Philip Reed Civil War - U.S. Capitol Visitor Center

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CAPITOL VISITOR CENTERTeacher Lesson PlanPhilip ReidaNd FreedoMIntroductionThe U.S. Capitol was constructed by many laborers – free and enslaved. This activity introducesstudents to Philip Reid, an enslaved laborer who helped to complete the making and installationof the statue of Freedom on top of the Capitol Dome. Construction of the dome continuedthrough the Civil War and the dome was topped with the statue of Freedom in December 1863.Students learn about an enslaved laborer and his contribution to the building of the Capitol whilecontemplating how freedom is depicted in art and architecture. While intended for 8th gradestudents, the lesson can be adapted for other grade levels.1  TEACHER LESSON PLAN: Philip Reid and Freedom

CAPITOL VISITOR CENTER Teacher Lesson PlanNational StandardsNational Standards for Arts EducationVisual Art Standards, grades 5-8 Content Standard 2: Using knowledge of structures and functions Content Standard 3: Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols and ideas Content Standard 4: Understanding the visual arts in relation to history and cultures Content Standard 6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplinesCommon Core State Standards for English Language Arts, grade 8 Reading Informational Text 1, 2 Speaking and Listening 1, 4Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, grade 8 Reading 2, 4 Writing 4Learning SkillsResearch, building vocabulary, storytelling, creative writing, observation andanalyzing documents.Essential QuestionHow are concepts, such as freedom, represented in works of art? What do specific works of artor architectural features tell us about what was important to the people who designed or madethem; particularly if it is telling a story about the importance of freedom?Documents and Material NeededDownload the following items: Vocabulary Worksheet Background: Philip Reid and Freedom Document Analysis Worksheet Clark Mills’ Petition to the Board of Commissioners for the Emancipation of the Slaves in theDistrict of Columbia Photograph of the building of the Capitol Dome District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act of 1862 with transcript Image of the Statue of Freedom2  TEACHER LESSON PLAN: Philip Reid and Freedom

CAPITOL VISITOR CENTER Teacher Lesson PlanSuggested ActivitiesOptional Warm-up Activity: Vocabulary WorksheetDistribute a vocabulary worksheet to each student. Use the worksheet as a tool to familiarizethem with the words or phrases they will encounter in this activity.Reading1. Begin by reading to students the story about Philip Reid and the Statue of Freedom. Askstudents: What impresses you most about the story of Philip Reid? What words best describehim? How might he have felt when he looked at the Statue of Freedom atop the U.S. Capitol?Analyzing Documents2. In small groups students study the District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act of1862. Using the document analysis worksheet, students record their findings. Then, as a class,students compare their observations. Why would the D.C. Compensated Emancipation Actbe important to Philip Reid?3. Show students Clark Mills’ Petition to the Board of Commissioners for the Emancipation ofthe Slaves in the District of Columbia. How is Philip Reid described in the document? Findthe compensation requested for Philip Reid. How does it compare with the compensation forthe other ten persons? Why is the compensation requested for Philip Reid so much greater?What are other observations?Observation and Research4. Together the class studies the photo of the Statue of Freedom. Using background informationon the Statue of Freedom, assist students in identifying the features of the Statue of Freedom(laurel wreath, shield of the United States, helmet with eagle’s head).5. Involve the entire class in creating a list of anything that reminds them of (symbolizes)freedom. The list may include works of art, buildings, objects, etc. Students conduct researchon the ways in which freedom has been depicted in art and architecture.Creative Writing6. Using the information they gathered, students select from the list something they wouldlike to write a story about. Include in the story a possible reason someone would choose thissymbol of freedom rather than another. Students share their story with the class.Class Exhibit7. Create a classroom exhibit of students’ stories about the representation of freedom in works ofart, architecture and other objects.3  TEACHER LESSON PLAN: Philip Reid and Freedom

CAPITOL VISITOR CENTER Teacher Lesson PlanRecommended ReadingHolland, Jesse. Black Men Built the Capitol: Discovering African-American History in and AroundWashington, D.C. Globe Pequot Publication, New York, NY, 2007. This book gives an historicalview of the accomplishments of African-Americans in the building of Washington, D.C.WebsiteArchitect of the d-statue-freedom4  TEACHER LESSON PLAN: Philip Reid and Freedom

CAPITOL VISITOR CENTER Teacher Lesson PlanBackgroundPhilip Reid and FreedomThe StoryPutting the Statue of Freedom on top of the Capitol dome took many years and the hard work ofmany people. One of them was an enslaved man named Philip Reid.The statue’s journey began in Rome where Freedom’s artist, an American named ThomasCrawford, began designing the statue in 1855. He’d originally intended her to wear a libertycap, the sign of a freed slave. But the U.S. Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis, insisted that sucha cap wouldn’t suit the American people, who, he said, had never been enslaved. So Crawford,inspired by Native Americans, created an eagle head cap complete with hanging talons and acrest of feathers.Crawford cast his design in plaster. The 19½ foot cast left Italy in five major sections. Each bigpiece was packed in own crate, and a sixth crate contained the smaller pieces. The little ship1containing these crates sailed in spring 1858. It almost sank twice, and all six crates didn’t arrivein Washington until March 1859.An Italian artisan assembled the large plaster pieces, smoothly covering the joints so that themodel could be displayed in Statuary Hall while the Capitol dome was going up. But when thetime came to cast the huge statue in bronze, he refused to take the model apart, demanding moremoney for the job. He claimed no one else could do it.Enter Philip Reid. The government had hired Reid’s owner Clark Mills to cast the statue. Thegovernment would rent Mills’ foundry; grant him 400 a month for his own services; buy hismaterials, including 15,000 pounds of copper; and pay his 12 foundry workers.This was a big job, but how would Clark Mills disassemble the plaster statue? Philip Reid knewjust what to do. He inserted a metal hook into the head, and then used a block and tackle topull up gently on the heavy head until a tiny crack appeared. This crack clearly showed whereFreedom’s head had been joined to her body and where the bolts were that held the piecestogether. Reid loosened the bolts and the statue’s head was removed. Reid repeated this operationuntil all the sections had been disassembled safely.Then when it came time to cast the statue, Reid supervised a group of enslaved men who kept thefires burning during the casting process. Imagine the heat caused by those fires. Yet Reid workedseven days a week, earning 1.25 for himself for each Sunday he toiled.5  TEACHER LESSON PLAN: Philip Reid and Freedom

CAPITOL VISITOR CENTER Teacher Lesson PlanBut Reid’s role in the creation of the Statue of Freedom wasn’t finished. When it came timeto assemble the bronzed pieces, Clark Mills ran into a familiar problem. This time it was hisforeman who refused to do the job unless he was paid more. And, once again, Reid stepped in.He supervised the lifting of the heavy pieces and bolted them together, “joint by joint, pieceby piece.”1Philip Reid won his freedom when slavery was abolished in the District of Columbia on April 16,1862, and went into business for himself. On December 2, 1863 the Statue of Freedom wasfinally installed on the newly finished Capitol dome to celebratory gunfire. We can only imaginehow Philip Reid must have felt to gaze up and know that he had helped to raise the Statue ofFreedom before gaining his own.Written by Syd Lieberman and Adrienne B. Lieberman for Capitol Visitor Center1Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune, p.1. “The Statue of Freedom,” Chicago Tribune, December 14, 18636  TEACHER LESSON PLAN: Philip Reid and Freedom

CAPITOL VISITOR CENTER Teacher Lesson PlanStatue of FreedomThe full-size plaster model for the Statue of Freedom was used to cast the bronze statue on topof the Capitol dome. Freedom wears a helmet encircled with stars and topped with an eagle’shead and feathers, the talons hanging at either side of her face. Her long, curly hair flows downher back. Her dress is secured with a brooch with the letters “US,” and she is draped with a furtrimmed robe. Her right hand holds a sheathed sword, the left a laurel wreath of victory and thestriped shield of the United States.The model, which had been stored in pieces for many years, was restored in 1992 by theArchitect of the Capitol with funds donated to the U.S. Capitol Preservation Commission. It wason display in the Russell Senate Office Building before being moved to Emancipation Hall in theU.S. Capitol Visitor Center.The bronze Statue of Freedom, facing east over the central entrance, crowns the dome of theUnited States Capitol, 288 feet above the east front plaza.Architect of the Capitol7  TEACHER LESSON PLAN: Philip Reid and Freedom

CAPITOL VISITOR CENTER Teacher Lesson PlanWritten Document Analysis Worksheet1. TYPE OF DOCUMENT (Check one):n Newspapern Mapn Lettern Telegramn Patentn Press releasen Memorandumn Reportn Advertisementn Congressional recordn Census reportn Other2. UNIQUE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF THE DOCUMENT (Check one or more):n Interesting letterhead n Notationsn Handwrittenn “RECEIVED” stampn Typedn Othern Seals3. DATE(S) OF DOCUMENT:4. AUTHOR (OR CREATOR) OF THE DOCUMENT:POSITION (Title):5. FOR WHAT AUDIENCE WAS THE DOCUMENT WRITTEN?6. DOCUMENT INFORMATION (There are many possible ways to answer A-E.)A. List three things the author said that you think are important:B. Why do you think this document was written?C. What evidence in the document helps you know why it was written? Quote from the document.D. List two things the document tells you about life in the United States at the time it was written:E. Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the document:Designed and developed by the Education Staff, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 204088  TEACHER LESSON PLAN: Philip Reid and Freedom

CAPITOL VISITOR CENTER Teacher Lesson PlanVocabulary Building Worksheet: Philip Reid and FreedomNameWord or PhrasesI know the word.If you know the word,use it in a sentence.FoundrySlaveryFreedomCasting a StatueSymbolBronze9  TEACHER LESSON PLAN: Philip Reid and FreedomI don’t know the word and needto research it. Record the meaning below.

Crawford cast his design in plaster. The 19½ foot cast left Italy in five major sections. Each big piece was packed in own crate, and a sixth crate contained the smaller pieces. The little ship1 containing these crates sailed in spring 1858. It almost sank twice, and all six crates didn’t arrive in