Monster Mash-Up Of Genetics - Science4Inquiry

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Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Monster Mash-Up ofGeneticsCreated by Lindsey Evans, Brian Glasby, and Judy McDonaldFocus on InquiryThe students will collect data about genetics of an individual monster and create a model demonstrating theprobability of traits in the offspring.Lesson Content OverviewStudents will participate in determining traits of a monster by throwing a die. Students will develop anunderstanding of how genetics play a role in determining the phenotype of an individual.DurationSettingGroupingPTI Inquiry Subskills45-60 minutesClassroomIndividual, Pairs1.1, 3.1, 3.7, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 5.2, 5.3,5.4, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 7.2, 7.3, Level ofStudentEngagementEngage5 min1.1, 5.2laptop,YouTube2Explore15 min3.1, 3.7,4.2, 4.3countdowntimer app3Explain10 min5.3, 5.4,7.2, 7.3,7.4none2Expand10 min4.4, 5.6,5.7, 5.8none2Evaluate5 min5.6, 5.9none1LessonComponentsBrief DescriptionBegin by showing video clip, recognizinggenetic information is passed from onegeneration to the next.Students collect data, creating a monsterthrough various trait stations based on randomassignment.Students answer questions based on theirmonster offspring.Using their data, students will determine theprobability of specific traits and predict whattheir offspring would look like.Students check their understanding as aformative assessment (ticket out the door).Level of Student Engagement1LowListen to lecture, observe the teacher, individual reading, teacher demonstration, teacher-centered instruction2ModerateRaise questions, lecture with discussion, record data, make predictions, technology interaction with assistance3HighHands-on activity or inquiry; critique others, draw conclusions, make connections, problem-solve, student-centeredNext Generation Science Standards – InquiryNGSS Practice 1: Asking questions and defining problemsNGSS Practice 2: Developing and Using ModelsNGSS Practice 3: Planning and Carrying Out InvestigationsNGSS Practice 4: Analyzing and Interpreting DataNGSS Practice 5: Using mathematics and computational thinkingNGSS Practice 6: Constructing explanationsNGSS Practice 7: Engaging in arguments from evidenceNGSS Practice 8: Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating InformationNext Generation Science Standards – Life ScienceMS-LS3-2 Variations of inherited traits between parent and offspring arise from genetic differences.Florida Science Standards – Nature of ScienceSC.7.N.3.2: Identify the benefits and limitations of the use of scientific model.Florida Science Standards – Life ScienceSC.7.L.16.2: Determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combination using Punnett squaresand pedigrees.Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 1

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Materials and Advance PreparationMaterials ListClass set: Minimum of two sets of dice per station Container of brown crayons at the fur/spikes station Container of red/yellow crayons for eye station One set of place markers (Blackline Masters #1a-f) for each of the 6 traits stations Classroom timer (recommend www.online-stopwatch.com/countdown-timer/)Student materials: Monster Pieces Templates (Blackline Master #2, as many as needed for students) Lab Sheet (Blackline Master #3, 2 pages in length, 1 copy per student) Reference Sheet of Each Station (Blackline Master #4, 1 copy per student) Check For Understanding (Blackline Master #5, 1 copy per student) Scissors, Glue Stick Crayons – red and yellow are needed for eyes; other colors are optionalBlackline Masters1. Place markers for each trait (Blackline Masters #1a-f)2. Drawings of the six traits “Monster Pieces Templates” (Blackline Master #2)3. Genetic Mash-Up Lab with Data Table (Blackline Master #3)4. Reference Sheet for Each Station (Blackline Master #4)5. Check for Understanding: Evaluation (Blackline Master #5)Advance Preparation1. Prepare labels to identify each station.2. Place dice and crayons at appropriate station for fur and eye color.3. Place glue, scissors and phenotype pieces (in envelopes labeled with type of phenotype) at appropriatestations.4. Run copies of Blackline Masters #2, #3, #4, #5 for each student.Lesson InformationLearning Objectives1. The students will be able to use the data collected in this lesson to correctly determine the probabilities forgenotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett squares.2. In partners, the students will be able to correctly state, based on their data, what their offspring would looklike based on their alleles.Prior Knowledge Needed by the Students General familiarity with probability and Punnett squares. General understanding with content-specificvocabulary; genotype, phenotype, dominant, recessive, heterozygous, homozygous.Background InformationGregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, is known as the father of genetics. After much success with his now famouspea plant experiment, Mendel found that traits are equally inherited by both parents, with a possibility of certaintraits skipping a generation. Traits can be expressed through alleles, various forms of a gene. Dominant allelesare more dominant, taking over the recessive alleles, which are more recessive. Dominant alleles can also maskor hide the recessive alleles in many circumstances, which explains Mendel’s conclusion of certain traits skippinga generation. An example of this is when two parents with brown eyes may produce a child with blue eyes. Thegenotype is the actual alleles of an organism’s particular trait (ex. FF), while the phenotype is the observed traitthat we see (brown hair).Background References for Further ReadingO’Neil, D. (1997-2013). Mendel’s Genetics. Obtained March 30, 2015,http://anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel 1.htmMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 2

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Lesson ProcedureEngage1. To introduce the lesson, watch a short video (pause at 1 min 43 sec) of genetics, introducing GregorMendel’s famous pea plant experiment and what a Punnett square looks like.(https://m.youtube.com/watch?v Mehz7tCxjSE) The video should be loaded ahead of time because theremay be advertisements. In addition please be on the lookout for “pop up” ads while the video is playing.The entire video clip of how the Punnett square works is 3:06 of how the Punnett square works.However, it will be used as a previewing strategy and will not be shown in its entirety until later in thelesson (Between the Explain and Expand would be a good time).Some questions you might ask students include: Why do you think in the video we had to go back in time to understand genetics?- Sample answers: We had to go back in time because: genetics was discovered back then, youget your genes from your grandparents, or various answers using evidence from the video clip. What is another name for “factors”?- Sample answers: characteristics, genes, traits What is an example from the video of a phenotype?- Sample answers: yellow, green, round, wrinkled What is an example from the video of a genotype?- Sample answers: YY, yy, Yy How can you compare and contrast phenotype and genotype?- Sample answers: phenotype is what is looks like or what you see, physical traits etc genotypewould be the genetics, genes or letters used to representExplore1. Go over the directions at the top of the lab sheet (Blackline Master #3). Model how to roll the die andhow to record the data on the lab sheet. Discuss what to do when rolling a number, matching it to eachstation guide. Emphasize to students that the die should stay on the top of the desks and off the floor.2. Assign students to their starting stations. Make sure students push in their chairs and stow theirbackpacks so that tripping hazards are minimized. Allow data collection to take about 15 minutes (put acountdown timer on the board). Circulate around the room to make sure that students are properlyrecording their data.Explain1. Give the students 5 minutes (reset countdown timer) to answer the questions on their lab sheet.(Blackline Master #3)2. Once the 5 minutes are up, then go over those questions together and answer them aloud as a class. Why do you think there are two letters for each trait?- Sample answers: one from each parent Why are some letters capitalized and some are lower case?- Sample answers: one is for dominant traits, the other represents recessive What are some similar and different phenotypes between your monster and your labpartner’s monster?- Sample answer: various answers showing similarities/differences such as: same size nose ordifferent eye color Explain why you think that your monster and your lab partner’s monster are different?- Sample answers: they could have different parents, rolled different numbers or differentgenes3. Some questions you might ask students include: Give a possible reason why some stations had 2 different phenotypes and another had 3phenotypes. (Teacher can introduce co-dominance for advanced classes) Describe the relationship between genotype and phenotype. What does rolling the dice simulate?Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 3

Evans, Glasby, McDonald Printed on 2/10/2016Give examples of human phenotypes?If you were to do this same activity again, do you think you would get the same monster?Can you summarize the monster activity and explain how it relates to Mendel’s pea plants?Expand1. Working with another student, use your data to complete six Punnett squares to determine what theprobability of the offspring would look like.a. After your monster falls in love with your lab partner’s monster they have a little monster baby.Complete the following six Punnett Squares to determine what the probability of the offspringwould look like.b. Students will share their genotypes to complete the Punnett squares, have them use thereference sheet (Blackline Master #4) if they need help identifying their genotypes.2. If time allows you can have the students draw a picture of what their offspring might possibly look like.EvaluateFORMAL EVALUTION1. Have students individually complete: Checking for Understanding Handout (Ticket out the Door: 4questions) (Blackline Master #5)Answer Key: 1. 50% 2. D 3. C 4. B2. Grade lab sheet.INFORMAL or OPTIONAL EVALUTIONS1. Students create a picture of their offspring based on Punnett Square data.2. Check lab sheets during the lab to assess student ability to correctly and accurately collect data.WRAP UP1. Bring the lesson to a conclusion by completing the TED movie that we used for engaging students. Thevideo should be loaded ahead of time because there may be advertisements. In addition please be onthe lookout for “pop up” ads while the video is playing.2. Another option would be to have students exchange their Check For Understanding Handout and correctthe answers together. If the partner got a question wrong, the other partner would coach of the correctanswers.Supplementary ResourcesTeachersGenetics. Retrieved from www.nclark.net/GeneticsActivities, labs, and links associated with the realm of genetics.StudentsThe Tech, Museum of Innovation. Retrieved from http://genetics.thetech.org/online-exhibitsFun, interactive games for students to practice and deepen knowledge.CITATION OF SOURCES.Widow’s Peak Picture. Retrieved fromhttp://mdk12.org/assessments/high school/look like/2007/biology/guide/g32.html on May 13, 2015.ü Yes, I cited all materials and resources used in this lesson.Lindsey EvansBrian GlasbyJudy McDonaldLessonauthorsignatureMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 4

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Blackline Master #1aMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 5

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Blackline Master #1bMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 6

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Blackline Master #1cMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 7

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Blackline Master #1dMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 8

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Blackline Master #1eMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 9

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Blackline Master #1fMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 10

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldMonsterPiecesTemplatesMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 11Left Hand ClawsBlackline Master #2Printed on 2/10/2016

Printed on 2/10/2016Right Hand ClawsEvans, Glasby, McDonaldMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 12

Printed on 2/10/2016Left Foot ClawsEvans, Glasby, McDonaldMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 13

Printed on 2/10/2016Right Foot ClawsEvans, Glasby, McDonaldMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 14

Printed on 2/10/2016Left Arm SpikesEvans, Glasby, McDonaldMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 15

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Right Arm SpikesMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 16

Printed on 2/10/2016Fur (Head)Evans, Glasby, McDonaldMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 17

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldLeft Arm FurPrinted on 2/10/2016Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 18

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldRight Arm FurPrinted on 2/10/2016Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 19

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 20Eyeballs

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 21Big and Small Noses

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016HornsMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 22

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 23Mouths

Printed on 2/10/2016Monster BodyEvans, Glasby, McDonaldMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 24

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016StudentName:Blackline Master #3Monster Mash Up: Exploring GeneticsInstructions: You are a scientist who is creating a monster—the first of its kind. Each of the 6 stationsmust be visited in order to have a completed monster. Step 1: To determine the probability of a monster receiving a specific combination of genotypesor phenotypes, you begin at one station, roll the dice and record the physical trait and thegenetic letter code that you rolled. Step 2: Select the pre-cut phenotype that matches the number you rolled and attach it to yourmonster. Continue on to the next station, until all 6 stations have been visited and you have theentire data table filled in and your monster has all 6 traits and is complete.Data Table for Monster TraitsGenotype:genetic representation (letters)Phenotype:physical characteristic (appearance)Eyes: red or yellowNose: large or smallMouth: 1 or 2Hands: claws or no clawsBody Type: spikes or furHead: horns or no hornsMonster Analysis: thinking about your results.1. Why do you think there are 2 letters for each trait?2. Why are some letters capitalized and some are lower case?3. What are some similar and different phenotypes between your monster and your lab partner’smonster?4. Explain why you think that your monster and your lab partner’s monster are different?Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 25

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Blackline Master #3Directions: After your monster falls in love with your lab partner’s monster they have a little monsterbaby. Complete the following six Punnett squares to determine what the probability of the offspringwould look like.Punnett Square 1: EYES (yellow/red)Punnett Square 2: NOSE (large/small)Offspring with red eyes:Offspring with yellow eyes:%%Punnett Square 3: MOUTH (1 or 2)Offspring with a large nose:Offspring with a small nose:%%Punnett Square 4: HANDS (claws or no claws)Offspring with one mouth: %Offspring with two mouths: %Punnett Square 5: BODY TYPE (spikes/fur)Offspring with claws: %Offspring with no claws: %Punnett Square 6: HEAD (horns or no horns)Offspring with spikes: %Offspring with fur: %Offspring with horns: %Offspring with no horns: %Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 26

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on nster. thepre- acteristic(appearance)RedSmallOneClawsFurHorns5. genes.6. morcouldbemaskedbyadominanttrait.7. andnohorns.8. s.Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 27

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on yellow/red)EEEEEEEEOffspringwithredeyes:100 %Offspringwithyelloweyes:0 honemouth:100 %Offspringwithtwomouths:0 ingwithspikes:50 %Offspringwithfur:50 withalargenose:100 %Offspringwithasmallnose:0 ringwithclaws:75 %Offspringwithnoclaws:25 %PunnettSquare6:HEAD(hornsornohorns)Monster Mash-Up of GeneticsHHHhHhhhOffspringwithhorns:75 %Offspringwithnohorns:25 %page 28

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldBlackline Master#4Printed on 2/10/2016Reference Sheet for Each StationMonster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 29

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Blackline Master #5Check For Understanding: Monster Mash-Up of GeneticsName:Date: PD:1. Brian’s mother is heterozygous (Ww) for the widow’s peak hairline trait. His father ishomozygous recessive (ww) and has a straight hairline? What is the probability that Brian hasthe widow’s peak trait? You may create a Punnett square to help you determine the probability.(SC.7.L.16.2)%2. The allele for brown eyes is dominant over the allele for blue eyes. A couple has three browneyed children. The parents are heterozygous for brown-eyes (Bb). They believe the fourth childthey have will be blue-eyed. Which statement below explains what will happen? (SC.7.L.16.2)A) The couple will have a blue-eyed fourth child.B) The couple will have a brown-eyed fourth child.C) The couple has a 75 percent chance of having a blue-eyed child.D) The couple has a 25 percent chance of having a blue-eyed child.3. A blue-eyed mother (bb) and a brown-eyed father (BB) have four children. What will thephenotype of their children be? (SC.7.L.16.2)A) BbB) bbC) brown-eyedD) blue-eyed4. A Punnett square is a model of genetic probability. Why is a Punnett square considered amodel? (SC.7.N.3.2)A) It shows you exactly what your offspring will look like.B) It is a representation of what genetically could happen.C) It is a perfect example of genetics.D) It is a smaller version of genes and genetic crosses.Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 30

Evans, Glasby, McDonaldPrinted on 2/10/2016Check For Understanding: Monster Mash-Up of GeneticsANSWER KEY1. Brian’s mother is heterozygous (Ww) for the widow’s peak hairline trait. His father ishomozygous recessive (ww) and has a straight hairline? What is the probability that Brian hasthe widow’s peak trait? You may create a Punnett square to help you determine the probability.(SC.7.L.16.2)50%2. The allele for brown eyes is dominant over the allele for blue eyes. A couple has three browneyed children. The parents are heterozygous for brown-eyes (Bb). They believe the fourth childthey have will be blue-eyed. Which statement below explains what will happen? (SC.7.L.16.2)A) The couple will have a blue-eyed fourth child.B) The couple will have a brown-eyed fourth child.C) The couple has a 75 percent chance of having a blue-eyed child.D) The couple has a 25 percent chance of having a blue-eyed child.3. A blue-eyed mother (bb) and a brown-eyed father (BB) have four children. What will thephenotype of their children be? (SC.7.L.16.2)A) BbB) bbC) brown-eyedD) blue-eyed4. A Punnett square is a model of genetic probability. Why is a Punnett square considered amodel? (SC.7.N.3.2)A) It shows you exactly what your offspring will look like.B) It is a representation of what genetically could happen.C) It is a perfect example of genetics.D) It is a smaller version of genes and genetic crosses.Monster Mash-Up of Geneticspage 31

Place dice and crayons at appropriate station for fur and eye color. 3. Place glue, scissors and phenotype pieces (in envelopes labeled with type of phenotype) at appropriate . The entire video clip of how the Punnett square works is 3:06 of how the Punnett square works.