Basketball Coaching Guide - Special Olympics

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BASKETBALL COACHING GUIDE

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuideAcknowledgementsAcknowledgementsSpecial Olympics wishes to thank the professionals, volunteers, coaches and athletes who helped in the production ofthe Basketball Coaching Guide. They have helped fulfill the mission of Special Olympics: to provide year-roundsports training and athletic competition in a variety of Olympic-type sports for people 8 years of age and older withintellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage,experience joy and participate in a sharing of gifts, skills and friendship with their families, other Special Olympicsathletes and the community.Special Olympics welcomes your ideas and comments for future revisions of this guide. We apologize if, for anyreason, an acknowledgement has been inadvertently omitted.Contributing AuthorsDave Lenox, Special Olympics, Inc.Ryan Murphy, Special Olympics, Inc.Special Thanks To the Following for All of Your Help and SupportWilliam Brown, Basketball Sport Resource Team MemberLeon Burwell, Basketball Sport Resource Team MemberFloyd Croxton, Special Olympics, Inc., AthleteWanda Durden, (formerly) Special Olympics, Inc.Vickie Forsyth, Basketball Sport Resource Team MemberHarold Holland, Basketball Sport Resource Team MemberJohn Moreau, Basketball Sport Resource Team MemberMichael Mundy, Basketball Sport Resource Team MemberPaul Whichard, Special Olympics, Inc.Sailaja AkunuriSpecial Olympics MarylandSpecial Olympics North AmericaVideo Clips Starring Athletes from Special Olympics MarylandMontgomery CountyTerrel Limerick, Special Olympics, Inc., AthleteBobby Special Olympics MarylandMontgomery County AthleteBobby Special Olympics MarylandMontgomery County AthleteJoe Special Olympics Maryland Montgomery County AthleteMax Special Olympics MarylandMontgomery County AthleteRachel Special Olympics MarylandRicardo Special Olympics MarylandJacky Loube, Special Olympics, Inc.2Montgomery County AthleteMontgomery County AthleteBasketball Technical DelegateSpecial Olympics Basketball Coaching Guide- October 2007

BASKETBALL COACHING GUIDEPlanning a Basketball Training & Competition Season

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuidePlanning a Basketball Training & Competition SeasonTable of ContentsGoalsBenefitsGoal Setting and MotivationGoal SettingAssessing Goals ChecklistEight- Week Training ProgramSample Practice SchedulesBasketball Week-1 PracticesBasketball Week-2 PracticesBasketball Week-3 PracticesBasketball Week-4 PracticesBasketball Week-5 PracticesBasketball Week-6 PracticesBasketball Week-7 PracticesBasketball Week-8 PracticesPreseason PlanningIn-Season PlanningConfirmation of Practice ScheduleEssential Components of Planning a Basketball Training SessionSample Practice Plan FormPrinciples of Effective Training SessionsTips for Conducting Successful Training SessionsTips for Conducting Safe Training SessionsBasketball Practice CompetitionsSample Training SessionSelecting Team MembersAbility GroupingAge GroupingCreating Meaningful Involvement in Unified Sports Basketball Skills AssessmentSpecial Olympics Basketball Skills Assessment CardDaily Performance RecordBasketball AttireShirtsShortsSocksShoesKnee PadsWarm-Up SuitsHead BandsBasketball 293032323232333438393939393939393941Special Olympics Basketball Coaching Guide- October 2007

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuidePlanning a Basketball Training & Competition SeasonGoalsRealistic yet challenging goals for each athlete are important to the motivation of the athlete both at training and duringcompetition. Goals establish and drive the action of both training and competition plans. Sport confidence in athleteshelps to make participation fun and is critical to the athlete s motivation. Please see the Principles of Coaching Sectionfor additional information and exercises on goal setting.BenefitsIncreases athlete s level of physical fitnessTeaches self-disciplineTeaches the athlete sports skills that are essential to a variety of other activitiesProvides the athlete with a means for self-expression and social interactionGoal Setting and MotivationDeveloping Self-Confidence through Goal SettingAccomplishing goals at practice through repetition in settings similar to the competition environment will instillconfidence. Setting goals is a joint effort between athletes and coaches. The main features of goal setting are:1.2.3.4.5.6.Goals need to be structured as short-term, intermediate and long-term.Goals need to be viewed as stepping stones to success.Goals must be accepted by the athlete.Goals need to vary in difficultyfrom easily attainable to challenging.Goals must be measurable.Goals need to be used to establish the athlete's training and competition plan.Athletes with or without an intellectual disability may be more motivated by accomplishing short-term goals thanlong-term goals; however, do not be afraid to challenge athletes. Include athletes in setting their personal goals. Forexample, ask the athlete, "How many correct passes do you want to make today? Let's see how many correct passes youmade at the last practice. What is your personal best? What do you think you can do?" Awareness of why the athlete isparticipating is also important when setting goals. There are participation factors that may influence motivation andgoal setting:Age appropriatenessAbility levelReadiness levelAthlete performanceFamily influencePeer influenceAthlete preferencePerformance Goals versus Outcome GoalsEffective goals focus on performance, not outcome. Performance is what the athlete controls. Outcomes are frequentlycontrolled by others. An athlete may have an outstanding performance and not win a contest because other athletes haveperformed even better. Conversely, an athlete may perform poorly and still win if all other athletes perform at a lowerlevel. If an athlete's goal is to run the course in a certain time, the athlete has greater control in achieving this goal thanwinning. However, the athlete has even greater control of achieving a goal if the goal is to finish the course using thecorrect form. This performance goal ultimately gives the athlete more control over his/her performanceSpecial Olympics Basketball Coaching Guide- October 20075

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuidePlanning a Basketball Training & Competition SeasonMotivation through Goal SettingGoal setting has proved to be one of the most simple and effective motivational devices developed for sport within thepast three decades. While the concept is not new, today the techniques for effective goal setting have been refined andclarified. Motivation is all about having needs and striving to have those needs met. How can you enhance an athlete'smotivation?1.2.3.4.5.6.Provide more time and attention to an athlete when he/she is having difficulty learning a skill.Reward small gains of achievement in skill level.Develop other measures of achievement outside of winning.Show your athletes that they are important to you.Show your athletes that you are proud of them and excited about what they are doing.Fill your athletes with self-worth.Goals give direction. They tell us what needs to be accomplished. They increase effort, persistence and the qualityof performance. Establishing goals also requires that the athlete and coach determine techniques for how to achievethose goals.Measurable and SpecificEffective goals are very specific and measurable. Goals stated in the form of "I want to be the best that I can be!" or "Iwant to improve my performance!" are vague and difficult to measure. It is positive sounding but difficult, if notimpossible, to assess whether they have been reached. Measurable goals must establish a baseline of performancerecorded during the past one or two weeks for them to be realistic.Difficult, but RealisticEffective goals are perceived as challenging, not threatening. A challenging goal is one perceived as difficult butattainable within a reasonable amount of time and with a reasonable amount of effort or ability. A threatening goal isone perceived as being beyond one's current capacity. Realistic implies that judgment is involved. Goals based upon abaseline of performance recorded during the past one or two weeks are likely to be realistic.Long- versus Short-Term GoalsBoth long- and short-term goals provide direction, but short-term goals appear to have the greatest motivational effects.Short-term goals are more readily attainable and are stepping stones to more distant long-term goals. Unrealistic shortterm goals are easier to recognize than unrealistic long-term goals. Unrealistic goals can then be modified beforevaluable practice time has been lost.Positive versus Negative Goal SettingPositive goals direct what to do rather than what not to do. Negative goals direct our attention to the errors we wish toavoid or eliminate. Positive goals also require coaches and athletes to decide how they will reach those specific goals.Once the goal is decided, the athlete and coach must determine specific strategies and techniques that allow the goal tobe successfully attained.Set PrioritiesEffective goals are limited in number and meaningful to the athlete. Setting a limited number of goals requires thatathletes and coaches decide what is important and fundamental for continued development. Establishing a few carefullyselected goals also allows athletes and coaches to keep accurate records without becoming overwhelmed with recordkeeping.Mutual Goal SettingGoal setting becomes an effective motivational device when athletes are committed to achieving those goals. Whengoals are imposed or established without significant input from the athletes, motivation is unlikely to be enhanced.6Special Olympics Basketball Coaching Guide- October 2007

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuidePlanning a Basketball Training & Competition SeasonSet Specific Time LinesTarget dates provide urgency to an athlete's efforts. Specific target dates tend to eliminate wishful thinking and clarifywhich goals are realistic and which are not. Timelines are especially valuable in high-risk sports where fear oftenpromotes procrastination in learning new skills.Formal versus Informal Goal SettingSome coaches and athletes think that goals must be set in formal meetings outside of practice and require long periodsof thoughtful evaluation before they are decided upon. Goals are literally progressions that coaches have been using foryears but are now expressed in measurable, performance terms rather than as vague, generalized outcomes.Team versus Individual GoalsWhile team goals appear to have great importance for team sports, the reality is that most team goals can be brokendown into individual roles or responsibilities. Each player must achieve these individual roles or responsibilities for theteam to function effectively.Goal Setting DomainsWhen asked to set goals, athletes typically focus on the learning of new skills or performances in competitions. A majorrole of the coach is to broaden the athlete's perception of those areas, and goal setting can be an effective tool. Goals canbe set to enhance fitness, improve attendance, increase intensity, promote sportsmanship, develop team spirit, find morefree time or establish consistency.Goal SettingSetting goals is a joint effort between the athlete and coach. Following are the main features of goal setting:Structured into short-term and long-termStepping stones to successMust be accepted by the athleteVary in difficultyfrom easily attainable to challengingMust be measurableShort Term ObjectiveLearning basketball in a fun environment.Long Term GoalThe athlete will acquire basic basketball skills, appropriate social behavior and functional knowledge of the rulesnecessary to participate successfully in basketball competitions.Special Olympics Basketball Coaching Guide- October 20077

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuidePlanning a Basketball Training & Competition SeasonAssessing Goals Checklist1. Write a goal statement.2. Does the goal sufficiently meet the athlete s needs?3. Is the goal stated positively? If not, rewrite it.4. Is the goal under the athlete s control, and does it focus on that athlete s actions and no one else s?5. Is the goal important enough to the athlete that he/she will want to work toward achieving it? Does he/she havethe time and energy to do it?6. How will achieving this goal make the athlete s life different?7. What barriers might the athlete encounter in working toward this goal?8. What more does the athlete need to know?9. What does the athlete need to learn how to do?10. What risks does the athlete need to take?8Special Olympics Basketball Coaching Guide- October 2007

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuidePlanning a Basketball Training & Competition SeasonEight- Week Training ProgramThe following eight-week training plans have been used successfully with athletes of varying abilities with all trainingsessions. These are offered as samples and not as required training programs. In a best-case scenario, you will havemany more than eight weeks to train, and many more opportunities for competition, than are listed here.Week One Practice 11. Warm up with footwork activities and a ball, then stretch.2. Conduct Basketball Skills Assessment Tests (BSAT s) Dribble, Rebound, Perimeter Shooting.3. Cool down and team talk.Week One Practice 21. Warm up with footwork activities and a ball, then stretch.2. Conduct Basketball Home Training Program emphasis on dribbling theme.3. Play Dribble Tag; also introduce the concept of offense and defense.4. Cool down and team talk.Week Two Practice 11. Warm up with footwork activities and a ball, then stretch.2. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (10 minutes each)shooting and going after the ball.3. Conduct a controlled scrimmage.4. Cool down and team talk.dribbling, passing/catching,Week Two Practice 21. Warm up with footwork activities and a ball, then stretch.2. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (10 minutes each)(introduce throw-in), shooting and going after the ball.3. Teach a simple offense on the half court; scrimmage.4. Cool down and team talk.dribbling, passing/catchingWeek Three Practice 11. Warm up with footwork activities and a ball, then stretch.2. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (10 minutes each)shooting with Rebound Ball and one-on-one defense.3. Review a simple offense on the half court; teach a simple defense; scrimmage.4. Cool down and team talk.dribbling, passing/catching,Week Three Practice 21. Warm up with footwork activities and a ball, then stretch.2. Teach simple pre-game warm-up routine.3. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (5-7 minutes each) dribbling, passing/catching,shooting with Rebound Ball, and one-on-one and then two-on-one defender.4. Review a simple offense and defense on the half court and scrimmage (introduce 3-second lane).5. Cool down and team talk.Special Olympics Basketball Coaching Guide- October 20079

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuidePlanning a Basketball Training & Competition SeasonWeek Four Practice 11. Warm up with footwork activities and a ball, then stretch.2. Use pre-game warm-up.3. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (5-6 minutes each) dribbling, passing/catching,shooting with Rebound Ball and two-on-one defender.4. Review a simple offense and defense on the half court and scrimmage (introduce changing baskets athalftime).5. Cool down and team talk.Week Four Practice 21. Warm up with footwork activities and a ball, then stretch.2. Use pre-game warm-up.3. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (5 minutes each ) dribbling, passing/catching,shooting with Rebound Ball, and two-on-one and then two-on-two defense.4. Review a simple offense and defense on the half court, and scrimmage (teach jump ball and practice changingbaskets at halftime).5. Cool down and team talk.Week Five Practice 11. Use pre-game warm-up and then stretch.2. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (4-5 minutes each) dribbling, passing/catching,free throw with rebounding and two-on-two.3. Review the offense and defense on the half court; play a shortened game (set up a situation with ball out ofbounds under the basket).4. Cool down and team talk.Week FivePractice 2 (Play a game against a local team.)Week Six Practice 11. Use footwork activities, run through the pre-game warm-up, and then stretch.2. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (4 minutes each) dribbling, passing/catching,free throw with rebound ball, and two-on-two and then three-on-two.3. Review the offense and defense on the half court; play a shortened game (emphasize playing positions andchanging ends at halftime; review situation with ball out of bounds under basket; set up situation with ball outof bounds at the sideline).4. Cool down and team talk.Week Six Practice 21. Use footwork activities, run through pre-game warm-up, and then stretch.2. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (4 minutes each) dribbling, passing/catching,free throw with rebound ball, and three-on-two and then three-on-three.3. Review the offense and defense on the half court; play a shortened game (emphasize playing positions andchanging ends at halftime; review situation with ball out of bounds under basket and at sideline).4. Cool down and team talk.10Special Olympics Basketball Coaching Guide- October 2007

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuidePlanning a Basketball Training & Competition SeasonWeek Seven Practice 11. Use footwork activities, run through pre-game warm-up, and then stretch.2. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (3-4 minutes each) dribbling, passing/catching,free throw with rebound ball, and three-on-two and then three-on-three.3. Review the offense and defense on the half court; play shortened game (emphasize playing positions andchanging ends at halftime; review situation with ball out of bounds under basket and at sideline).4. Cool down and team talk.Week SevenPractice 2 (Play a game against a local team.)Week Eight Practice 11. Use footwork activities, pre-game warm-up, and then stretch.2. Divide into four equal groups and conduct four skill stations (3-4 minutes each) dribbling, passing/catching,free throw with rebound ball, and three-on-two and then three-on-three.3. Prepare for Area Tournament; set up any situations and scrimmage.4. Cool down and team talk.Week Eight Practice 2 (Compete in the Area Tournament.)1. Travel; arrive; register team and Individual Skills athletes; review schedule.2. Eat snack or meal an hour and a half before competing (or after competing when necessary).3. Warm up and stretch 20 minutes before competing.4. Compete.5. Receive awards.6. Cool down.7. Return home.After the Eight-Week Season1. Continue training athletes going beyond Local or Area competition.2. Invite athletes, parents, group home staff, facility host, sponsors, etc.3. Have an end-of-the-season party to celebrate and recognize athletes achievements and assistant coaches help.4. Thank the facility host.5. Thank assistant coaches.6. Thank other volunteers.7. Send a follow-up news story and photos to media.8. Evaluate the season.9. Develop the season plan for next year.Special Olympics Basketball Coaching Guide- October 200711

Special Olympics Basketball Coaching GuidePlanning a Basketball Training & Competition SeasonSample Practice SchedulesBasketball Week-1 PracticesSuggest Two Practices Minimum (repeating and reinforcing concepts for both)20 minutesWarm up en masse in waves of four, starting at one end of court: Jogging (forward, backward;defensive sliding)Dribbling, passing and moving to ball (in pairs and moving sideli

Sample Practice Schedules 12 Basketball Week-1 Practices 12 Basketball Week-2 Practices 13 . rive the action of both training and competition plans. Sport confidence in athletes . Timelines are especially valuable in high-risk sports where fear often