Game Rules - World English-Language Scrabble Players .

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Game RulesWorld English-Language Scrabble Players Association (WESPA)Version 4.0Issued by the WESPA Rules Committee1st of October, 2019SCRABBLE is a registered trademark of J. W. Spear & Sons Limited, a subsidiary of Mattel Inc., except in Canada and theUnited States, where it is a registered trademark of HASBRO.1

ContentsAcknowledgementsPreamble66Part 1 – Equipment71.1 Standard Rules71.2 Word Source71.3 The Game Set1.3.1 Tile Distribution1.3.2 The Tiles1.3.3 The Board1.3.4 Other Equipment1.3.5 State of Equipment1.3.6 Varying the Equipment1.3.7 Disputes Over Equipment777778881.4 The Timer1.4.1 Checking the Timer1.4.2 Precedence of Timers1.4.3 Neutralisation of the Timer1.4.4 Use of a Timer is Mandatory1.4.5 Timer Position1.4.6 Malfunction of Timers88899991.5 Written Aids1.5.1 Score Sheets1.5.2 Separate Tile-Tracking Lists1.5.3 Acceptable Materials1.5.4 Writing During the Game999991.6 Use of Electronic and Other Devices During PlayPart 2 – Starting the Game10112.1 Determining Who Starts112.2 Starting the Timer112.3 Late Arrivals2.3.1 Duty to be Present2.3.2 Both Players Absent2.3.3 One Player Absent2.3.4 Optional Forfeiture due to Lateness2.3.5 Compulsory Forfeiture due to Lateness2.3.6 Consequences of Forfeiture due to Lateness111111111212122.4 Shuffling Tiles122.5 Special Needs / Disabilities12Part 3 – The Turn3.1 Playing a Word3.1.1 Elements of the Turn3.1.2 Writing Scores When No Tiles Remain in the Bag3.1.3 Establishing Orientation13131313132

3.2 Exchanging Tiles3.2.1 Elements of the Exchange3.2.2 Exchange to Score Zero1414143.3 Passing143.4 Significance of Pressing the Timer3.4.1 Pressing the Timer Concludes Deliberation3.4.2 Elements Overlapping with Opponent's Next Turn3.4.3 Unintentionally Pressing the Timer141415153.5 Keeping Score153.6 Prerogatives of the Player On Turn3.6.1 Actions Reserved for the Player On Turn3.6.2 Actions Where the Player On Turn Has Priority3.6.3 Right to the Bag151515163.7 Shuffling or Counting the Remaining Tiles3.7.1 Procedure for Shuffling or Counting Tiles3.7.2 Right to Object to Opponent Shuffling Tiles1616163.8 Declaring a Blank163.9 Drawing Tiles3.9.1 Bag Position3.9.2 Drawing Protocols3.9.3 Keeping Tiles Above the Table3.9.4 Improper Drawing3.9.5 Overdrawing3.9.6 Improperly Corrected Overdraws3.9.7 Duty to Disclose Overdraw3.9.8 Late-Game Underdrawing3.9.9 Drawing Out Of Order3.9.10 No Tile Drawing While Awaiting Adjudication17171717171718181818183.10 Accepting and Challenging Turns3.10.1 Accepting the Turn3.10.2 Flash-Drawing3.10.3 Issuing and Adjudicating a Challenge - (see 3.11 (Procedures for Issuing andAdjudicating a Challenge))3.10.4 Challenging an Improperly Ordered Turn / Timer Not Pressed After Play3.10.5 Holds3.10.6 Courtesy Draws3.10.7 Amount of Time Allowed to Challenge When a Player Has Played Out3.10.8 No Retraction or Concession of a Challenge3.10.9 Rechallenging3.10.10 Erroneous Challenges3.10.11 Mis-adjudication of a Challenge3.10.12 Board Control During Challenge3.10.13 Challenge Penalties1919193.11 Procedures for Issuing and Adjudicating a Challenge3.11.1 Self-Adjudication3.11.2 External Adjudication2121223.12 Correcting Errors of Misoriented or Imperfectly Placed Tiles233.13 Illegal Moves3.13.1 Challenging Word Placement3.13.2 Improper Tile Exchanges3.13.3 Exchanging from Racks of Eight or More Tiles3.13.4 Exchanging from Racks of Six or Fewer Tiles2323232424Part 4 – Interrupting the Game4.1 Neutralising the Timer191919202020202020202125253

4.2 Leaving the Playing Area254.3 Tiles Discovered Out of the Bag254.4 Spilled Tiles264.5 Upset or Overturned Boards4.5.1 Accidental Board Upsets4.5.2 Intentional Board Upsets2626274.6 Tiles Discovered In the Bag After the End of the Game274.7 Tiles Noticed to be Missing During Play274.8 Scope of Uninvited Intervention by the Director in a Game274.9 Scope of Intervention by a Third Party in a Game274.10 Emergencies and Medical/Health Problems28Part 5 – Ending the Game295.1 'Playing Out'5.1.1 Procedure for 'Playing Out'5.1.2 Actions to be Taken Upon Playing Out5.1.3 Right to Restart the Timer5.1.4 Tiles Remaining29292929295.2 Six Consecutive Zero Scores End the Game295.3 Time Penalties5.3.1 Ascertaining When Time Penalties Apply5.3.2 Application of Time Penalties5.3.3 Overtime Leading to Forfeiture5.3.4 No Additional Time Penalties When Timer Not Neutralised5.3.5 Standard Game Time2929303030305.4 Result Slip5.4.1 Result Slips Final Once Signed5.4.2 Responsibility of Winner3030305.5 Recounts5.5.1 Right to Recount5.5.2 Recount Procedure5.5.3 Surrender of Score Sheet5.5.4 Tournament Director's Discretion31313131315.6 Tile Check315.7 Resigning31Part 6 - Conduct326.1 General Conduct326.1.1 Expected Standards326.1.2 Tournament Director's Powers and Responsibilities (see also 4.7 Scope of UninvitedIntervention by the Director in a Game)326.1.3 State of Mind326.2 Level 1 Offences (Cheating and Abusive Behaviour)6.2.1 Definition of Cheating6.2.2 Suspected Cheating6.2.3 Definition of Abusive Behaviour6.2.4 Penalties for Cheating and Abusive Behaviour32323233336.3 Level 2 Offences (Unethical Behaviour)6.3.1 Definition of Unethical Behaviour6.3.2 Behaviour Not Considered Unethical6.3.3 Penalties for Unethical Behaviour333334344

6.3.4 Privacy of Score Sheets346.4 Level 3 Offences (Poor Etiquette)346.4.1 Definition of Poor Etiquette346.4.2 Penalties for Poor Etiquette346.4.3 Observational Etiquette (see also 4.8 Scope of Intervention by a Third Party in a Game)356.5 Right of Appeal35Appendix 1 – Standard Rules36Appendix 2 – Official Word Source395

WESPA Rules Version 4AcknowledgementsAfter four years in the making, we are glad to be able to release the fourth version of WESPA Rules.This version is hopefully just the start of many improvements that will be made over the next fewyears. It could not have happened without the hard work of both current and former members of theWESPA Rules Committee, and the players who have put forward numerous modifications to improvethe Rules. Those we owe thanks to include: Evan Cohen, Liz Fagerlund, Dave Wiegand, JohnHamilton, Trevor Hovelmeier, Philips Owolabi, Karen Richards, Chris Lipe, Nick Ivanovski, MauroPratesi and many others who have contributed helpful suggestions, too numerous to mention.Jessica PratesiWESPA Rules ChairpersonPreambleThese Rules are for use in English-language word game tournaments. They establish internationalstandards designed to facilitate play between players whose domestic norms may differ. These Rulesapply at the World Championship and at tournaments organised and run by WESPA. Their use isalso strongly encouraged at all other tournaments with a significant degree of internationalparticipation.In the event of incompleteness or ambiguity in these Rules, the Tournament Director’s decision bindsthe players. The Tournament Director should report such decisions to the WESPA Rules Committee.The procedures for a player to appeal a decision are set out in Rule 6.5 (Right of Appeal).6

Part 1 – Equipment1.1 Standard Rules(a)(b)These Rules apply in addition to the standard game rules ('Standard Rules'). TheStandard Rules, which may change from time to time, are set out in Appendix 1.These Rules override the Standard Rules in the event of a discrepancy. Moreover:(i)games played under these Rules must be one on one, with both playerskeeping score; and(ii)games played under these Rules do not end if both players pass twice in succession.1.2 Word Source(a)(b)The official word source, listed in Appendix 2, is endorsed by WESPA in consultation with theWESPA Dictionary Committee. It may change from time to time.Tournaments played under these Rules must not deviate from the official word source.1.3 The Game Set1.3.1 Tile DistributionBoth players must check before play that the set contains the correct number and distribution of tiles.Either player may request such a check. Once the game starts, corrections may not be made.1.3.2 The Tiles(a)Tiles that best achieve both tactile and visual indistinguishability are preferred.(b)Any distinguishing marks (such as stickers) must be attached uniformly acrossthe complete set of tiles.(c)Sets free from tactile or visible irregularities caused by detachment from plasticmoulding (especially on the top edges of tiles) are preferred.1.3.3 The BoardOrdered by descending importance, the hierarchy of preferred attributes is:(a)boards with edges measuring 33-35cm, which are rigid or can be made rigid for play;(b)boards with indentations or ridges to prevent tiles from sliding;(c)boards that do not obstruct a player's view of the opponent's rack;(d)boards mounted on turntables that revolve with minimal disturbance to items on theplaying table;(e)boards with a non-reflective surface.1.3.4 Other Equipment(a)Players may use any rack they wish. However, the number of tiles on the rack must beclearly visible to the opponent.(b)Tile bags must comfortably accommodate (simultaneously) the set of 100 tiles and aplayer's hand.7

1.3.5 State of EquipmentAll equipment in the game set must be in an acceptable state of repair. This includes:(a)for tiles: clean, legible, not overly worn, hygienic;(b)for boards: smoothly rotating (if applicable), free from excessively distractingbackground designs;(c)for tile bags: opaque, not overly worn, of an appropriate size and design.1.3.6 Varying the EquipmentLocal exigency may at times require departure from the provisions in Rules 1.3.2-1.3.5.Tournament organisers should, however, make every effort to avoid this.1.3.7 Disputes Over EquipmentThe Tournament Director will resolve any disputes concerning equipment in the game set.1.4 The Timer1.4.1 Checking the TimerBoth players must check before play that the timer is set correctly and is working properly.1.4.2 Precedence of Timers(Note that in the list below, an ‘optically passive’ LCD screen is an LCD screen that does notemit light, such as the screen of a regular calculator)If there is a choice of timers, the order of precedence is:(a)digital timers with optically passive LCD screens with the following standard features:(i)countdown from the specified time limit to 00.00;(ii)display of overtime in minutes and seconds in a count-up fashion;(ii)neutralisation through the depression of a central button or designated area ofthe screen;(b)smart device digital timers with a minimum diagonal screen size of 3.5 inches (89 millimetres)and sufficient power for expected use, with all the standard features above;(c)digital timers with optically passive LCD screens capable only of counting up from 00.00 insuch a way that overtime can be accurately calculated in minutes and seconds and which canbe neutralised through the depression of a central button;(d)analogue chess clocks. Other timing devices are not suitable but may be considered, at the discretion of theDirector, if there is a shortage of suitable timers.In general, devices with a reputation of good reliability take precedence over those with areputation of poor reliability.When smart device timers are used, it is recommended that every reasonable measure betaken to prolong battery life.All else being equal, a smart device with a larger screen takes precedence over one with asmaller screen.Any dispute over timing devices will be settled by the Director.8

1.4.3 Neutralisation of the TimerIn these Rules, neutralising a timer means:(a)for a digital timer: pressing a button or part of the screen whose purpose is to stop thecountdown of both digital displays;(b)for an analogue chess clock: depressing both clock buttons such that they are balancedand neither player's clock is ticking.1.4.4 Use of a Timer is MandatoryThe use of a timer is mandatory for all games played under these Rules, though if there is ashortage of suitable timers, the Director will, using discretion, decide on a course of action.1.4.5 Timer PositionThe non-starting player may choose the position of the timer.1.4.6 Malfunction of TimersThe malfunctioning timer must be stopped and the Director called. If the timer cannot be stopped orif the display has malfunctioned then both players must immediately write down their most accuraterecollections of the amount of time left for each player at the moment of the malfunction. If the timermalfunctioned due to lack of power then the power source may be replaced or replenished and it maybe used again. Otherwise, the timer must be removed from the competition, its owner must benotified, and it must be replaced with a suitable timer. The Director will, in conjunction with theplayers and, if necessary, any other observers of the game, determine as accurately as possible howmuch time each player had left. The Director will then assign each player the agreed remaining timeon the replacement timer and the game will resume.1.5 Written Aids1.5.1 Score SheetsPlayers may use either their own score sheets or those supplied by the tournament organisers.Score sheets may incorporate tile-tracking lists and may be double-sided.1.5.2 Separate Tile-Tracking ListsPlayers may prepare separate tile-tracking lists before a game, for use in addition to theirscore sheets. Such lists must not be designed as memory aids.1.5.3 Acceptable MaterialsThe only visible papers allowed in the playing area are blank paper, contestant scorecards, blank andcurrent game score sheets, tile-tracking lists, challenge slips, blank designation slips and result slips.All other papers must be kept invisible and must not be referred to during play. Records of previouslyplayed games must be stored in such a way that they are neither readable nor easily accessible (Seealso 1.6 Use of Electronic and Other Devices During Play).1.5.4 Writing During the GameThere are no restrictions on what may be written on paper once the game begins.9

1.6 Use of Electronic and Other Devices During PlayApart from during adjudication of a challenge and with the exception of the timer, no electronicdevices (including wearable devices) may be used by a player during play, unless for a justifiablereason related to health or simply for telling the time. Non-electronic devices that give an advantageto the user during play (such as calculating devices) are also not permitted. Prior to the start of thegame and immediately after the game, electronic devices may be used in a way that does notdistract other players. All electronic devices in a tournament venue must be set so that they cannotmake distracting sound10

Part 2 – Starting the Game2.1 Determining Who Starts(a)(b)(c)If no system to predetermine starts is in use, the players draw a tile each. The player whosetile is closest to the beginning of the alphabet, with a blank preceding an A, starts the game.In the event of a tie, each player draws again. No tiles are returned to the bag until thestarter is decided. Once a starter is decided, the non-starter must return all tiles to the bag.Systems to predetermine starts must aim to ensure that all players in a tournament startapproximately half their games. Such systems may include:(i)assignment of the start in each game by a tournament software program;(ii)'self-balancing starts', in which the players compare their start/reply records beforeeach game. If a player has hitherto started fewer games than his or her opponent,then that player starts. If the records are equal, the standard tile-drawing procedureis used.When self-balancing starts are in use, any player who knowingly misrepresents his orher start/reply record is considered to be cheating.2.2 Starting the TimerThe timer of the player going first may be started once that player has removed a tile from the bag.2.3 Late Arrivals2.3.1 Duty to be Present(a)All players must arrive by the scheduled starting time for each round.(b)A player has officially arrived only when he or she is seated at the playing table readyto commence play immediately.2.3.2 Both Players AbsentIf neither player arrives by the scheduled starting time, the Tournament Director must:(a)exercising due discretion, start one side of the timer to be used for the game;(b)when the first player arrives, whether or not that player is due to play first, start thesecond side of the timer. The first player will be assigned the time showing on the first sideof the timer;(c)when the second player arrives, neutralise the timer. The second player will be assigned thetime showing on the second side of the timer minus the time already deducted from thefirst player.The game then proceeds as usual. No tiles may be drawn until both players arrive.2.3.3 One Player AbsentIf one player fails to arrive by the scheduled starting time, the Tournament Director must:(a)exercising due discretion, start the late player's side of the timer;(b)when the late player arrives, neutralise the timer. The player will be assigned the timeshowing on his or her side.The game then proceeds as usual. No tiles may be drawn until both players arrive.11

2.3.4 Optional Forfeiture due to LatenessA late player whose timer has been started may elect to forfeit the game if his or her assigned gametime, as calculated under Rule 2.3.2 or 2.3.3, is less than 15 minutes. For consequences see 2.3.6.2.3.5 Compulsory Forfeiture due to LatenessA player who fails to arrive before his or her assigned game time expires forfeits that game.For consequences see 2.3.6.2.3.6 Consequences of Forfeiture due to Lateness(a)A game forfeited under Rule 2.3.4 or 2.3.5 will count as a win for the opponent by amargin of 100 points. The Tournament Director may increase this margin if strategiclateness is suspected.(b)A game forfeited due to lateness under Rule 2.3.4 or 2.3.5 will not count towardsplayer ratings for the tournament.2.4 Shuffling TilesEach player may shuffle the tiles within the bag before the game and while on turn. Shuffling tilesexcessively and noisily, including hitting the bag on the table during shuffling, is distracting to fellowplayers and thus constitutes unethical behaviour (see Rule 6.3.1 (b)).2.5 Special Needs / Disabilities(a)(b)(c)Players must notify the Tournament Director, and, if relevant, the tournament organisers andvenue of any special circumstances, such as physical impediments, that may affect theircapacity to comply with any procedures set out in these Rules. Ideally, this notificationshould be done at least a week before a tournament.At the discretion of the Tournament Director, alternative procedures may be allowedor arranged to assist or accommodate players with special needs.At the discretion of the Tournament Director, a player with special needs may be awarded anamount of extra playing time, provided that this extra time will not interfere with the smoothrunning of the tournament, and with the proviso that the amount of time may be shortened ifthe tournament is so affected.12

Part 3 – The Turn3.1 Playing a Word3.1.1 Elements of the TurnTo complete a turn by playing a word, a player must, in this order:(a)place the tiles on the board (all blanks among said tiles must be properlydeclared according to rule 3.8 (Declaring a Blank), before the timer is pressed);(b)announce the score for the turn (this may be computed aloud quietly);(c)press the timer to start the opponent's time running;(d)record the score for the turn and the cumulative score in the normal space on his orher score sheet;(e)draw replacement tiles;(f)tile track (if desired).3.1.2 Writing Scores When No Tiles Remain in the BagIf no tiles remain to be drawn, the writing of scores and cumulative scores is not a required element incompleting a turn, so if one player wishes to confirm scores and the opponent has not recorded scoressince the bag emptied, the timer may be stopped until both players agree on the scores.3.1.3 Establishing Orientation(a)The first play of the game determines the game's orientation with respect to the board'sbonus square lettering. If this turn as played does not conform to the natural orientation ofthe bonus square lettering, then:(i)if the error is noticed by or is pointed out to the starting player before his or her turnhas ended, then the starting player must correct the error on that player's own time,or;(ii)if the error is only noticed by the player going second after the second player’s timerhas been started, then the second player may stop the timer and correct the error oforientation, after which the timer of the second player must be started by eitherplayer.(b)If the first play of the game is misoriented but is not corrected before the end of thesecond move of the game, then the first play of the game determines the orientation of allplays for the rest of the game, so any plays after the first play which are misorientedrelative to the first play may be challenged.13

3.2 Exchanging Tiles(For content relating to improper tile exchanges, refer to Rule 3.13.2 (Improper Tile Exchanges))3.2.1 Elements of the ExchangeTo complete a turn by exchanging tiles, a player must, in this order:(a)check that the bag contains at least seven tiles;(b)announce the exchange and the number of tiles to be exchanged;(c)place the unwanted tiles face down on the table;(d)press the timer to start the opponent's time running, after which no more unwanted tilesmay be placed on the table, regardless of what the announced number of tiles to beexchanged was (note that if no tiles were placed on the table prior to pressing the timer thenthis constitutes a passed turn);(e)record the exchange on the score sheet;(f)draw the required number of replacement tiles, keeping them separate from theunwanted tiles;(g)return the unwanted tiles to the bag;(h)place the replacement tiles on the rack.3.2.2 Exchange to Score ZeroAn exchange of tiles scores zero points.3.3 PassingTo complete a turn by passing, a player must, in this order:(a)announce the pass;(b)press the timer to start the opponent's time running;(c)record the pass on his or her score sheet.Note that pressing the timer so that the opponent can declare his or her blank on his or her own timedoes not count as a passed turn.3.4 Significance of Pressing the Timer3.4.1 Pressing the Timer Concludes Deliberation(a)By pressing the timer in the course of playing a word, exchanging or passing, aplayer indicates a final choice of move. The move may not be changed after this act.(b)A player may alter his or her choice of move at any point before pressing the timer.(c)A player indicates a final choice of move only by pressing the timer, but if the player neglectsto press the timer, final choice of move is indicated when the player places any part of ahand into the bag to draw tiles.(d)By indicating a final choice of move as in (c), above, a player confers on the opponent animmediate right to challenge the turn.(e)If the timer was pressed so that a player who just played an undeclared blank coulddeclare the blank on that player's own time, it does not count as a passed turn.14

3.4.2 Elements Overlapping with Opponent's Next Turn(a)By pressing the timer in the course of playing a word, exchanging or passing, a player startsthe opponent's next turn. Certain elements of the original turn may therefore overlap withelements of the opponent's next turn.(b)If a player tile tracks before drawing replacement tiles, and the opponent is thereby delayedfrom drawing or counting tiles, the opponent may petition the Tournament Director for extraplaying time.(c)(d)The Tournament Director will resolve any disputes concerning misordered turns. See alsoRule 3.10.4 (Challenging an Improperly Ordered Turn / Timer Not Pressed After Play).Where tile drawing or tile counting by the opponent prevent the player on turn from immediatelyaccessing the bag for the purpose of counting tiles, see 3.6.3 (Right to the Bag).3.4.3 Unintentionally Pressing the TimerIf the timer has been pressed unintentionally, for example, when rotating the board or with a sleeve,the Tournament Director may be petitioned to nullify this action. If the petition is accepted, any timeadjustments will be made at the discretion of the Tournament Director if deemed necessary. Play willthen proceed as normal.3.5 Keeping Score(a)(b)(c)(d)Until the bag is empty, both players must promptly record in the normal spaces on theirscore sheets both the score for each turn and the cumulative scores.Once the bag is empty, all further move scores and cumulative scores may be written afterthe timer is neutralised at the end of the game.Both players must verify the cumulative scores with reasonable frequency.Scoring errors may be corrected at any time prior to signing the result slip, though forcorrection of errors after the result slip is signed, see 5.4.1 (Result Slips Final OnceSigned).3.6 Prerogatives of the Player On Turn3.6.1 Actions Reserved for the Player On TurnA player may do the following things ONLY when it is his or her turn:(a)adjust tiles on the board (errors of misorientation or imperfect placement of tiles may bepointed out to the player on turn, but may only be corrected by a player who is on turn);(b)(c)rotate or adjust the board; orask to verify scores with the opponent, who must co-operate (keeping in mind that if theopponent has not written down the scores since the bag emptied, then the timer may bestopped until both players agree on the scores).3.6.2 Actions Where the Player On Turn Has Priority(a)The player on turn has priority for the following:(i)shuffling or counting the remaining tiles (see 3.6.3 Right to the Bag)(ii)checking the legality of an exchange.(b)The player not on turn, if doing one of these things, must ensure that the player on turn isminimally disturbed by the act.15

3.6.3 Right to the BagThe player on turn has immediate right to the bag for the purpose of counting tiles and theopponent must promptly surrender the bag upon request, except if the opponent is still drawing tilesor if the opponent already has a hand in the bag and is busy counting tiles, in which case the playeron turn may stop the timer until the bag is in the player on turn’s possession, after which eitherplayer must restart the player on turn’s timer.3.7 Shuffling or Counting the Remaining Tiles3.7.1 Procedure for Shuffling or Counting TilesTo shuffle or count the remaining tiles, a player must, in this order:(a)announce an intention to shuffle or count the tiles;(b)show the opponent an empty hand (open palm with fingers stretched apart);(c)hold the bag in a position acceptable for tile-drawing while shuffling or counting (see 3.9.1);(d)show the opponent an empty hand after shuffling or counting.3.7.2 Right to Object to Opponent Shuffling TilesA player may, only for a legitimate reason, object to the opponent shuffling or counting the remainingtiles. If this occurs, a tournament official may shuffle or count the tiles while the timer is neutralised,notifying both players of the result of the count.3.8 Declaring a Blank(a)(b)(c)(d)Blanks must be declared preferably by circling a printed letter or else by writing a capitalletter on a neutral sheet of paper, which must remain in clear view of both players for theduration of the game. If neither of the above papers are available for designation of theblank, then the timer may be stopped until one is procured. If a blank has been declared butthe opponent is still not certain of the actual designation of the blank, then the opponentmay stop the timer and demand that the player repeat the declaration of the blank. Neitheroral declarations nor players’ records on their personal papers are determinative.A player who plays a blank must declare it as in (a), above, BEFORE pressing the timer. If aplayer ends the turn without correctly declaring a blank, the opponent may immediatelyrestart that player’s timer and demand that the blank be properly declared. Pressing of thetimer by the opponent in this instance does not count as a passed turn.If the identity of an improperly declared blank that was played on an earlier turn is disputedthen the Director must be called. If the Director agrees that the improperly declared blankcould have been legitimately mistaken for another letter by the opponent, then the opponentmay declare the improperly declared blank to be that letter. All words formed that includethis newly declared blank may be challenged.If a blank is properly declared and its identity is nonetheless disputed at any later time, theDirector must be called. The Director will decide if there is a legitimate misunderstanding ofthe identity of the blank and may permit a move that has just been played based on amisapprehension of the blank’s identity to be replayed.16

3.9 Drawing Tiles3.9.1 Bag PositionWhen drawing tiles, a player must:(a)hold the tile bag so that its rim is at or above eye level;(b)avert his or her eyes from the tile bag; and(c)keep the tile bag in full view of the opponent.3.9.2 Drawing Protocols(a)Players need not draw tiles individually.(b)Players must not put a hand containing tiles into the tile bag. All drawn tiles must beplaced on the rack or the table before further tiles are drawn.(c)Players must show an empty hand both before and after drawing.(d)Tiles must be drawn with reasonable speed.3.9.3 Keeping Tiles Above the TablePlayers must keep all tiles above the level of the playing table at all times.3.9.4 Improper DrawingThe Tournament Director will resolve any disputes concerning the propriety of tile drawing.3.9.5 OverdrawingIf a player draws too many replacement tiles ('overdraws'), the timer must be neutralised and theoverdraw corrected as follows:(a)if NONE of the newly drawn tiles have touched the overdrawing player's rack then:(i)the overdrawing player places ONLY the newly drawn tiles face down onthe table and shuffles them randomly;(ii)if the overdrawing player has 6 tiles on the rack, then the opponentturns all the newly drawn tiles face up, and proceeds to step (iv) of3.9.5(a);(iii)if the overdrawing player has 5 or fewer tiles on the rack, then theopponent turns face up X 2 of the newly drawn tiles, where X is thenumber of OVERDRAWN t

1.1 Standard Rules (a) These Rules apply in addition to the standard game rules ('Standard Rules'). The Standard Rules, which may change from time to time, are set out in Appendix 1. (b) These Rules override the Standard Rules in the event of a discrepancy. Moreover: (i) games played under these Rules must be one on one, with both players