Handbook Of Corporate Communication And Public Relations .

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940123222HANDBOOK OFCORPORATE COMMUNICATIONAND PUBLIC RELATIONSA comprehensive addition to existing literature, the Handbook of Corporate Communication andPublic Relations provides an excellent overview of corporate communication, clearly positioningthe field’s most current debates. Synthesizing both multidisciplinary and interdisciplinaryapproaches, it offers readers the in-depth analysis required to truly understand corporate communication, corporate strategy and corporate affairs as well as the relevant public relationsissues. Written by academics based in Europe, Asia and North America, the text is well illustrated with contemporary case studies, drawing out the most pertinent best practice outcomesand theoretically based applications.Its four parts cover national communication; international communication; image, identityand reputation management; and the future for corporate communication theory and practice.With a refreshing new approach to this subject, the authors challenge reductionist views ofcorporate communication, providing persuasive evidence for the idea that without an organizational communication strategy, there is no corporate strategy.The Handbook of Corporate Communication and Public Relations is an essential one-stop reference for all academics, practitioners and students seeking to understand organizationalcommunication management and strategic public relations.Sandra M. Oliver is a corporate communication academic at Thames Valley University,London, where she founded and also directs the MSc Corporate Communication Programme.A consultant research practitioner and former industrial PR, she is founding Editor-in-Chief ofCorporate Communication: An International Journal and has written extensively, including PublicRelations Strategy (2001) and Corporate Communication: Principles, Techniques and Strategies(1997). 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

940123222HANDBOOK OFCORPORATE COMMUNICATIONAND PUBLIC RELATIONSPURE AND APPLIEDEdited bySandra M. Oliver 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

First published 2004by Routledge11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EESimultaneously published in the USA and Canadaby Routledge29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor and Francis GroupThis edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributorsAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprintedor reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic,mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafterinvented, including photocopying and recording, or inany information storage or retrieval system, withoutpermission in writing from the publishers.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available fromthe British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataA catalog record for this book has been requestedISBN 0-203-41495-0 Master e-book ISBNISBN 0-203-68057-X (Adobe eReader Format)ISBN 0–415–33419–5 (Print Edition) 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

940123222ContentsList of figuresList of tablesNotes on contributorsForewordPrefaceAcknowledgementsPART I: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AT NATIONAL LEVEL1Diversity programmes in the contemporary corporate environmentDon R. Swanson2A best-practice approach to designing a change communication programmeDeborah J. Barrett3Knowledge management for best practiceStephen A. Roberts4Corporate and government communication: relationships, opportunitiesand tensionsKevin Moloney5Priorities old and new for UK PR practiceGerald Chan6Communication similarities and differences in listed and unlistedfamily enterprisesLiam Ó Móráin7Strategic challenges for corporate communicators in public serviceJ. Paulo Kuteev-Moreira and Gregor J. Eglin 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

PART II: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL8Communication audits: building world class communication systemsDennis Tourish and Owen Hargie9The Olympic Games: a framework for international public relationsYvonne Harahousou, Chris Kabitsis, Anna Haviara and Nicholas D. Theodorakis10Facets of the global corporate brandT. C. Melewar and Chris D. McCann11Differing corporate communication practice in successful and unsuccessfulcompaniesColin Coulson-Thomas12Communicating with 1.3 billion people in ChinaYing Fan and Wen-Ling Liu13Today’s corporate communication functionMichael B. Goodman14Assessing integrated corporate communicationDavid Pickton15New technology and the changing face of corporate communicationMartin SimsPART III: MANAGING IMAGE, IDENTITY AND REPUTATION16Reputation and leadership in a public broadcast companySandra M. Oliver and Anthony Clive Allen17Corporate reputationPhilip Kitchen18Communicating a continuity plan: the action stations frameworkSandra M. Oliver19Crisis management in the internet mediated eraDavid Phillips20The impact of terrorist attacks on corporate public relationsDonald K. Wright21Public relations and democracy: historical reflections and implicationsfor practiceJacquie L’Etang 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

940123222PART IV: THE FUTURE IS NOW22Visualizing the message: why semiotics is a way forwardReginald Watts23Methodological issues for corporate communication researchRichard J. Varey24Communication for creative thinking in a corporate contextGlenda Jacobs25Language as a corporate assetKrishna S. Dhir26Arrival of the global villageMichael Morley27Ethics and the corporate communicatorAlbert S. Atkinson28The new frontier for public relationsRichard R. Dolphin 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

.718.818.918.1018.1118.1218.13Strategic employee communication modelThree-phased communication strategy planSample SCT structureScorecard of current employee communicationMunter communication theoryAssessment frameworkIdeal structure for CorpCom function modelOrganizational chart of a hypothetical companyInternal audiencesA stakeholder environmentFacets of the global corporate brandThe wheel of integrated marketingContinuum of integrated corporate communicationIntegrated corporate communication assessment profileCompleted integrated corporate communication assessment profileTomita’s media gapThe changing face of Coca-ColaMonitoring the trust factorInformation costs and choicesLikely causes of crisesA crisis impact modelElements of a business continuity planThe action stations framework: a co-dependency modelFirst Interstate: normal organizationFirst Interstate: emergency organizationScotiabank’s incident responseScotiabank’s approach to emergency managementScenario: phases 1 and 2Scenario: phases 3 and 4Scenario: phase 5 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

formation flows in an organizationThe flow of information to the outside worldCiscoMicrosoftTescoMcDonald’sCrisis management planToyotaTrust in institutions, 2003Brand evaluator: Europe, 2003Brand evaluator: United States, 2003Strategic decision making 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

312.1412.1512.16Strategic objectivesWhich are the topics most important and relevant to PR research today?Which subjects from the old study should still be included in the new setof research priorities?Which topics from the new list do you consider to be most important?Categories of press reportsLos Angeles 1984Seoul 1988Barcelona 1992Atlanta 1996Sydney 2000Advertising industry turnover and growthAdvertising expenditure by product category, 2001Advertising expenditure by medium, 1997Factors influencing the new nameNames with potentially negative connotationsWhich is your most used marketing medium?What kinds of events would you consider sponsoring or hosting?What events have you sponsored in the past three years?How did you build an association or link between the sponsored eventand your brand/company?How did you integrate the event sponsorship into your marketing mixor campaign?What difficulties have you experienced in reaching the objectives?Does event sponsorship offer you an advantage in the following factorscompared to traditional advertising?What is your future strategy for event sponsorship?What role does event sponsorship play in your integrated marketing mix?Comments on the future development of event marketing in ChinaAdvertisement by branded product information 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

orate communication functionsMeeting the press: some guidelinesTop 25 US web properties by parent companyTop 10 UK web propertiesThe best corporate reputations in the United StatesPrimary industryRevenueCorporate reputationOperational functions of banksDifferences between routine emergencies and disastersInternational terrorism incidents, 1968–79Nine steps to managing BCP performanceCommunication channelsResponses of senior-level, US PR and corporate communication professionalsto the question: ‘Do you agree the events of September 11, 2001,changed how your company communicates?’Responses of senior-level, US PR and corporate communication professionalsto the question: ‘Do you agree the events of September 11, 2001, have hadany impact on your organization’s public relations and communicationsfunction?’Comparing mean scores between responses from October 2001 andMarch 2002Responses of senior-level, US PR and corporate communication professionalsto additional questions in March 2002Functionality offered by languageFunctionality analysisThe world’s largest PR firmsIndustry sector: healthcare 2001 revenuesIndustry sector: technology 2001 revenuesEthics by professionBusiness ethics courses 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

940123222ContributorsAnthony Clive Allen is attached to the Corporate Communication Directorate at the Royal AirForce in London, UK.Albert Atkinson is an active consultant researcher and involved in the affairs of the LibraryBoard of Trustees and Chamber of Commerce, UK.Deborah J. Barrett PhD lectures at Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University,Texas, USA and directs the MBA communication programme.Gerald Chan is Public Affairs and Education Officer at the Institute of Public Relations, London,UK and studying for a master’s degree in public relations.Colin Coulson-Thomas PhD is author of Transforming the Company (2002, 2nd edn), thirtyother books and reports, and is Chairman of ASK Europe plc.Krishna S. Dhir PhD is Dean of the Campbell School of Business at Berry College, Georgia, USA;formerly of CIBA-GEIGY AG in Switzerland and Borg-Warner, USA.Richard Dolphin lectures at the Northampton Business School, UK and is author ofFundamentals of Corporate Communication (2000).Gregor Eglin PhD lectures in strategic management at University of East London, UK with aparticular research interest in public service communication.Ying Fan PhD lectures and researches at Lincoln School of Management, UK.Michael Goodman PhD lectures at Fairleigh Dickinson University, USA and is founding director of the Corporate Communication Institute at FDU. 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

Yvonne Harahousou, Chris Kabitsis, Anna Haviara and Nicholas D. Theodorakis areacademics based at the University of Thrace, Greece, involved with the Organizing Committeefor the Olympic Games 2004.Owen Hargie PhD lectures at the School of Communication, University of Ulster, Ireland and isco-author of Skilled Interpersonal Communication: Research, Theory and Practice (2004).Glenda Jacobs is a Research Fellow at UNITEC, Auckland, New Zealand, where she also leadscomputer-mediated communication courses.Philip Kitchen PhD holds a professorial research chair and lectures at the University of Hull,UK.Paulo Kuteev-Moreira PhD is Director of Communication for a privately managed publichospital in Portugal and a researcher for a WHO-Europe-affiliated Observatory in HealthStudies.Jacquie L’Etang PhD lectures and researches at the University of Stirling, Scotland and is anexaminer for the Institute of Public Relations Membership Diploma examinations.Wen-Ling Liu PhD lectures at Hull University, UK on integrated marketing communication.Chris McCann is Business Consultant for an energy company in Stockholm, Sweden.Tengku Melewar PhD lectures at the University of Warwick Business School, UK.Kevin Moloney PhD lectures at Bournemouth University, UK and is a research specialist ingovernment communication and pressure groups.Michael Morley is Special Counsel for Edelman Public Relations, New York, USA and author ofHow to Manage Your Reputation (1998).Sandra M. Oliver PhD, General Editor, is founding Editor-in-Chief of Corporate Communication:An International Journal; author of Public Relations Strategy (2001) and Corporate Communication:Principles, Techniques and Strategies (1997); and founding director of the international MSc inCorporate Communication programme at Thames Valley University, London, UK.Liam Ó Móráin MSc is founder chairman of Moran Communication, Ireland with eighteenyears consultancy experience of communication and PR management.David Phillips chaired the UK PR industry Joint Internet Commission and is author of numerous papers including ‘Online Public Relations’ and ‘Managing Reputation in Cyberspace’. 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

940123222David Pickton lectures and researches at De Montfort University, UK and is co-author ofIntegrated Marketing Communication (2001).Stephen A. Roberts PhD lectures at Thames Valley University, London, UK and directs the MScInformation Management Programme.Martin Sims lectures at St Mary’s College, London, UK and is a former BBC journalist who editsIntermedia, the journal of the International Institute of Communication.Don Swanson PhD is Chair of the Communication Department at Monmouth University, USAand former President of the New Jersey Communication Association.Dennis Tourish PhD is Professor of Communication at Aberdeen Business School, Scotland withover 50 publications in communication management.Richard Varey PhD is a Marketing Professor at the Waikato Management School, New Zealand,who currently researches in managed communication for sustainable business.Reginald Watts PhD is a consultant and author of four books; formerly CEO of BursonMarstellar and President of the Institute of Public Relations, London, UK.Donald Wright PhD is President of the International Public Relations Association and anacademic at the University of South Alabama, USA. 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributors

940123222ForewordExcellent corporate communication lies at theheart of industry, commerce and governments’ abilities to build a democratic society,but this critical strategic role in organizationaltheory and practice rarely receives the duecommitment required for quality assurance inorganization life today.A previous handbook published in 19971assembled the cutting edge views and experiences of leading practitioners of the day withsome solid opinion pieces that have beenhelpful to a wide range of audiences andreaders including public relations practitioners, opinion formers, media managers, advertising executives and others. It was a source ofinformation and advice on a vast array oftopics brought together to represent the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary nature ofcorporate communication as a core businessdiscipline for senior executives in large multinational companies, small-to-medium sizeenterprises (SMEs) and not-for-profit organizations alike.Now in what philosophers like to call thepost-modern era, we see more clearly howthe new information technologies haverestructured the whole industry sector. Itsimpact leads us to challenge what John Miltoncalls ‘conventional economic thinking,redefining how business is done and impacting to varying degrees every worker in the 2004 Sandra Oliver for editorial matter and selection;individual chapters, the contributorsglobal market place . . . in a combination ofinterconnected phenomena embracing interalia, globalization, the transformative impactof technology on organizational life (indeedon the very nature of organizations), successful e-business models and the changing natureof working life’. The new economy, he argues,is ‘far too recent a phenomenon for any consensus to have emerged yet about what constitutes best practice’ but for corporatecommunicators and public relations consultants and practitioners worldwide, there is abelief that there is a set of best practices andthat adopting them leads to superior organizational performance and competitiveness.The concept of good practice has to beaddressed in accordance with contingencytheory. No single best practice is universallyapplicable to all organizations because of differences in strategy, culture, managementstyle, technology and markets. The challengefor operators is the inconsistency between thebelief in best practice and the notion of corporate communication as an intangible assetlimiting resource. It is crucial to match corporate strategy with corporate communicationpolicy and practice, but given that corporatecommunication is as the Institute of PublicRelations states the ears, eyes and voice of theorganization, the in-house practitioner hasa special responsibility for the overview of the

organization as a whole beyond that of thechief executive officer. He or she is requiredto advise, counsel, monitor and measureoperations in a reliable and consistent manner beyond the reductionist, functionalapproaches of corporate accounting or integrated marketing. Indeed he or she alsoaccepts the role of boundary spanner inmonitoring not just relations between organizations and their stakeholders but beyond tothe value-added implications of policies andpractices within a wider democratic society.In 1999, Purcell2 suggested that the conceptof best practice and best fit is limited by ‘theimpossibility of modelling all the contingentvariables, the difficulty of showing their interconnection and the way in which changes inone variable have impact on others’. Manymanagement consultants have taken up thisview and been less concerned with best practice and best fit to address more sensitiveprocesses of organization change so that theycan ‘avoid being trapped in the logic of rationalchoice’. So what we have tried to do with thisbook is to adopt the concept of bundlingwhereby the chapters are interrelated, complement and suppor

The Handbook of Corporate Communication and Public Relations is an essential one-stop refer-ence for all academics, practitioners and students seeking to understand organizational communication management and strategic public relations. Sandra M. Oliveris a corporate communication academic at Thames Valley University,