Refinery And Petrochemical Plants -Common Problems

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Common Refinery and Petrochemical Problemsand Armstrong Solutions Armstrong International, Inc.

Superheated SteamArea of the PlantCommon ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best PracticesUtilities (steam) Superheated steamtrap distribution lines –wet steam to turbines Superheat series (SH)traps designed forsuperheated service AIM system for turbineprotectionQuestions to generate opportunities: Are you checking the superheat temperature levels in yoursuperheated steam lines? How often are turbines being rebuilt? How do you protect your turbines from trap failures? How often do you check the critical drip traps in the turbinesteam supply lines? Are these traps a fail open design?

TurbinesArea of the PlantUtilities (steam)Common ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Turbine trip – due tonot receiving enoughsteam Steam balance studyQuestions to generate opportunities: Are you experiencing turbine trips due to lack of steam feed? Do you feel your steam system inefficiency is causing potential added risk toyour online turbine performance?

Turbine EjectorsArea of the PlantUtilities (steam)Common ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Turbine ejectors Pumping traps(condensate extractionfrom the vacuum sideof a condensingturbine)Questions to generate opportunities: Would the refinery save significant money if the turbine ejectors could bereplaced with a proven system that does not require continual steam blowthrough? Have you considered using a pressure driven pump to remove the condensateinstead of steam-consuming ejectors?

Steam TrapsArea of the PlantCommon ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best PracticesUtilities (steam) Maintaining the steamtrap system Total trap managementcapability (SteamStar)and AIM Trap selection - IB,SH series, F&TQuestions to generate opportunities: How do you currently maintain your trap population? How do you determine trap replacement ROI and do you have a tool tocommunicate plant-wide to concerned people? How do you select traps for your applications? How do you drive down your maintenance costs using existing technology?

Steam TrapsQuestions to generate opportunities: Do you have a wireless strategy for the facility? Would it be advantageous to be notified when critical traps fail, thus alertingyou of significant process problems before they occur? How do you get trap work orders to the field people and how is the worktracked when completed? Do the operators perform your low pressure trap repairs? Do they havedifficulty isolating and safely de-pressuring traps?

Steam LeaksArea of the PlantCommon ProblemsEncounteredUtilities (steam) Steam leaks – agedpiping, loose flanges,pipe expansion,corroded piping, failedgasketsQuestions to generate opportunities: Do you have a steam leak identification and lossquantification program? Would the facility be interested in saving theenergy from all the steam leaks to atmosphere? Would the site be interested in a financial analysisof how much the leaks are costing the plant andsolutions to stopping leaks?Armstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Steam leak surveysand energy losscalculations (steamloss table with plumecalculator)

Wet Plant Air, Air Leaks andCompressorsArea of the PlantCommon ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best PracticesUtilities (compressed air) Wet (compressed)plant air – motive gasused to actuate theprocess control valves Separators and liquiddrainers Air leaks throughoutthe utility loop Air leak surveys Compressoroptimization Compressoroptimization analysis

Wet Plant Air, Air Leaks andCompressors

Heat Exchangers, Reboilersand Tube BundlesArea of the PlantProcessesCommon ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Heat exchangeroptimization HE optimizationassessments – mayinclude air vents,condensate pumps,steam traps, andcontrol valves Tube bundlefailure/corrosion Condensate pumps,air vents and fin tubereplacement bundle Modulating ProcessControl temperatures Condensate pumps,air vents, and traps

Heat Exchangers, Reboilersand Tube Bundles

Turndown and ModulatingOutlet TemperaturesArea of the PlantCommon ProblemsEncounteredProcesses Turndown - ormodulating processflow rates Modulating inlet/outlettemperaturesArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Double-Duty pumpsQuestions to generate opportunities: Would you like to optimize, or increase, your turndown in your heat exchangerswithout encountering the typical problems that occur when turndown is higher? Would there be significant financial savings if the refinery could optimize theturndown in their heat exchangers and avoid flooding?

VacuumArea of the PlantProcessesCommon ProblemsEncountered Fouling of exchangersurfacesArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Double-Duty pumpsQuestions to generate opportunities: How often do you need to replace corroded tube bundles? Would having more latent heat available to increase exchanger efficiency bebeneficial to the plant? How does your plant address condensate drainage from vacuum space? Are flooded exchangers a common practice within your facility? If we could help you produce the same amount of product, and consume lessenergy, would that be of value?

Control SchemeArea of the PlantProcessesCommon ProblemsEncountered Control schemeArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Condensate pot levelcontrols vs. steamcontrol/DD pumpsQuestion to generate opportunities: Do you have trouble holding condensate levels in your pots?

Fouling of Exchanger SurfacesArea of the PlantProcessesCommon ProblemsEncountered Fouling of exchangersurfacesArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Double-Duty pumpsQuestions to generate opportunities: Do you have to take unplanned shutdowns (squats) to clean fouled reboilers?

Air, NCGs, and CondensateDrain to AtmosphereArea of the PlantProcessesCommon ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Air and NCGs Air vents Condensate drain toatmosphere DD pumps Proper trap sizingQuestions to generate opportunities: Do you experience premature gasket failure on steam fed tube bundles? Are you dumping condensate to drain?

Gas Leaks/Valve LeaksArea of the PlantProcessesCommon ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Leaking relief valves(which tie into flarelines) AIM System Gas leaks/valve leaks AIM SystemQuestions to generate opportunities: Have you had any flare issues recently that took a while to identify the reliefvalve causing the incident? Are there actuated valves that could be leaking and you are not aware of? Would it be helpful to have instant notification of failed relief valves on yourflare lines?

Tank and Railcar HeatingArea of the PlantProcessesCommon ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Tank heating coilfailures Temperature control Condensate removal Water removal Condensate pumps Air vents Full line of tankheaters Manifolds, TVS, traps Double Duty pumps Dual gravity drainersQuestions to generate opportunities: Are your heat-up times adequate for current plant operations? Are you using the proper trap technology for railcar transfers? Do you experience premature failures with tank coils?

TracingArea of the PlantTracingCommon ProblemsEncountered Cold circuitsArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices AIM trap monitoring Tracing optimizationsurveysQuestions to generate opportunities: Are you maintaining effective temperature controlin your tracing system, particularly your Sulphur lines? Since tracing traps comprise the largest populationof traps in a facility, do you feel your traps last longenough and are as efficient? Would it benefit your plant if your manifolding systemutilized a smaller footprint?

Circuit Troubleshooting, PipeTemps and MaintenanceArea of the PlantCommon ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best PracticesTracing Circuit troubleshootingand maintenance Manifolds/trap stations– check traps andcircuit from onelocation Process pipetemperatures Right steam traps AIM detection systemto alert personnel

Circuit Troubleshooting, PipeTemps and MaintenanceQuestion to generate opportunities: Do operators have trouble finding isolation valves for steam tracing? Are you having trouble maintaining desired process pipe temperatures withyour current tracing? How long does a trap repair take to complete? Would you like a single spare part for all tracers and steam main drip trapsbelow 400 psig (28 barg)? Is a 5-year warranty attractive?

Trap Safety

Excessive Back PressuresArea of the PlantCondensate returnCommon ProblemsEncountered Excessive backpressuresArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices AIM system for trapfailure Condensate systemaudit Flash tank condensatedrumsQuestions to generate opportunities: Do you know if your condensate line pressure is at system design? How do you control your back pressure in the condensate return system? Have you added to your condensate system over time but not considered thesizing impact to the original line when doing so? Are you currently using trap technology that is susceptibleto excessive back pressure?

Corrosive CondensateArea of the PlantCommon ProblemsEncounteredArmstrong Solutionsand Best PracticesCondensate return Corrosive condensate Thermostatic air vents Condensate polishersQuestions to generate opportunities: Are you allowing condensate to sub-cool and remain in steam lines? Do you have the ability to drain steam lines upon shut-down? Do you currently use air vents on your steam mains? Do you spend excessive amounts of money on corrosion prevention?

Water HammerArea of the PlantCondensate returnCommon ProblemsEncountered Water HammerArmstrong Solutionsand Best Practices Condensate returnsystem assessmentQuestions to generate opportunities: Do you separate your pumped condensate return from your trappedcondensate return? Are your condensate return lines undersized? Do you mix condensate from different steam pressures in a single return line?

Armstrong provides intelligent system solutions that improve utility performance, lower energy consumption,and reduce environmental emissions while providing an "enjoyable experience."Armstrong InternationalNorth America Latin America India Europe / Middle East / Africa China Pacific Rimarmstronginternational.comBulletin M2124Printed in U.S.A. – 7/13 2013 Armstrong International, Inc.

(condensate extraction from the vacuum side of a condensing turbine) Pumping traps . Have you considered using a pressure driven pump to remove the condensate instead of steam-consuming ejectors? Steam Traps Area of the Plant Common Problems Encountered Armstrong Solutions and Best Practices Utilities (steam) Maintaining the steam