Stormwater Drainage Design For Parking Lots

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PDH Course C201 (4 PDH)Stormwater Drainage Design for Parking LotsJohn C. Huang, Ph.D., PE, LEED AP2020PDH Online PDH Center5272 Meadow Estates DriveFairfax, VA 22030-6658Phone: 703-988-0088www.PDHonline.comwww.PDHcenter.orgAn Approved Continuing Education Provider

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comStormwater Drainage Design for Parking LotsACE Group, LLCCourse OutlineParking lots can be seen almost everywhere, from shopping centers to office buildings toschools. Stormwater drainage design is an integral component in the design of parking lots.This course covers the basics of designing an adequate storm drainage system for a parkinglot. Methods are presented for evaluating rainfall and runoff magnitude, pavement drainage,gutter flow, and drainage inlets. Concepts for the design of detention/retention facilities arealso discussed. Several examples are presented to illustrate the detailed procedures fordesigning storm drainage system of a parking lot. The basic principles discussed in thiscourse can be applied not only to parking lots, but to parking decks, paved streets, andhighways as well. This course includes a multiple-choice quiz at the end, which is designedto enhance the understanding of course materials.Learning ObjectiveAt the conclusion of this course, the studentwill be able to: Understand the basic principles of stormdrainage design;Perform simple storm runoff analysis forparking lots;Select appropriate types of inlets;Position inlets at proper locations;Understand the concept of stormwaterdetention/retention; andUtilize the rainfall data published by thefederal, state and local governments.Course IntroductionA Parking Lot next to Office BuildingsIn addition to providing safe and efficient ingress and egress for vehicles, anengineer/architect should design parking lots in a way to prevent flooding and erosiondamage to surrounding landscaping. This course provides basic guidance for the stormdrainage design of paved or unpaved parking lots, and is intended for engineers andarchitects who are not very familiar with the subject.Stormwater conveyance system includes storm drain piping, ditches and channels, pumps,and etc., and is beyond the scope of this course. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 2 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comCourse ContentThe stormwater drainage design for a parking lot includes data collection, regulatoryconsiderations, preliminary concept development, concept refinement and design, and finaldesign documentation. The surface drainage of a parking lot is a function of transverse andlongitudinal pavement slopes, pavement roughness, inlet spacing, and inlet capacity. Thecontent for this course includes the following Regulatory ConsiderationsDrainage TerminologiesStormwater Drainage SystemSurface DrainageDesign FrequencyRainfall IntensitySheet FlowGutter FlowPeak RunoffTime of ConcentrationRunoff CoefficientFlow Depth and SpreadDrainage InletsInlet LocationsStormwater Detention/RetentionDesign ExamplesOther ConsiderationsA Parking Lot with Curb-Opening Inlets1. Regulatory ConsiderationsThe stormwater drainage design for parking lots must meet federal, state, and localregulatory requirements. Typical regulatory authorities include the US Army Corps ofEngineers, the US Environmental Protection Agency, State Departments of EnvironmentalRegulation, and local governments.Typical regulatory considerations at local levels include erosion control, best managementpractices, and stormwater detention. Many urban cities and county governments havedeveloped erosion control and stormwater management manuals that provide guidance formeeting local requirements, and have implemented Best Management Practices (BMP)pertaining to the design, construction, and maintenance of stormwater managementfacilities. The primary objectives of the regulations are to minimize the impact ofstormwater runoff rates and volumes, to prevent erosion, and to capture pollutants.A detailed discussion of federal, state and local regulations related to drainage design isbeyond the scope of this course. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 3 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.com2. Drainage TerminologiesStorm water drainage design includes several technical aspects, fromstatistics to hydrology. In order to better understand the technical andregulatory aspects of storm drainage design, an engineer must be familiarwith the relevant acronyms and glossary. Some of the terms listed belowmay not be used in this course. However, they are often encountered in thearticles and discussions related to storm drainage design.ACRONYMSASCE – American Society of Civil EngineersBMP - Best Management PracticesDOT - Department of TransportationEPA - Environmental Protection AgencyFHWA – Federal Highway AdministrationIDF - Intensity-Duration-FrequencyNOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNRCS - Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly SCS under USDA)NWS - National Weather Service (an agency under NOAA)SCS - Soil Conservation Service (an agency under USDA)USACE - United States Army Corps of EngineersUSDA - United States Department of AgricultureGLOSSARYBest Management Practices (BMP) – Policies, procedures, practices and criteria pertaining tothe design, construction, and maintenance for stormwater facilities that minimize the impactof stormwater runoff rates and volumes, prevent erosion, and capture pollutants. BestManagement Practices are categorized as structural or non-structural. A BMP policy mayaffect the limits on a development.Catch Basin – A subsurface drainage structure with a grate on top to collect and conveysurface runoff into the storm sewer system, usually built at the curb line of a street orparking lot. It is designed so that sediment falls to the bottom of the catch basin and notdirectly into the storm sewer.Channel - A portion of a natural or man-made watercourse with a defined bed and banks.Conveyance - A mechanism for transporting water from one point to another, includingpipes, ditches, channels, culverts, gutters, manholes, weirs, man-made and naturalchannels, water quality filtration systems, dry wells, etc.Conveyance System - The drainage facilities which collect, contain, and provide for the flowof surface and stormwater from points on the land down to a receiving water.Design Storm - A selected storm event for the design of drainage or flood control in terms ofthe probability of occurring once within a given number of years.Detention - Temporary holding of stormwater runoff to control peak discharge rates and toprovide gravity settling of pollutants.Detention Facility – A facility, such as a man-made pond, that temporarily storesstormwater runoff before discharging into a creek, lake or river.Discharge - The rate of water flow in terms of cubic feet per second or millions of gallons 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 4 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comper day.Ditch - A long narrow trench dug in the ground for the purpose of irrigation or drainage.Drain - A slotted or perforated pipe buried in the ground (subsurface drain) or a ditch (opendrain) for carrying off surplus groundwater or surface water.Drainage - The removal of excess surface water or groundwater from land by means ofgutters, ditches or subsurface drains.Drainage Area - The watershed runoff area or surface runoff area in the case of a parkinglot.Drainage Inlets - The receptors for surface water collected in ditches and gutters to enterthe storm drainage system. The openings to drainage inlets are typically covered by a grateor any other perforated surface to protect pedestrians.Drainage Structure – A generic term which can be used to describe any of the followingstructures: a manhole, catch basin or drain inlet.Drainage System - The combination of collection, conveyance, retention, detention,treatment of water on a project.Duration - The time period of a rainfall event.Erosion - The wearing away of the earth's surface by water, wind, ice, or other naturalforces.Flow Regime - The prevailing pattern of water flow over a given amount of time.Gauge - A device for measuring precipitation, water level, pressure, temperature, etc.Grate Inlet - Parallel and/or transverse bars arranged to form an inlet structure.Gutter - A channel at the edge of a street or parking lot for carrying off surface runoff.Parking lots are typically curbed in urban settings. Curbs are typically installed incombination with gutters where runoff from the pavement surface would erode fill slopes.Gutter Flow - Water which enters a gutter as sheet flow from the paved surface or asoverland flow from adjacent land area until reaching some outlet.Hydrograph - A plot of flow versus time.Hydrologic Cycle - The cycle of evaporation and condensation that controls the distributionof the earth's water through various stages or processes, such as precipitation, runoff,infiltration, transpiration, and evaporation.Hydrology - The scientific study of the properties, distribution, and effects of water on theearth's surface, underground, and atmosphere.Impervious - Incapable of being penetrated or infiltrated.Invert - The inside bottom of a culvert or other conduit. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 5 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comLongitudinal Slope - The rate of elevation change with respect to distance in the direction oftravel or flow.Manhole – A generic term referring to a subsurface structure for almost any utility.Mean Velocity – The average velocity of a stream flowing in a channel or conduit at a givencross section.Natural Drainage - The flow patterns of stormwater runoff over the land prior todevelopment.Open Channel - A natural or man-made structure that conveys water with the top surface incontact with the atmosphere.Open Channel Flow - Gravitational flow in an open conduit or channel.Open Drain - A natural watercourse or constructed open channel that conveys drainagewater.Orifice Flow – The flow of water controlled by pressure into an opening that is submerged.Overland Flow – A combination of sheet flow, shallow concentrated flow, and/or openchannel flow.Rainfall Intensity - The rate of rainfall at any given time, usually expressed in inches perhour.Rational Formula - A simple technique for estimating peak discharge rates for very smalldevelopments based on rainfall intensity, watershed time of concentration, and a runoffcoefficient (Q CIA).Rational Method - A method of calculating storm peak discharge rates (Q) by use of theRational Formula Q CIA.Retention - The temporary or permanent storage of stormwater.Retention Facility – A facility designed to capture a specified amount of stormwater runofffrom the watershed and use infiltration, evaporation, and emergency bypass to releasewater from the facility.Return Period - A statistical term for the average time of expected interval that an event ofsome kind will equal or exceed given conditions (e.g., a storm water flow that occurs onceevery 10 years). Return period is also referred as design frequency or storm frequency.Runoff - The excess portion of precipitation that does not infiltrate into the ground orevaporate into the air, but "runs off" on the land surface, in open channels, or in stormwaterconveyance systems.Sheet Flow – Water flow over the ground surface as a thin, even layer, not concentrated ina channel.Slotted Inlets - A section of pipe cut along the longitudinal axis with transverse bars spacedto form slots. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 6 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comSlope - Degree of deviation of a surface from the horizontal, measured as a numerical ratioor percent.Steady Flow - Flow that remains constant with respect to time.Stochastic Methods - Frequency analysis used to evaluate peak flows where adequategauged stream flow data exist.Storm Drain - A particular storm drainage system component that receives runoff frominlets and conveys the runoff to some point. Storm drains are closed conduits or openchannels connecting two or more inlets. Also referred as a storm sewer.Storm Drainage System – A system which collects, conveys, and discharges stormwaterrunoff.Storm Event - An estimate of the expected amount of precipitation within a given period oftime.Storm Frequency - The time interval between major storms of predetermined intensity andvolumes of runoff – for instance, a 5-year, 10-year or 20-year storm. Also referred asdesign frequency or return period.Storm Sewer - A sewer that carries stormwater, surface drainage, street wash, and otherwash waters but excludes sewage and industrial wastes. Also referred as a storm drain.Surface Runoff - Precipitation that flows onto the surfaces of roofs, streets, parking lots, theground and etc., and is not absorbed or retained by that surface but collects and runs off.Time of Concentration - The time for a raindrop to travel from the hydraulically most distantpoint in the watershed to a point of interest. This time is calculated by summing theindividual travel times for consecutive components (e.g., gutters, storm sewers or drainagechannels) of the drainage system.Uniform Flow - A state of steady flow when the mean velocity and cross-sectional arearemain constant in all sections of a reach.Unit Hydrograph - The direct runoff hydrograph produced by a storm of given duration suchthat the volume of excess rainfall and direct runoff is 1 cm.Watercourse - Any river, stream, creek, brook, branch, natural or man-made drainagewayinto which stormwater runoff or floodwaters flow either continuously or intermittently.Watershed - The region drained by or contributing water to a specific point that could bealong a stream, lake or other stormwater facilities.Weir - A channel-spanning structure for measuring or regulating the flow of water.Weir Flow - Flow over a horizontal obstruction controlled by gravity. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 7 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.com3. Stormwater Drainage SystemsStormwater drainage systems can be classified into major systems and minor systems. Amajor system provides overland relief for stormwater flows exceeding the capacity of theminor system, and is generally not conveyed by storm sewers per se, but rather over theland surface in roadways and in natural or man-made receiving channels such as streams,creeks, rivers, lakes, or wetlands.A minor system consists of the components ofthe storm drainage system that are normallydesigned to carry runoff from the more frequentstorm events. These components include:curbs, gutters, ditches, inlets, manholes, pipesand other conduits, open channels, pumps,detention/retention ponds, water quality controlfacilities, etc.The primary drainage function of parking lots isto convey minor storms quickly and efficientlyto the storm sewer or open channel drainagewith minimal impact on the vehicle/ pedestriantraffic and the surrounding environment. Inaddition, removing water quickly from pavedsurfaces will prevent water from reaching thesubgrade, minimize cracks due to the weakenedsubgrade, and prolong the life of the pavementin a parking lot.Parking lot drainage requires consideration ofsurface drainage, gutter flow, inlet capacity,and inlet locations. The design of theseelements is dependent on storm frequency andrainfall intensity.A Parking Lot with Grate Inlets4. Surface DrainageWhen rain falls on a sloped pavement surface, part of it infiltrates into the ground, part of itevaporates into the air, and the remainder runs off from the high point to the low point as aresult of gravity. The runoff water forms sheet flow - a thin film of water that increases inthickness as it flows to the edge of the pavement. Factors which influence the depth ofwater on the pavement are the length of flow path, surface texture, surface slope, andrainfall intensity.Surface drainage for a parking lot consists of slopes, gutters and inlets. Desirable guttergrades should not be less than 0.5 percent (0.005 ft/ft) for curbed pavements with anabsolute minimum of 0.3 percent.Water is probably the greatest cause of distress in a paved structure. The efficient removalof a storm runoff from paved surfaces has a positive effect on parking lot maintenance andrepair. A minimum slope of 0.4 percent (0.004 ft/ft) shall be used for the paved surfaces.Parking lots with grades flatter than 0.4 percent are subject to ponding and are candidatesfor installing underground storm sewers. To achieve adequate drainage, a slope between1% and 5% is recommended for paved surfaces in a parking lot. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 8 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.com5. Design FrequencyDesign frequency is also called storm frequency or return period, which is a selected stormevent frequency for the design of drainage or flood control in terms of the probability ofoccurring once within a given number of years. For example, a 10-year frequency, 24-hourduration storm event is a storm that has a 10% probability of occurring in any one year.The amount of precipitation is measured over a 24-hour period. If the design is for a 2-yearstorm event, there is a 50% probability that this design will be exceeded in any given oneyear.Local governments normally specify the design criteria such as design frequency (returnperiod) for the collection and conveyance of runoff water on different types ofdevelopments. A listing of typical design storm return period is presented in Table 1 below.Table 1. Typical Return Periods for Stormwater Drainage Design (ASCE, 1992)Drainage TypeLand UseResidential areaMinor drainage systemsReturn Period(year)2–5High-value general commercial area2 – 10Airports (terminals, roads, aprons)2 – 10High-value downtown business area5 – 10Major drainage system elementsup to 100A minimal design storm frequency for a parking lot is a 2-year event.A Parking Lot with Grate Inlets 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 9 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.com6. Rainfall IntensityRainfall intensity represents the rate of rainfall at any given instant, usually expressed ininches per hour. Rainfall data in the United State have been collected and published by thefederal, state and local governments. The National Weather Service (NWS) under theNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is the primary source of weatherdata, forecasts and warnings for the United States.The Office of Hydrology (HYDRO) of NWS has published a series of technicalmemoranda to facilitate the dissemination of scientific and technicalmaterials related to river and water supply forecasts, including the rainfalldata. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO-35, published in 1977,contains precipitation-frequency values for durations of 5-, 15-, and 60minutes at return periods of 2 and 100 years for 37 states from NorthDakota to Texas and eastward (see Figure 1 below for sample precipitation map). You mayfind NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO-35 at the end of this handout. Forthe 11 western states, rainfall data is available in the NOAA Atlas 2, published in 1973.Washington, DCFigure 1. 2-Year, 5-Minute Precipitation (inches) – Adjusted to Partial-Duration Series(Source: NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO-35) 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 10 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comIn the last two decades, the Hydrometeorological Design Studies Center (HDSC) within theOffice of Water Prediction (OWP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s(NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) has been updating precipitation frequencyestimates for various parts of the United States and affiliated territories. Updatedprecipitation frequency estimates, accompanied by additional relevant information, arepublished as NOAA Atlas 14 and are available for download from the PrecipitationFrequency Data Server (PFDS).NOAA Atlas 14 (Precipitation-Frequency Atlas of the United States) is a NationalWeather Service study of historical rainfall. The historical record for the previous rainfallstudy ended in 1994. Atlas 14 extends the rainfall data through 2017, and can be accessedthrough Precipitation Frequency Data Server (PFDS) is a point-and-click interface developed todeliver NOAA Atlas 14 precipitation frequency estimates and associated information. Uponclicking a state on the map above or selecting a state name from the drop-down menu, aninteractive map of that state will be displayed. From there, a user can identify a location forwhich precipitation frequency estimates are needed. See screen captures below forWashington, DC. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 11 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comEstimates and their confidence intervals can be displayed directly as tables or graphs viaseparate tabs. Links to supplementary information (such as ASCII grids of estimates,associated temporal distributions of heavy rainfall, time series data at observation sites,cartographic maps, etc.) can also be found. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 12 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comThe followings are the tabulated and graphical rainfall intensity data for Washington, Districtof Columbia. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 13 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comNOAA Atlas 14, Volume 2, Version 3Location name: Washington, District of Columbia,USA*Latitude: 38.9 , Longitude: -77.05 Elevation: 56.52 ft*** source: ESRI Maps** source: USGSPOINT PRECIPITATION FREQUENCY ESTIMATESG.M. Bonnin, D. Martin, B. Lin, T. Parzybok, M.Yekta, and D. RileyNOAA, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, MarylandPF tabular PF graphical Maps & aerials 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 14 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comBased on the data provided by NOAA's Precipitation Frequency Data Server (PFDS) in thescreen captures above, the amount of rainfall in 60 minutes for the DC area is 3.19 inchesfor a 100-year storm event (1% of probability of Occurrence in any given year). Thisestimate is very close to what is shown in Figure 5 of NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSHYDRO-35.To get the total amount of rainfall in 24 hours for the DC area for a 100-year storm event,we need to multiple the precipitation intensity from the table (0.347 in./hr.) by 24 hours,which results in a total of 8.33 inches in 24 hours.The NDSC website also provides access to NOAA Atlas 14 cartographic maps of precipitationfrequency estimates in the PDF format for selected average recurrence intervals (ARIs) anddurations (shown in the table below). They recommend that these maps are used as visualaids only. Precipitation frequency estimates can be obtained from the high resolution gridsavailable from the PFDS interface.NOAA Atlas 14 Cartographic Maps of Precipitation FrequencyEstimates for Selected Frequencies and DurationsUsing the data and maps provided by NOAA Atlas 14, engineers will be able to predict futurerainfall intensity based on historical rainfall data and to better manage the flood risk for thepublic. 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 15 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comMany state and local governments have compiled rainfall dataaccording to their local conditions. Regional Intensity-DurationFrequency (IDF) curves have been developed for manyjurisdictions throughout the United States through frequencyanalysis of rainfall events from thousands of rainfall gauges. IDFcurves are available in most highway agency drainage manuals orin local storm water management manuals (see Figure 2 belowfor sample IDF curve). If the local rainfall data are not available,a designer may utilize the rainfall data published by the USgovernments.For storm drainage design of parking lots, rainfall intensities forshort durations (60-minutes or less) are of primary interest tothe designer.VDOT Drainage ManualFigure 2 - Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Curve for Richmond, Virginia(Source: VDOT Drainage Manual) 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 16 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.comIDF curves may be presented in different formats(see Figure 3 to the right for another type of IDFcurve). The rainfall intensity for a 2-year, 20minute duration storm event is approximately 3.5and 4.0 inches per hour based on Figures 2 and 3,respectively.When the duration is less than 5 minutes, it isgenerally acceptable to use the rainfall intensityequal to a 5-minute event for the purpose ofcalculating peak runoff.Equations for these IDF curves are often availablein the design manuals and can be utilized in thecomputerized calculation of peak runoff.Figure 3 - Sample IDF CurveSource: FHWA HEC-227. Sheet FlowSheet flow is the water flow over the ground surface as a thin, even layer. It usually occursin the upper reaches of a drainage area. Surface runoff in a parking lot before it reaches agutter is an example of sheet flow.8. Gutter FlowGutter flow is the water which enters a gutter as sheet flow from the paved surface or asoverland flow from adjacent land area. Gutter flow is sometimes called curb flow if a curbexists along the edge of a street or parking lot.Concrete Curb/Gutter in a Parking Lot 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 17 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.com9. Peak RunoffPeak runoff for a parking lot issurface runoff. Storm drainagegravity. There are severalhydrologic calculations used inrates and runoff volumes:the maximum water flow as a result ofsystems for parking lots usually rely onacceptable methods for performingdetermination of peak stormwater flow1) The stochastic methods or frequency analysis;2) The Soil Conservation Service (SCS, now known as NRCS) Unit Hydrography Method;3) The Rational Method.Stochastic methods are not commonly used in urban drainage design due to the lack ofadequate streamflow data. The NRCS Unit Hydrograph Method is normally used for siteswith contributing drainage area greater than 10 acres. Among the three methods listedabove, the Rational Method is most often used in determination of the peak flow from anurbanized area, such as a parking lot. The equation used in the Rational Method is called theRational Formula, which can be expressed in English units as follows:Q Cf CIAEq. (1)where:Q Peak runoff in cubic feet per second (cfs).Cf Runoff coefficient adjustment factor (see Table 1a).C Runoff coefficient (see Table 2).I Average intensity of rainfall in inches per hour for a duration equal to the timeof concentration, Tc, for a selected rainfall frequency.A Size of drainage area in acres.The following assumptions are used in deriving the Rational Formula: Rainfall intensity is the same over the entire drainage area;Rainfall intensity is uniform over a duration equal to the time of concentration, Tc;Peak runoff occurs when the entire parking lot is contributing to the flow;Frequency of the computed peak runoff is the same as that of the rainfall intensity;Coefficient of runoff is the same for all recurring rain storms.Because of these assumptions, the Rational Formula should only be applied to drainageareas smaller than 200 acres (or 80 hectares for SI units).Table 1a. Runoff Coefficient Adjustment FactorReturn PeriodCf1, 2, 5, 101.0251.1501.21001.25So for storm events with average recurrence intervals of 10 years or less, Eq. (1) can besimplified as:Q CIA 2020 ACE Group LLCEq. (2)Page 18 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.com10. Runoff CoefficientRunoff coefficient C represents the characteristics of the drainage area. In essence, runoffcoefficient corresponds to the amount of the rainfall that runs off rather than infiltrates intothe ground or evaporates into the air. Its value may range from 0 to 1 depending on thetype of drainage surface.Table 2 below lists the published runoff coefficients by FHWA (HEC-22 “Urban DrainageDesign Manual”, 2001):Table 2. Runoff Coefficients for the Rational FormulaType of Drainage AreaBusinessResidentialLawnStreetsOthersRunoff Coefficient, CDowntown areas0.70 - 0.95Neighborhood areas0.50 - 0.70Single-family areas0.30 - 0.50Apartment dwelling areas0.50 - 0.70Sandy soil, flat, 2%0.05 - 0.10Heavy soil, flat, 2%0.13 - 0.17Heavy soil, steep, 7%0.25 - 0.35Asphalt0.70 - 0.95Concrete0.80 - 0.95Brick0.70 - 0.85Drives and walks0.75 - 0.85Roofs0.75 - 0.95For parking lots, it is reasonable to assume C 0.9 and 0.2 for asphalt paved areas and flatlawn areas, respectively, when calculating storm runoff.If the drainage area consists of several different surfaces, a weighted average can becalculated as follows:Cweighted (Cx x Ax)/ AxEq. (3)For instance, the weighted average runoff coefficient for a parking lot with 30% lawns and70% asphalt pavement can be calculated using Eq. (3):Cweighted (0.9x0.7 0.2x0.3)/(1.0) 0.69 2020 ACE Group LLCPage 19 of 30

www.PDHcenter.orgPDH Course C201www.PDHonline.com11. Time of ConcentrationTime of concentration, or Tc, is the time in minutes, for a raindrop to travel from thehydraulically most distant point in a parking lot to a concentration point (an inlet) after thebeginning of rainfall. Tc for sheet flow in impervious areas such as parking lots can beestimated with a version of the kinematic wave equation derived from Manning's equation,as follows:Eq. (4)where:Tti sheet flow travel time in minutesI rainfall intensity in inch/hourn roughness coefficient (see Table 3)L flow length in feetS surface slope in foot/footIf the runoff consists of several flow segments, the time of concentration, T c, can becalculated as the sum of the travel times as follows:Tc TtiEq. (5)Because rainfall intensity "I" depends on Tc and Tc is not initially known, the computation ofTc is an iterative process. For a small parking lot, one may start with I corresponding to the5-minute precipitation, and use I based on the calculated Tc in the successive computations.It may take a few rounds of iterations for

Stormwater Drainage Design for Parking Lots ACE Group, LLC Course Outline Parking lots can be seen almost everywhere, from shopping centers to office buildings to schools. Stormwater drainage design is an integral component in the design of parking lots. This course covers the basics of designing an adequate storm drainage system for a parking lot.