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The Language GymMemory research and its implicationsfor language teaching and learningA cognitive-theory basedaccount of memory and learning

The Language Gym

The Language Gym

The Language GymCognitive empathyEmotional empathy

The Language GymPET scan of brain: language processing areas

The Language GymThe most crucial skill setAdler, R., Rosenfeld, L. and Proctor, R. (2001)

The Language GymListening the ‘Cinderella skill’Listening is the skill L2 teachers understand the least; usually have fewer resources for; feel the least confident teaching; neglect the most.

The Language GymListening: the challenges Aural comprehension requires to juggle simultaneouslyseveral cognitive demands (parallel processing); The time window available to comprehend eachutterance is ridiculously small : 2 SECONDS !!!; Listeners are just 1 syllable (0.25 second) behind thespeaker; Any incoming speech signal erases the previous one. Words in isolation sound different in connected speech

The Language Gym

The Language GymThe architecture of memory (Baddeley, 2008)

The Language Gym

The Language GymAnd now a little experiment If I say one you will say one If I say two you will say one, two If I say three you will say one, two, three, If I say four you will say one, two, three,four, etc.

The Language Gym

The Language Gym

The Language GymUnderstanding listening Discourse construction (relating current utterancemeaning to previous and ensuing discourse) Meaning building (understanding current utterance) Parsing skills (recognizing patterns) Lexical Search (retrieving lexica items from LTM)Segmenting phase (identifying word boundaries) Syllable processing (identifying syllables) Phonological processing (identifying sounds)

The Language GymThe 3R technique the 3R technique a self-controlled method of learning theMcDaniel, Howard, and Einstein (2009) create but shortening anolder technique (Robinson, 1941). The 3R technique involve reading the text reciting aloud all information that can remembered withoutlooking the text, and then rereading the text (i.e., read-recite-review—hence 3R name) The 3R technique incorporate : retrieval practice (the recite partthe technique) and processing feedback (obtained when the textreviewed)

The Language GymMeaning vs FormNo longe for de Pekino estas la ĉina muro. La ĉina muroestis farita antaû ĉirkaû 1800 (mil okcent) jaroj. La ĉinojfaris ĝin por protekti sin kontraû militemaj mongoloj. Miaûdis, ke la ĉina muro estas la sola hom-farita afer, kiuvideblas de la luno. Morgaû mi vojaĝos al la luno kajkontrolos tion 1. How far is the Great Wall from Beijing?2. When was it built?3. Why did they build it?4. Where can this structure be seen from?5. What is the author hoping to do one day?

The Language Gym

The Language GymSpeaking: the oral production processIdea generation: proposition is generatedLexical retrieval: proposition is wordedPattern application: words are arranged in a sentenceArticulation: sentence is uttered

The Language GymPerformance errors Now you should have a better understanding of why yourstudents make mistakes due to cognitive overload We call such mistakes ‘processing inefficiency errors’,caused by the WM’s inability to juggle all the demands oflanguage processing Take the sentence ‘I love my mother because she isaffectionate and understanding’ Easy to see why a student of Italian, Spanish or Frenchmay fail to make the two adjectives agree in gender withthe noun ‘mother’.

The Language GymDoes CF work ? Research evidence is mixed Take Chandler (2003)’s findings: she calculated that teachers’ marking timeamounts on average to around 1 minute per 100 words, the time being slightlyless ( around 48”) if one simply underlines errors. Then consider that correction of whole texts can achieve significant results (i.e. 10% reductionin error rate) provided the students write in the region of 5,000 words asemester on first drafts. many types of error are resistant to eradication (Alroe,2011). In other words, improvements accompany large amounts of writing andconsequently large amounts of correction. Now do the maths: is this modest benefit worth the effort?

The Language GymHuman rate of forgetting

The Language GymPrimacy of LT over ST planningElapsed time since learning (%)Immediately10020 minutes581 hour449 hours361 day332 days286 days2531 days21 Major memory loss within thefirst 20 minutes from firstprocessing the word Second major memory losswithin the first 9 hours Within 31 days withoutrehearsal of target item 79 % islost Primacy of long-term planningover short-term planning Too much zooming in too littlezooming out

The Language GymSpaced practice

The Language GymTransfer Appropriate Processing

The Language GymSpaced practice Interleaving

The Language GymLess is more : mastery over coverage

The Language GymA principled framework

The Language GymLists of useful Modern Languages blogs

The Language GymSteve Smith’s MFL blog Résumés d’articlesdans un langagesimple et accessible Pédagogie Des milliers de petitesastuces pourenseigner Exemples de leçons

The Language GymLists of useful ESL/EFL blogsTop 50 EFL blogs : blogs/

The Language GymScott Thornbury’s blog

The Language GymScott Thornbury’s blog

The Language

The Language GymTwitter (e.g. #mfltwitterati)

The Language GymWho to follow on Twitter #mfltwitterati GILT FB #langchat #fslchat @spsmith45 @gianfrancocont9 @MissMeyMFL Dan MacPherson1 (Chartered College of teaching) @teacherhelpmate (Deakin University)

The Language Gym

The Language GymSpecialist ML Facebook groups Secondary MFL matters MFL Resources and Ideas MFL teachers’ lounge Primary Languages Teachers New GCSE MFL iFLT /NTPRS / CI teaching Teaching English British Council

The Language GymGlobal Innovative Language Teachers

The Language Gym Scott Thornbury [sblog. The Language Gym Scott Thornbury [sblog. The Language Gym The Language Gym Twitter (e.g. #mfltwitterati) The Language Gym Who to follow on Twitter #mfltwitterati GILT_FB #langchat #fslchat @spsmith45