrecipes for integration.5. Key informant interviews and focus group discussionswith a range of different actors took place in thePhilippines and Mexico to dig deeper into issuesidentified in desk research and case studies.46. A further discussion paper was produced based onfindings from the analysis and fieldwork and wasshared with all the case study contributors and withGNDR members. This discussion paper identifiedvarious roles CSOs can potentially play in buildingcoherent actions in different cycles of projectmanagement. It included an invitation to feed backthrough a questionnaire.7. The research, analysis and consultations resulted inidentifying a total of 19 key ingredients and 10 recipesthat illustrate these ingredients in practice.Not all ingredients are found in all recipes. They’reindividual and designed to suit the tastes of theircommunities! A table on page 16 sums up whichingredients appear in each recipe so if you’re particularlyinterested in some of these you can go straight to therecipes that feature them.
CSO ROLES IN BUILDINGRESILIENCE COHERENTLYIn Tshange, near Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe, a localCSO brought women-led groups together in the formof a platform. This platform provided opportunities toshare funding and expertise to promote local resourcegeneration, participatory risk mapping, and improvedwater access and food production. These shared skillsand expertise then enabled integrated action tostrengthen local livelihood resilience.In Peru, Risk Management and Climate Change AdaptationDriving Groups (GRIDES) are active in 12 regions of thecountry. They promote learning between organisationsactive in DRR, CCA, sustainable development and urbandevelopment, strengthening livelihood resilience at thelocal level through training activities.CSOs have inherent characteristics that make them keyactors in strengthening community resilience: they areusually independent bodies, with strong ties to theirconstituencies (mainly local communities) and withcapacities and connections to facilitate exchangesbetween community groups and government institutions.Because of these and other well-known characteristics,CSOs play an important role in coherent resiliencebuilding in all aspects of a project’s cycle: specific rolescan be taken up by CSOs in the process of planning,implementing and learning.The examples above, as well as other examples, highlightCSOs’ actions in local coherence, and are drawn from theGNDR discussion paper ‘Roles of CSOs in Coherence’: thisshort paper provides further information on the topic,showing how CSOs promote coherence through theirrelative independence, capacities, resources and ability tobuild bridges between different actors.PlanningCoherence can also be supported by changing theway we plan. CSOs can play a role by gatheringcontextual knowledge, linking different risk factors, andconnecting different actors. When planning coherently,CSOs should also access technical information fromremote sources and take account of social, cultural andpolitical constraints. CSOs often play a particular role infacilitating community consultations and connectionsbetween local level actors.In order to plan in a way that supports coherence,time will need to be taken to highlight the benefitsof integration to all actors involved, to persuade themthat disaster response should not be addressed distinctfrom poverty alleviation. Planning will need to takeinto account the impacts of climate change, whiletackling risk-creating activities and pursuingsustainable development.Some of the challenges faced by CSOs in the planningstage relate to the lack of appreciation of the benefitsof integrated DRR compared to a focus on preparednessand response. They sometimes find resistance toaddressing the needs of the vulnerable and addressingrisk creation through urban development, for example.CSO roles in ensuring coherence in project planning: Gathering local and contextual information Facilitating participative consultations with locallevel actors Accessing remote and technical informationCSOs play an important role in all three aspects ofthe repeating cycles of planning, implementation andlearning. Integration depends on tackling each step ofthese cycles with a coherent approach, combining workon DRR, CCA and sustainable development. Advocating for integrated DRR, CCA and sustainabledevelopment Suggesting actions to reduce vulnerability5
this cookbook presents a series of recipes for building coherence, and highlights the important role csos play in this process. the recipes are adapted from case studies from a wide range of localities around the world which illustrate coherence in action. these case studies