Energy Audit As A Tool For Improving System Efficiency In .

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International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 3 Issue 6, June - 2014Energy Audit as A Tool for Improving SystemEfficiency in Industrial SectorGopi Srinath,N. Uday KumarDepartment of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringVasavi College of engineering,Hyderabad, Andhrapradesh, India.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringVasavi College of engineering,Hyderabad, Andhrapradesh, 1 The Energy Scenario in India:With the growth of economy since independence, thecountry’s power requirement has grown substantially.India today faces a peak shortage of about 11-18% and anenergy shortage of about 7-11%. India has a rapidlygrowing economy and projected economic growth(@6.4%) will necessitate corresponding growth in energyrequirements. In India, electric energy consumption fordifferent sectors is as follows–1) Industrial: 26.64% 2) Domestic and commercial:30.78% 3) Agriculture: 1.66%4) Transport: 29.35% 5) Others: 11.57%IJERTABSTRACT - This paper presents the characteristics ofenergy consumption in industrial sector, the methodology andresults of energy audits (EA) performed in industrial sites andpotentials for energy efficiency (EE) improvements. Thepresent state of industrial energy in India could becharacterized by significant technological out-of–date, lowenergy efficiency and low level of environmental protection.Presented analysis of the results of conducted energy audits inselected industrial companies in previous period has shownthe significant potentials for energy efficiency improvementsin industrial sector (upgrading or replacement of equipmentin the industrial energy sources and processes, introduction ofenergy management, improvement of steam supply andcondensate return systems, the waste heat utilization,introduction of energy efficiency technology, improvement ofenergy efficiency in electrical equipment, usage of wastematerials etc).sector;Energy1. INTRODUCTIONEnergy conservation means using energy more efficientlyand effectively by reducing wastages of energy. Everyyear, the demand of electricity is increasing by 6-8 percent, while production is not increasing in the same ratio.Due to this reason, the gap between demand and supply isconstantly increasing. To reduce this gap, there are twoalternative ways: one is to generate more electricity, whichrequires huge investment and second is to conserve theelectricity. For making energy conservation effective,Energy audit is basic tool. Auditing is the process toidentify the wastages of energy without in any wayaffecting productivity and growth rate. In conservationprocess usually new investment are required such asreplacement of old inefficient equipments to new one. Itcan be made successful by planning maximum energyefficiency and maximum cost effectives. All activities inthe field of energy efficiency have been deeply influencedby the following: a) the lack of understanding of theimportance of energy efficiency by the management in thecompanies, b) the lack of stimulant economic measuresand financial sources for the investments in energyefficiency projects and c) the lack of properly preparedenergy efficiency project proposals.IJERTV3IS061138Fig 1. Share of final energy consumption per sector1.2 Objectives of Energy Management:Energy management is the judicious and effective use ofenergy to maximize profits and enhance competitivepositions. Some desirable objectives of energymanagement programs include -Conserving energy,thereby reducing costs. Cultivating good communicationson energy matters. Developing and maintaining effectivemonitoring, reporting and management strategies for wiseenergy usage. Finding new and better ways to increasereturns from energy management program from allemployees.2. ENERGY AUDITEnergy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis ofenergy flows for energy conservation in a building, processor system to reduce the amount of energy input into thesystem without affecting the output.www.ijert.org1201

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 3 Issue 6, June - 2014An energy audit is defined as a systematic procedurethat Obtains an adequate knowledge of existing energyconsumption profile of the site. Identifies the factors that have an effect on theenergy consumption. Identifies and scales the cost effective energysaving opportunities.The essential step to the energy efficiencyimprovements is the performance of an energy audit.Energy audit is a procedure that helps to analyze theuse of energy in an enterprise or building. The energyaudit serves to identify how a plant facility usesenergy and to determine the energy conservationopportunities. The energy audit can assist in:evaluating energy efficiency, identifying energysaving opportunities and establishing a plan toimplement energy saving projects.B. The methodologyThe methodology is based on the standardmethodology for short energy audits and it includes thefollowing: (1) Preparation of questionnaires on energyconsumption, company production rate, the list of energysystems and energy consumers, etc.; (2) Determination ofenergy indicators for the company; (3) Visit of the selectedsites (an initial audit normally requires a few days for asmall to medium-sized location; for large industrialfacilities, such as refineries or steel plants, it may takemore than one week and up to two weeks to complete); (4)Determination of energy losses and calculation of energybalance and energy flows; (5) Evaluation of energyefficiency and conservation potentials; (6) Identification ofenergy efficiency measures and applicable EnergyEfficiency and Conservation (EE&C) technology andevaluation of EE&C potentials in the sector;(7) Evaluation of implementing capacities of the sites forEMS introduction; (8) Reporting on results of energyaudits.IJERTAn energy audit consists of comprehensive collection ofdata on energy use. It is a procedure that requires the use ofauditing equipment and experienced personnel (energyauditors) . Through the energy audit the administration ofthe site can: assess the energy cost and its effect to the totalproduction cost; identify financially and technically viableoptions for reducing energy usage; identify possible waysto improve productivity through interventions in areas notdirectly linked to energy consumption, i.e. bettermanpower utilization, reduction of the usage of rawmaterial in production, improved product quality.HVAC etc.). In this frame, different parameters thatdetermine each type of energy use are presented andanalyzed (e.g. production capacity, climate conditions, rawmaterials etc.). Eventually, a list with potential energysaving measures requiring investment capital is presentedtogether with a cost-benefit analysis for each proposedmeasure.There are several "levels" of energy audits, which caninclude simple or detailed data surveys, often followed bydetailed examinations of existing data and/or special planttest runs. The time taken to conduct any audit depends onthe size and type of facilities, but priority should be givento the departments or sections of the plant of highestenergy consumption.3. OVERVIEW OF COLLECTED DATA ANDANALYSISB i l l i ng P e r i od Vs Av e r a ge P F10.99A. The type of auditsShort audits: This type of audits aims to assess presentenergy consumption levels and relative costs based onexisting documentation and a short visit at the site.Eventually good housekeeping measures and lowcost/short payback measures for energy efficiency areproposed. A list of medium to high cost measures is alsoindicated without major justifications as well as thespecific points, which must be tackled within a detailedenergy audit. Short energy audits belong to the scanningaudit models, and according to the Energy EfficiencyBREF (published in March 2008), there are two mainexamples of short energy audits: walk-through energyaudits and preliminary energy audits. A walk-throughenergy audit is suitable for small and medium sizedindustrial sites and preliminary energy audit is suitable forlarger sites.Detailed energy audit: This type of audits requires acomprehensive recording and analysis of energyconsumption data, split into various sectors within the site(steam/hot water production, compressed air, 96Aver age PF0.950.940.930.920.910123456789Bi l l i ng P er i odFig.2: Monthly variation of average PF1202

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 3 Issue 6, June - 2014The energy audit has been done in the automobilecompany and the pharmaceutical industry in the industrialarea of Jeedimetla located in Hyderabad. Low power factor company 92.32.65.35.96.27.45.96.5Nature of work: Automobile work shopRContract demand: 120KVAAverage kWH consumption: 177271.VOLTAGEYAverage power factor: 0.772.2348.4376.2387.1B2.1Average electricity bill: Rs 1,80,027 76.73Nature of work: Pharmaceutical industry131.3213.6RGood power factor company details:4.481.42.CURRENT162.2240.2YContract demand: 1900KVA4.962.12113.9189.5B5.0Average kWH consumption: 2,28,640Average power factor: 0.97MIN3.POWER ( KW)4.AVGMAX76.1890.96POWER (KVAR )32.5341.5250.605.POWER 0IJERT59Table 1 Collected Data in the industry with low powerfactor.POWER CURVES:IJERTV3IS061138www.ijert.org1203

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 3 Issue 6, June - 2014TRANSFORMERPOWER FACTOR CURVE:SlPARAMETERNo1.2.VOLTAGE THD:VOLTAGECURRENTRMSTHD 13.1215.3B807943.9130611.212.8514.8POWERMINAVGMAX( KW )661.4722.8773.34.POWER (29.9880.6138.25.POWER (669.2730784.20.98200.98970.99203.KVAR )KVA)6.POWERFACTORCURRENT THD:IJERTTable 2 Collected Data in the industry with good powerfactor.POWER CURVES:POWER FACTOR CURVE:IJERTV3IS061138www.ijert.org1204

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 3 Issue 6, June - 2014power factor above 0.95 improvement in capacitor bank isrecommended.The capacitors required for power factorimprovement in order to get power factor incentive can becalculated from the general formula. 50 KVAR capacitorbank is required for the power factor improvement.As the demand is high, an APFC panel of 75KVAR is required.VOLTAGE THD:4.3 SAVINGS IN ELECTRICAL MOTORS:4.RESULTS OF ENERGY AUDITINGCONCLUSIONAs the countries develop the electricity,demand percapita increases and hence the need to saveelectrical energy becomes significant. Most factories facethe problem of higher cost of production. They cannotreduce the cost of raw material and labour but they canreduce the cost of energy consumption by implementingenergy management and conservation measures. Theenergy audit serves the purpose of identifying how a plantfacility uses energy and of analyzing the energyconservation opportunities. In conclusion, the potentialsaving in energy management program for industries arebased on the transformer analysis, power factormanagement, load management and electrical appliancesanalysis.IJERTEnergy consumption in industry is deeplydependant on the change of the structure of industrialproduction. The rise of the share of industrial subsectorswith low energy intensity is very important, but thatdepends on the strategic decisions of the Governmentbased on the overall strategy of the economic developmentof the country. Generally, energy efficiency improvementmeasures for industry can be divided in two main groups:(1) Energy efficiency improvements of energy sources inindustry (heat production and electricity in heat and powerplants in industry) and (2) Energy efficiency improvementsof industrial production processes. In EE improvements ofenergy sources in industry, two groups of measures arerecognized: (a) Programs and measures of modernization,revitalization and reconstruction of existing objects,equipment or energy technologies of energy sources inindustry and (b) Programs and projects of building of newplants or units, or replacement of old units with newenergy efficient units. The effects of measures andprograms of EE improvements of energy sources inindustry are estimated approximately to 20% of reductionof total energy consumption in industry.The over sized standard motors which are in thecompressor and pump sections are replaced by the newenergy efficient motors to save the electricity.The existing compressor motor of 15hp isreplaced by a 10hp energy efficient motor so that a totalsavings of Rs. 9253.752 is obtained. The payback period isaround 3years.The existing pump motor of 5hp is replaced by a3hp energy efficient motor to obtain a total savings ofRs.3997.695. the payback is around 2.5 years.REFERENCES1.2.4.1 LIGHTING SYSTEM:From the survey done at the automobile company, it hasbeen observed that the average lighting load was around15KW and the total energy consumed per annum is5400KWh. The industry spends an amount of Rs.37,260 onthe lighting. By using a power saver 20% of the amountper month can be reduced i.e., Rs. 7,452. In order to savethe lighting cost a power saver of 20KVA is required.3.4.5.6.7.4.2POWERFACTOR IMPROVEMENT:8.By studying the electricity consumption pattern it is seenthat the power factor is maintained at 0.87. But, this PF isnot sufficient to get the power factor incentive fromMSEB. To get power factor incentive, the power factormust be maintained above 0.95. In order to maintain theIJERTV3IS0611389.10.www.ijert.org“Working manual on energy auditing in Industries”, AsianProductivity organization, 2008.“How to conduct an energy audit: A short guide for localGovernments and communities” prepared by New JerseyDepartment of Environmental protection.“Energy Audit: A case study to reduce lighting cost”, InnovativeJournal.“Hand book of energy audits”, by Albert Thumann, WilliamJ.Younger.“Energy audit of a 400/220 Kv substation- a case study”,Sunil.M.Jaralikar and Mangalpady Aruna.“Energy saving potential of public building in Jiangbei District ofChongqing”, H E Hua, LONGTian-yu, ZHOU Zhi-yong, ZHAOJuan.“Energy and environmental analysis of electrical motor in industrialboilers”, R.Saidur, M.Hasanuzzaman.“Energy management audit and recommendations at a tertiaryinstitution”, JF Van Rensburg, EH Mathews, R Pelzer.“Electrical energy audit in Malaysian university- A case study”,Harapajan singh, Manjeevan Seera, Mohamad Adha Mohamad Idin.“Electrical energy audit and load management for low incomecostomers”, NM Ijumba, J.Ross.1205

Energy audit is a procedure that helps to analyze the use of energy in an enterprise or building. The energy audit serves to identify how a plant facility uses energy and to determine the energy conservation opportunities. The energy audit can assist in: evaluating energy efficiency, identifying energy