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DOCUMENT RESUMESE 033 630ED 196 695AUTHORTITLEINSTITUTIONFEFORT NOPUB DATENOTEEDFS PRICEDESCRIPTORSHughes, PatrickAmerican Weather Stories.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(DOC), Washington, D.C. Environmental LataService.NOAA-S/T-76-192276121p.; Photographs may not reproduce wellMF01/PC05 Plus Postage.Climate: Environmental Influences; *Meteorology:Science Education: *Science History; Social Studies:*United States History; *WeatherABSTRACTWeather has shaped United States' culture, nationalcharacter and folklore: at times it has changed the course ofhistory. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlightsome of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes thatthreatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weatherthat has plagued American presidents on Inauguration Day. Alsopresented are meteorological phenomena encountered by people whodocumented weather and climate during the Revolutionary and CivilWars and those who suffered through the "year without a summer," theBlizzard of 'PA, and the dustbcTjl drought of the 1930's. Numeroushistorical phctographs illustrate the entries. ********************************Reproductions supplied by EDPS are the best that can be made**from the original *******************************

SE 038 Co 30

AmericanWeather StoriesPatrick HughesU.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCEElliot Richardson, SecretaryNATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATIONRobert M. White, AdministratorENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICEThomas S. Austin, DirectorWashington, D.C., 1976Price 2,10DEC 3 01980

AMERICAN WEATHERAmerican weather has helped shape our culture, national character,folklore, and conversation. It has frequented the pages of our historyand, at times, changed its course.The stories that follow trace the American weather experiencefrom the hurricanes that threatened Columbus and colonial settlersto the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American presidents on Inauguration Day; from Americans who documented theweather and climate of the Revolutionary and Civil War eras to thosewho suffered through the "year without a summer," the Blizzard of'88, and the dust-bowl drought of the 1930's.4iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWith one exception, earlier versions of the following stories appearedin magazines of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and its predecessors. "Hurricanes Haunt Our History"is reprinted (with considerable revision) with permission from theJune 1963 issue of COLUMBIA Magazine, New Haven, Conn.The stories were written by the author, except "View Froma Civil War Cornfield," which is the work of Joseph T. Caldwell,a Civil War farmer. Caldwell's observations were edited and firstpublished by William T. Hodge of the National Climatic Center.The author owes a particular debt of gratitude to Mrs. JoanneDavid of NOAA's Visual Services Branch for the long hours shespent tracking down and obtaining many key photographs that addso much to the historical value of the book.iv5

CONTENTSAmerican WeatheriiiAcknowledgmentsivHurricanes {aunt Our History1Early American Weathermen21The Year Without a Summer39View From a Civil War Cornfield ,-51The Blizzard of '8859Drought: The Land Killer77The Weather on Inauguration Day88Photo Credits116


Ii hurricanes.

HurricanesHauntOur History6

HURRICANKSOURFrom the beginning, hurricanes have played an awesome. role in theAmerican panorama, They have touched the lives ofWI"and small and, at times, changed the emirse of our destiny as wellas the shape of our coastline, There also have liven hurricanes whoseeffects were fell on the shores of the (.)Id World, as well as Ow New,Christopher Columbus was intimately acquainted with hurricanes, Arriving ()II' I lispaniola on his fourth and final voyage in thesummer of 1502, the aging Admiral, now fallen from favor, read thesigns ()I an approaching storm. Ile requested the shelter of Santobut was refused, Instead, ignoring Columbus'warning, some 30 vessels, many loaded Nvith gold and slaves, sailedproudly cut of the harbor for Spain. Francisco de Bobadilla, Cohen.bus' mortal enemy, sailed on the flagship,Doming() harbor,Twenty ships and over 500 men, including de llobadilla, 11'e renever seen again. Only one vessel reached Spaina small, leaky shipgrudgingly assigned to carry back to Spain the proceeds from the saleof Columbus' few remaining Island properties, his guarantee of anindependent old age.Columbus himself, a eatherwise seaman, rode out the hurricane safely at anchor in an island cove. Aleanwhile, Santo DomingoNras smashed flatfor the first of many times.fortunate indeed that Columbus did not encounter ahurricane on his first voyage, out on the open sea. His three tinyItiscaravels might tyell have perished, delaying the discovery of the NOVWorld and changing the course of our history.In August 1508, Ponce de Leon encountered two hurricanes.The first drove his ship onto the rocks in the port of Yuna, Hispaniola;13 days later, a second cyclone beached the same vessel on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Hernando Cortes, \'hose discovery oftreasure focused the covetous gaze of Europe on the newly discoveredlands to the west, lost the first vessel he sent to Mexico in a severehurricane in October 1525. Captain Juan de Avalos (a relative ofCortes), two Franciscan friars, and some 70 seamen were drowned.29

Pollee de Pe011 len ISoon ;1111111Clean, Of IWO vil,p,lereekilln /1111'601111'S,trenaurc fleets were carrying the riches of thevirgin continent back to the war-depleted coffers of Spain, Knell yearthe fleet assembled in I lavann, scheduled to sail for Spain in March,Each year fiestas, banquets, and religious ceremonies stretched thedeparture date to August, and even to September, at the height ofthe hurricane season. Many ships sailed front Havana; often only ahandful reached Spain, It is said that a ship was sunk for everylonely mile of the unexplored Florida coast.In July 1609, a small fleet of ships crowded with settlers forthe Virginia colonies was overwhelmed by a hurricane, One sankimmediately; the others were scattered. All but one of the survivingvessels managed to limp into Jamestown. The Sea Adventure, flagshipof the fleet, was given up for lost. Ten months later, however, herpassengers and crew arrived at Jamestown in a small boat built fromthe wreckage of the flagship. They had foundered on the rocks ofBermuda.The voyagers had found Bermuda a natural paradise, Anaccount of their adventure was published in London in 1612, intriguing an English playwright. His interest in the tale led WilliamShakespeare to write his beautiful play, "The Tempest"one of thehappiest endings a hurricane story ever had.3

fluttlijc,ANEi 1(ALINT oult liviTogy'Throughout the long colonial 11Pri Od or Aineviran Stilly, theprectoininiuttly low -lying coastni settlements were reprillally rillO41 byIllirriCaliC4, The terrible 44111114 41114 without warning, tinrooling,flooding, and wa§inng11011104 i de4troVing crops i toittilig 1111 greattrees by their roots; sinking ships or stranding them m village streets,forests, and cornfields, 'Me cyclones often killed solders, sailors, antitravelers by the hundreds, occasionally, by the thousands, They blowdown great forest min, and made travel Impossible for months,isolating stricken survivors, yho often faced the threat of famine Inthe coining winter.On the night of Atigust 13, 1766, the tiny village of Trois,Islets, on the Island of Martinique In the French West Indies, wocrushed y a hurricane, joseph.aaspard Tascher, IS wealthy planter,was wiped out by the storm, his family poverty stricken, Later one ofhis daughters, Marie Josephine Rose, returned to France to seek herfortune, There she caught the fancy of an aubitious young armyofficer, whom NW married,If it hadn't been for that hurricane, Marie might well havespent her clays on Martinique, a belle of island society. Instead shebecame the Empress Josephine of France when her husband, NapoleonBonaparte, rose to power. A hurricane in the New World was felt inthe Oldas they are to this day.It was a hurricane that brought Alexander Hamilton into thepages of American history, His description, in a letter to his father,of a terrible storm that ravaged the island of St. Croix in the WestIndies on August 30 and September 1, 1772, so impressed localplanters that they took up a collection to send Hamilton to Americafor an education. He was there in 1774, a student at King's College(now Columbia University) in New York when the first rumblings ofrevolution were heard.In August 1778, a hurricane mauled and separated warshipsof British and French fleets maneuvering for battle south of Newport,R.I. Two years later, a British fleet east of Daytona Beach, Fla., wassavaged by an early October hurricane, then, a few days later, struck4

in 1609, a,by a hurricane, '1',The voyagers' !Primula advent!,teas the inspiration far William Silast play, "The Tempest," fhis most beautiful tvorA

L1 It,'wagedtfruined her lather,rseher went to Francee and later becamess Josephine.5

HURRICANES HAUNT OUR HISTORYby a second storm near Bermuda. Meanwhile, the first cyclonescattered and badly damaged a second British fleet off the VirginiaCapes, then roared northward to strike yet another British Squadronoff Rhode Island. It has been said that the final British surrender-atYorktown in October 1781 was at least partly due to the BritishNavy's reluctance to engage the French fleet blockading GeneralCornwallis during the dangerous fall hurricane season.In September 1815, just months after the War of 1812 ended,the worst hurricane since 1635 roared through New England at 50miles per hour and left a path of destruction from the south shoreof Long Island, N.Y., northward through New Hampshire.One of the most nortorious hurricanes of the 19th Centurydemolished a fledgling American settlement on Galveston Island inthe newly proclaimed Republic of Texas in early October 1837.According to an eyewitness, ". . . every house, camp, sod house, andinhabited structure was swept away, except the Old Mexican customhouse. . . ." Only one of 30 vessels in Galveston Harbor held to itsmooring; the rest were driven aground or blown out to sea. "Men,women, and children were seen floating upon boards, logs, and smallboats, for days and nights, in every part of the island. Miraculously,only one life, was lost." Unfortunately, the hurricane was far fromfinished.Eight days later, the brand new paddle-wheel steamer,Home, was beached and demolished just south of Cape Hatteras,N.C., by the same storm. There were only two life preservers on theship. Forty of her 130 passengers struggled ashore to safety; the rest,mostly women and children, were drowned. Because of this disaster,Congress passed a law requiring all American vessels to carry a lifepreserver for each passengera law that has since saved manyAmericans from a watery grave.On October 29, 1861, the Federal "Expedition," the largestfleet of American warships and transports yet assembled, sailed southfrom Chesapeake Bay to attack Confederate coastal installations. Asthe fleet rounded the Carolina Capes on November 2, it was staggered

Alexander Hamilton (Age 15)Describes a Hurricane"Good God! what horror and destruction! It is impossiblefor me to describe it or for you to form any idea of it. Itseemed as if a total dissolution of nature was taking place.The roaring of the sea and wind, fiery meteors flying aboutin the air, the prodigious glare of almost perpetual lightning, the crash of falling houses, and the earpiercing shrieksof the distressed were sufficient to strike astonishment intoAngels. A great part of the buildings throughout the islandare levelled to the ground; almost all the rest very muchshattered, several persons killed and numbers utterly ruinedwhole families roaming about the streets, unknowing whereto find a place of shelterthe sick exposed to the keenness of water and air, without a bed to lie upon, or adry covering to their bodies, and our harbors entirelybare. In a word, misery, in its most hideous shapes, spreadover the whole face of the country."Excerpt from a letter to his fatherwritten on St. Croix Island in theWest Indies, September 6, 1772,following a hurricane.714

HURRICANES HAUNT OUR HISTORYby a hurricane that sank two vessels and scattered the rest. The fleetmanaged to regroup, however, and, on November 7, captured PortRoyal Sound, S.C.When the Maine was sunk in Havana harbor in 1898, theUnited States declared war on Spain. The hurricane season was fastapproaching. Fearful for the safety of American naval units soon tobe operating in hurricane waters, Willis L. Moore, Chief of theWeather Bureau, went to see President McKinley to urge theestablishment of hurricane warning stations in the West Indies.Impressed by Moore's arguments, McKinley declared that he wasmore afraid of a hurricane than he was of the Spanish Navy. Heordered Moore to organize the warning system immediately.A battle fleet left Spain steaming westward. Concern spreadalong the east coast of the United States. Observation posts werehurriedly built at key points . . . emergency plans madeall fornothing. The Spanish fleet was trapped in the harbor at Santiago,The Federal "Expedition" leaves Chesapeake Bayto attack Confederate coastal installations.815

Willis Moore, Chief of the Weather Bureau,and President McKinley feared for Americannaval units operating in hurricane waters duringthe Spanish-American War.Cuba, and destroyed. The war ended. Not a single hurricane hadappeared . . . no American ships or men had been lost . . . as theymight have been. The hurricanes came late that year, or they mighthave played a role in the drama that marked the end of Spanishpower in the New Worldas they had at its beginning, four centuriesbefore.Those coastal lookout stations, built for a Spanish attack thatnever came, were abandoned by the Navy. A little later they weretaken over by the Weather Bureau as hurricane observation posts.Upon inventory, the installation at Carolina Beach, N.C., was foundto lack a most desirable piece of equipmentits privy had disappeared. Intensive investigation disclosed that a local citizen, admiringits quality, had appropriated it for his nearby property. There wassuch a fuss made that the outhouse was reluctantly returned . . onlyto be completely demolished in the hurricane surf of October 2, 1898,immortalizing to this day the "Privy Hurricane."With the exception of a handful of pioneers, it is only incomparatively recent times that man has probed the nature and habits96

URRICANES HAUNT OUR HISTORYThe steeple of Boston's historic Old North Churchis toppled by Hurricane Carol (1954). The steeple was built in 1806to replace the original, also toppled by a hurricane (1804).17

HURRICANES HAUNT OUR HISTORYThe average hurricane lives about 9 days, but some have beentracked for 4 and even 5 weeks. Centuries before European explorersand settlers were exposed to their devastation, native Americanstrembled helplessly before the brutal force of their seemingly infinitewinds. The word hurricane itself is thought to be derived from theCarib Indian's word for evil spirit.Hurricanes were first mentioned in the logs of ChristopherColumbus, their earliest European student. After Columbus, the nextmajor contribution to man's knowledge of the hurricane was madeby Benjamin Franklin.On November 2, 1743, a "noreaster," actually the outer fringesof a hurricane raging offshore, hit Philadelphia, obscuring an expectedeclipse of the Moon. Franklin, learning that the eclipse was seen atBoston (because the storm reached there later than Philadelphia)realized that the "noreaster" had moved from the southwestdespitesurface winds from th. "pposite direction.Six years later, Franklin verified his theory by tracking theprogress of another hurricane from North Carolina through NewHurricane winds drove this ten-foot-longpine board through the heart of a royal palm free12

of hurricanes. We know more about these colossal storms today, fromour vantage point in time and knowledge, than our forefathers everknew . . . even as the hurricane winds howled around them and theyfought for their lives.Hurricanes are born at sea, over the warm waters near theEquator. Like people, no two identical hurricanes have ever been seen.J.Trinity Episcopal Church, Pass Christian, Miss,. built in 1849,before and after the passage of Hurricane Camille (1969).1

England. This independent motion of a storm' was a novel and important concept. As usual, Franklin was years ahead of his time. Itwasn't until the middle of the nineteenth century that it was realizedthat all storms are actually circular wind systems, moving from oneplace to another.In 1831, William Redfield, a Yankee student of the hurricane,showed that these giant storms were "rotary," with the winds blowingfrom all directions around a slowly moving center. He also traced longcka-ved hurricane tracks from the West Indies to the east coast of theUnited States mainland. Later, Henry Piddington, an Englishmansent to study the devastating tropical storms of India, coined theterm "cyclone" (from a Creek word meaning "the coils of a snake")to &sea: all rotary storms.Perhaps the man who contributed the most to our present-dayknowledge of hurricanes was Benito Vines, a Jesuit priest, and thedirector of the College of 13el6n in Havana from 1870 until his deathin 1893. During those years, Father Vines devoted all his time to thestudy of the hurricane, so that the Cuban people might be sparedthe needless tragedy a few hours' warning could prevent.Father Vines early established a hurricane alarm systemthroughout Cuba, including a "pony express" between the mostisolated villages. He received telegraph warnings flashed by cablefrom nearby islands, as well as reports from the ships reaching theirports. He organized hundreds of volunteer observers all around thelong Cuban coastline. This far-flung network enabled Father Vinesto track and to study hurricanes with a degree of thoroughnessunknown until this day.Although his discovery of the forecast value of those icy cloudfingers which reach across the sky ahead of the storm's body isconsidered his greatest achievement, there were many others, allconfirmed by later investigators, who marvelled at what he accomplished. From Father Vines' point of view, the most important thingwas that his forecasts saved countless lives and untold misery; for thefirst time, his people had a chance.1320

ei.,;seriiice was founded asd",first hurricane ever seen on'prvice map of September 28,between Savannah, Ga., andIvi3firean was organized, taking over1902 Marconi invented the wireless,Were no longer dependent on I across the . ocean's floor. Noweouk from far -off islands or knely ships could givemodern age of 'hurrfcane warnings had begun.4i-th; a ipiOneei in instrument. flight,enan h,alph :0' navigator, made the firsttvenetration of . a hurricane in 1943.DuckWorthsingle engined.plane through the maelstrom of windter that was a :Galveston-bMind -hurricane into the very eyecloOds and stillness hidden deeP in theevery Urricand,


For his courage and initiative, Colonel Duckworth receivedthe Air Medal. His flight opened the door to a whole new era inhurricane tracking and forecasting. Today, reconnaisance aircraft flymany missions during every hurricane season, tracking and analyzingstorms still days away from the nearest land station. This vital, butnow routine service, owes its existence to Duckworth's faith in hisability to fly safely in any kind of weather.More recently, new tools have been given the hurricane forecaster. Among these are radar and the weather satellite. Nowadays,few hurricanes roar in unheralded on helpless people. They are keptunder constant surveillance from the moment of their discovery, oftenfar out at sea. Except for the crew of some unlucky ship, the peopleof some isolated island, there is time to prepare . . . to get out of theway. Today, it is not hurricane forecasting, but hurricane control thatis ;more often the topic of conversation.It used to be popularly suggested that battleships could shella ',hurricane and destroy it. More recently, atomic and hydrogenbombs have been discussed. What is not realized is the enormouserfergy involved in these storms. In 24 hours, the average hurricanereleases the energy equivalent of 500,000 atom bombs of the Nagasakitype. Hydrogen bombs are far more powerful than atomic bombs, buteven they fall far short of the energy released by such a storm. Yet ahurricane operates at only about 3 percent efficiency in releasing itsenergy.Even if it were possible, the destruction of hurricanes mightcreate more problems than it would solve. The hurricane may beessential in preserving the heat balance of the atmosphere. If it is,and man interferes, no one can predict the consequences.Hurricanes definitely have their place in the scheme of things.Down through the centuries they have helped shape the very environment in which we live. As we have seen, they have frequented ourhistory, and at times have changed its course. There was even ahurricane that kept the United States out of war.17c:24

HURRICANES HAUNT OUR HISTORYIn 1888 Prince Bismarck, the Chancellor of Germany, tried toestablish a German protectorate in Samoa. German naval vessels,while shelling a native village, destroyed some American property, andGerman sailors ripped down and burned an American flag. U.S.warships sped to Samoa. On March 16, 1889, as the ships of the twonations faced each other in the harbor of Apia, a savage hurricaneoverwhelmed them. The ships were either sunk, or wrecked anddriven aground. The seamen of both nations struggled to survive .tiPrince Bismarck,the Iron Chancellor.18.

and to help one another. The island's natives came to the rescue ofboth. Even so, about 150 sailors drowned. It was a high price to pay,but the hurricane brought peace. In a time of mutual disaster,grievances were forgotten and differences soon resolved in the Treatyof Berlin of 1889.The hurricane had prevented war. A worthy addition indeedto that long line of hurricanes that have whirled through the livesof the American People from the very beginning.Jr,%;.t etit.---.4 i.*-4/.r.,'')4'''''Z"'4'' '4" 4f.tFAa.-'." .,*111;11"'--Aa--'4ob'13."r.41"'''"V; ora,!146.1144-The wreck of the German Man-of-War Adler.19

Early AmericanWeathermen14: 2 8

EARLY AMERICAN WEATHERMENThe American Revolution interrupted John Jeffries weather journal.During the winter of 1775-76, General George Washingtonlaid siege to Boston, The British Army evacuated the city in March,and Dr. Jeffries, a Loyalist, went with them.George Washington watches the British evacuate Boston, March 17, 1776.99

Ln Jeffries was a Boston physicn that city's weather between 1Dm December 15, 1774, thrLis weather observations uponLs

EMUS AMERICAN WI:ATM:1011NThe second series is an intermittent record of daily observations fromMay 27, 1790, through September 19, 1816, prefaced by a summaryof the winter of 1790.Long before there was a U.S. weather service, and before thefirst American weather observer network was established by theArmy's Medical Department in 1814, citizen scientists and students ofnature were recording the weather and climate of our country. Theseincluded such giants of American history as Thomas Jefferson andGeorge Washington, as well as hundreds of other, less famous Ameri-1.7,.-LI, , .1-d ,,e,.721,,,, ,,, e, %-kr -nu. c .4.2 ci,-.9 / 1.1;.-d 1J,ic9) 4,;--,2.-,-.4,,--i4.JO 1,111-,,II,,.7/.t.1 1.,--.2 , ,, Zerw-A IA:J-7 .-kr.'2,./. t. E . - ,. , . .,,,-(19,1-1,--,a,s-,A-.--.-;r3,10"1'c'cP'- *1'")I., it .,., ,.0 L.),.D 2.,rlit, t, -, :--A-L-74,1t, S-,./ P.-4-1-.-t-v.,D.A41.ISi. '.I610,1I .-4 , . - V ,'.-1- . , Z.4--C, 1-) .,)1 7 0,env/,.,2 ,,,?;.2IL- i).1::,,L,-, .1 47. ,.- C.:, I-',.J11 M-fg j5 4Y-1.'9.0 X17-711,-).,-.0 1A). - ,,,,I) 7,,./-cr, (9're,9-22, -.-} r. , 4,-,-. /Av. ir.,-,,, t-4.-221 dd., it./ I./.) /--., t4: Z) (%Yjr;,,,A25;52.)2s,2?1,54-one2f -E.tYJohn Jeffries' Boston weather diary.4,, A*41.,qt: --/.

cans. Collectively, their records constitute our principal source of information concerning the weather and climate of the United Statesfrom colonial days through the NVar Of 11112.John Jeffries was extraordinary., even in an age of exceptionallygifted men. After the evacuation of Boston, he served as a surgeonwith the British Army in America. Then, when Cornwallis surrendered, he left to live in England, where he soon became interestedin levitation or aerostationthe brand-new art of operating a mannedballoon.;e-,; .],;rjr2VI Vet. .,2A-A.v)3,v-e1/4 ,,'1, -1.e? - a-6-1"./k Tic-v-- -.9 2 C"CCi1,r-t-v-I,.,4/ ti\ i/I/ 2-7?-v,/ee:r6) a.,-;) i-rj/1-(,,, e r 3 y 7 7,1 1-- cae PQ. ?-4,---(-ru car'id ? we-v-7,-4, ;,' ,--,. -, i j.1 4./.7 A 4-15.-.V 4.41(,IRA9-ii-a,x 14.LA ,-4-te7 i -,.,v.',7---.2.03 7 -1-Y,-1. d1' .1/1r. '41tl;.---hiix-rc, 5 , 1,.--4-{1,t.eku-Arzi a.-?(/421.- -:.,./-. .L7A,.1./ r4-," (.1-)41- 1.-'''s 4 .t'lLAY 41' . ne.1.1-7 64.14-C111-4 ./.;v-t I, f."-I, - er ,.4,r'0,--.-1.) ") --11--".,isGt. ik 1-r.Pt-3 eq., ,.,. Ci4 t ty./).,t eX 7.A. 14 zl'u-SP 44s.,. 6 -10.-pv-,--.,-;//il'eCA4/1P-if h- 4-;.rryI4-, iAL S.,1-r -11a.' ,AP4c.--tC11 ill PI li; e- 7 /, Or- 4eii tv-v-1.c.ei,.P z-r--)(---Y-f-4. 4.-y,32

AN! EltICAN 11TATIIHINIENAmerican Weatherand the Founding FathersBenjamin Franklin (see page 121 and Thomas JefTerson loomlarge in the history of Amer ran weather science, while thelast entry in George Washington's weather diary was madethe day before he died.Thomas Jefferson studied the Nation's climate-, collecting weather records front as far west as the MississippiRiver. Ile bought his first thermometer while writing theDeclaration of Independence and his first barometer a fewdays after the document was signed. Jefferson made regular weather observations at Monticello from 1772 to 1778,and for much of the last 2 years he and the president ofWilliatn and Mary College in Williamsburg took the firstknown simultaneous weather observations in America.Like George Washington, Jefferson took weather ob.seivations well into his final illness. The last entry in hisWeather Memorandum Book was made on June 29, 1826, sixdays before his death.2tir33

'Thomas Jefferson's weather observations for Philadelt hia, July 1776.27


Jeffries flew with the French aeronaut, Francois Blanchard,Together, they made the first scientific measurement of the free airover London on November 30, 1784. The crowd watching includedthe Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Devonshire, among othernotables.On this ascent, the balloonists measured pressure, temperature,humidity, electrical potential, and the chemical constituents of theair to a height of 6,560 feet. The values they obtained agree closelywith those of today's observations.Jeffries and Blanchard also were the first men to make aninternational voyage by air, crossing the English Channel from Doverto the forest of Guines, France, on January 7, 1785. Celebrated asheroes (a monument was erected in their honor near Calais), theyreached Paris on January 11, where Jeffries dined with BenjaminFranklin, the American Ambassador to France and himself a pioneerweather scientist.Jeffries returned to Boston in 1789, where he gave the firstpublic lecture in New England on anatomy and, in 1790, resumed hisweather diary.John Winthrop was another early American weather observeractive during the Revolution. A descendant of the first Governor ofMassachusetts, Winthrop was a personal friend and adviser of GeorgeWashington and Benjamin Franklin and one of the Colonies' leadingscientists and scholars.In 1738, when only 24, Winthrop was elected professor ofmathematics and natural philosophy at Harvard. He was America'sfirst astronomer, as well as a physicist and mathematician. He established the first laboratory of experimental physics in America in 1746,and in 1751 introduced "the elements of fluxions"now known asdifferential and integral calculusinto the Harvard curriculum.Winthrop, a patron of Benjamin Franklin's lightning experiments, was also a student of atmospheric phenomena. He kept a dailyrecord of the weather at Harvard from December 1742 until his deathon May 3, 1779, during the fourth year of the Revolution.The last Page of George Washington's weather diary.The final entry was made the day before he died.36Ee'29

In 1959, Harvard University's Blue 11111 Observatory donatedits collection Of original 18th and early 19th century weather diariesand journals to the National Climatic Center in Asheville, N,C, Thosejournals include ,folin Jeffries' observations and come largely fromthe New England area, One of the nom] interesting was kept byWilliam Blunter of New Hampshire,Nuttier, a teenager when the Revolution began, was born atNcwburyport, Mass., on June 25, 1759, and moved to a farm inEpping, NIL, in 1768, He served in the New Hampshire legislatureintermittently between 1785 and 1800, and was Speaker of the Housein 1791 and 1797, During this period, he drafted major revisions tothe State's constitution, creating the form of government under whichNew Hampshire still operates,From 1802 to 1807, Plumer served in the United States Senate,then declined to stand for reelection, preferring instead to return tothe New Hampshire legislature. After serving as President of theState Senate in 1810 and 1811, he was elected governor the followingyear. During ate War of 1812, Plumer was the only New Englandgovernor who actively supported the national go

DOCUMENT RESUME. ED 196 695 SE 033 630. AUTHOR TITLE. INSTITUTION. . It was a hurricane that brought Alexander Hamilton into the pages of American history, His description, in a letter to his father, . in the West. Indies on August 30 and September 1, 1772, so impressed local planters that they took