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Introduction to Sports BiomechanicsIntroduction to Sports Biomechanics: Analysing Human Movement Patterns provides agenuinely accessible and comprehensive guide to all of the biomechanics topics coveredin an undergraduate sports and exercise science degree.Now revised and in its second edition, Introduction to Sports Biomechanics is colourillustrated and full of visual aids to support the text. Every chapter contains crossreferences to key terms and definitions from that chapter, learning objectives and summaries, study tasks to confirm and extend your understanding, and suggestions tofurther your reading.Highly structured and with many student-friendly features, the text covers: Movement Patterns – Exploring the Essence and Purpose of Movement AnalysisQualitative Analysis of Sports MovementsMovement Patterns and the Geometry of MotionQuantitative Measurement and Analysis of MovementForces and Torques – Causes of MovementThe Human Body and the Anatomy of MovementThis edition of Introduction to Sports Biomechanics is supported by a website containingvideo clips, and offers sample data tables for comparison and analysis and multiplechoice questions to confirm your understanding of the material in each chapter.This text is a must have for students of sport and exercise, human movement sciences,ergonomics, biomechanics and sports performance and coaching.Roger Bartlett is Professor of Sports Biomechanics in the School of Physical Education,University of Otago, New Zealand. He is an Invited Fellow of the International Societyof Biomechanics in Sports and European College of Sports Sciences, and an HonoraryFellow of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences, of which he wasChairman from 1991–4. Roger is currently Editor of the journal Sports Biomechanics.

Introduction to SportsBiomechanicsAnalysing Human Movement PatternsSecond editionRoger Bartlett

First edition published 1997This edition first published 2007by Routledge2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RNSimultaneously published in the USA and Canadaby Routledge270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2007.“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to”Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business 1997, 2007 Roger BartlettAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilizedin any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known orhereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any informationstorage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataA catalog record for this book has been requestedISBN 0-203-46202-5 Master e-book ISBNISBN10: 0–415–33993–6 (hbk)ISBN10: 0–415–33994–4 (pbk)ISBN10: 0–203–46202–5 (ebk)ISBN13: 978–0–415–33993–3 (hbk)ISBN13: 978–0–415–33994–0 (pbk)ISBN13: 978–0–203–46202–7 (ebk)

To the late James Hay, a source of great inspiration

ContentsList of figuresList of tablesList of boxesPrefaceIntroduction1Movement patterns – the essence of sports biomechanicsxxvxvixviixix1Introduction 1Defining human movements 3Some fundamental movements 8Movement patterns 35Comparison of qualitative and quantitative movementanalysis 36Summary 40Study tasks 40Glossary of important terms 41Further reading 422Qualitative analysis of sports movements43Introduction 44A structured analysis framework 44Preparation stage – knowing what and how to observe 48Observation stage – observing reliably 51Evaluation and diagnosis stage – analysing what’s right and wrong in amovement 54Intervention stage – providing appropriate feedback 56Identifying critical features of a movement 59Summary 72Study tasks 73Glossary of important terms 75Further reading 76Appendix 2.1 Universal and partially general movement(biomechanical) principles 76vii

CONTENTSAppendix 2.2 Other examples of phase analysis of sportsmovements 783More on movement patterns – the geometry of motion83Introduction 83Movement patterns revisited 84Fundamentals of movement 87Linear motion and the centre of mass 90The geometry of angular motion 93The coordination of joint rotations 96Summary 109Study tasks 109Glossary of important terms 111Further reading 112Appendix 3.1 Further exploration of angle–time patterns 1124Quantitative analysis of movement115Introduction 116The use of videography in recording sports movements 117Recording the movement 120Experimental procedures 126Data processing 133Projectile motion 139Linear velocities and accelerations caused by rotation 146Rotation in three-dimensional space 146Summary 148Study tasks 149Glossary of important terms 151Further reading 152Appendix 4.1 Data smoothing and filtering 153Appendix 4.2 Basic vector algebra 1575Causes of movement – forces and torquesIntroduction 164Forces in sport 164Combinations of forces on the sports performer 180Momentum and the laws of linear motion 183Force–time graphs as movement patterns 186Determination of the centre of mass of the human body 189Fundamentals of angular kinetics 191Generation and control of angular momentum 195Measurement of force 201Measurement of pressure 213Summary 215viii163

CONTENTSStudy tasks 216Glossary of important terms 218Further reading 2226The anatomy of human movement223Introduction 224The body’s movements 225The skeleton and its bones 232The joints of the body 237Muscles – the powerhouse of movement 241Electromyography – what muscles do 258Experimental procedures in electromyography 265EMG data processing 268Isokinetic dynamometry 273Summary 276Study tasks 276Glossary of important terms 278Further reading 280Index281ix

ardinal planes and axes of movementReference posturesMovement of the forearm about the elbow joint in the sagittal planeAbduction and adduction of the arm about the shoulder joint and thethigh about the hip jointMedial and lateral rotation of the arm about the shoulder jointHorizontal flexion and extension of the abducted arm about theshoulder jointYoung female walking overground at her preferred speed in trainersSame young female as in Figure 1.7 walking on a level treadmill at herpreferred speed in trainersOlder male walking on a level treadmill at his preferred speed inbowling shoesAnother young female walking on a level treadmill at her preferredspeed in high-heeled shoesYoung male walking on a 20% inclined treadmill at his preferred speedin work shoesThree-year-old boy walking overgroundYoung female running at her preferred speed in trainersAnother young female running at her preferred speed in dress shoesYoung male running at his preferred speed in casual shoesOlder male running at his preferred speed in normal trainersOlder male running at his preferred speed in MBT trainersThree-year-old boy running at his preferred speedYoung male sprinting in spikesStanding countermovement vertical jump with hands on hipsStanding countermovement vertical jump with normal arm actionStanding countermovement vertical jump with ‘model’ arm actionStanding countermovement vertical jump with abnormal arm actionStanding countermovement broad, or long, jump with hands on hipsStanding countermovement broad, or long, jump with normal 728 throw – female bowling a ‘drive’Underarm throw – female bowling a ‘draw’Underarm throw – young male bowling a ‘draw’Sidearm throw – the hammer throwOverarm throw – javelin throwOverarm throw – bowling in cricketSimplified logical decision tree approach to qualitative classification offast bowling technique‘Principles’ approach to qualitative analysisLevels 1 and 2 of long jump deterministic modelExplanation of division of distance jumped into three componentsLevel 3 of long jump model – factors affecting flight distanceLevel 4 of long jump model – factors affecting take-off speedLevel 4 of long jump model – factors affecting take-off speed – avoidingthe blind alleyTake-off velocity componentsRevised long jump model for flight distanceFactors affecting take-off horizontal velocityFactors affecting take-off vertical velocityFinal model for take-off vertical and horizontal velocitiesIdentifying critical features that maximise force generation and verticaland horizontal acceleration pathsIdentifying critical features that affect take-off distanceIdentifying critical features that affect landing distanceStick figure sequences of skierSolid body model of cricket fast bowlerCurvilinear motionAngular motionGeneral motionHypothetical horizontal displacement of the centre of mass with timefor a novice sprinterPositive (valley-type) curvature and negative (hill-type) curvatureHypothetical centre of mass displacement, velocity and accelerationvariation with % race time for a novice sprinterVariation of knee angle with time in treadmill runningVariation of knee angle, angular velocity and angular acceleration withtime in treadmill runningHip, knee and ankle angle–time series for three strides of treadmilllocomotionBasic types of coordinationAngle–angle diagrams for one ‘ideal’ running strideAngle–angle diagrams for three strides in treadmill runningAngle–angle diagrams for one walking strideAngle–angle diagram with time 707085868788899091929495979899100101102xi

FIGURES3.17 Phase planes for one running stride3.18 Superimposed phase planes for the hip and knee joints in one runningstride3.19 Continuous relative phase for hip–knee angle coupling for one runningstride, derived from Figure 3.183.20 Hip and knee phase planes for one stride of walking3.21 Partitioning of variance3.22 Variation of knee angle with time in treadmill running; furtherexplanation of angle–time patterns4.1 Computer visualisation4.2 Modern digital video camera4.3 Errors from viewing movements away from the photographic plane andoptical axis of the camera4.4 A typical calibration object for three-dimensional videography4.5 Possible camera placements for movement such as long jump4.6 Aliasing4.7 Three-dimensional DLT camera set-up4.8 Simple example of noise-free data4.9 Residual analysis of filtered data4.10 Simple measurement of segment volume4.11 The right-hand rule4.12 Projection parameters4.13 Effect of projection angle on shape of parabolic trajectory4.14 Tangential velocity and tangential and centripetal accelerationcomponents for a gymnast rotating about a bar4.15 Angular orientation showing angles of somersault, tilt and twist4.16 Low-pass filter frequency characteristics4.17 Displacement data4.18 Simple example of noisy data4.19 Over-smoothing and under-smoothing4.20 Vector representation4.21 Vector addition4.22 Vector resolution4.23 Vector addition using components4.24 Vector cross-product5.1 Directional quality of force5.2 Vertical component of ground reaction force in a standing vertical jumpwith no arm action5.3 Ground reaction force and its components5.4 Training shoe on an inclined plane and its free body diagram5.5 Unweighting5.6 Buoyancy force5.7 Separation points on a smooth ball5.8 Generation of 166167168169171174178

.19Typical path of a swimmer’s hand relative to the waterForces on a runnerLevers as examples of parallel force systemsStanding vertical jump time seriesDetermination of whole body centre of massAction and reactionAngular momentumGeneration of rotationGeneration of rotationInstantaneous centre of rotation and centre of percussionTrading of angular momentum between axes of rotationGround contact force and moment (or torque) components that act onthe sports performerForce plate characteristicsRepresentation of force input and recorded output signals as a functionof timeSteady-state frequency response characteristics of a typical second-orderforce plate systemTransient response characteristics of a typical second-order force platesystemForce plate variables as functions of time for a standing broad jumpForce vectors for a standing broad jump and centre of pressure pathfrom aboveA plantar pressure insole system – Pedar Pedar insole data displaysMovements in the frontal plane about the sagittal axisMovements of the thumbShoulder girdle movementsPelvic girdle movementsThe skeletonSurface features of bonesClassification of synovial jointsMain skeletal musclesStructural classification of musclesSimple schematic model of skeletal muscleMuscle responsesLength–tension relationship for whole muscle contractionForce–velocity relationshipTension–time relationshipForce potentiation in the stretch–shortening cycle in vertical jumpsThree-dimensional muscle force componentsTwo-dimensional muscle force componentsSchematic representation of the generation of the EMG signalBipolar configurations of surface 249251252253254255257258261xiii

FIGURESEffect of high-pass filter on cable artifactsEMG signals without mains humElectrode locations based on SENIAM recommendationsTime domain processing of EMGIdealised EMG power spectrumEMG power spectra at the start and the end of a sustained, constantforce contraction6.26 Use of an isokinetic 272272274

Tables2.14.15.1Examples of slowest satisfactory shutter speeds for various activitiesKinematic vectors and scalarsCalculation of the two-dimensional position of the whole body centreof mass; cadaver data adjusted to correct for fluid loss53140221xv outcomesPlanes and axes of movement and postures from which movements aredefinedMain movements in other planesLearning outcomesStages in a structured approach to analysis of human movement insportSummary of universal and partially general movement principlesLeast useful movement principles (in my experience)Learning outcomesA cautionary tale of unreliable dataLearning outcomesTwo-dimensional or three-dimensional analysis?Those things called vectors and scalarsLearning outcomesNewton’s laws of linear motionLaws of angular motionWhy measure force or pressure?Guideline values for force plate characteristicsLearning outcomesLocation of main joint sagittal axes of rotation and joint centres ofrotationA schematic model of skeletal muscleIntrinsic factors that influence the EMGSome electrode placements (adapted from 237247259266

PrefaceWhy have I changed the cover name for this book from that of the first edition? Becauseafter teaching, researching and consulting in sports biomechanics for over 30 years, mydefinition of sports biomechanics has become simply, ‘the study and analysis of humanmovement patterns in sport’. This is a marked change from the first edition, theintroduction to which began with the sentence: ‘Sports biomechanics uses the scientificmethods of mechanics to study the effects of various forces on the sports performer’.The change in focus – and structure and contents – of this book reflects an importantchange in sports biomechanics over the last decade. Most sports biomechanics textbooks, including the first edition of this one, have strongly reflected the mathematical,engineering or physics backgrounds of their authors and their predominant researchculture. Hence, the mechanical focus that is evident, particularly in earlier texts, as wellas a strong emphasis on quantitative analysis in sports biomechanics. In this early partof the third millennium, more students who graduate with a degree focused on sportsbiomechanics will go on to work as a movement analyst or performance analyst withsports organisations and client groups in exercise and health than will enrol for aresearch degree. The requirements on them will be to undertake mostly qualitative,rather than quantitative, analysis of movement. Indeed, I will often use the term‘movement analyst’ instead of ‘sports biomechanist’ to reflect this shift from quantitative to qualitative analysis, and to broaden the term somewhat, as will be apparent later.So, qualitative analysis is the main focus of the first three chapters of this newedition; however everything in these chapters is also relevant for quantitative movementanalysts – you cannot be a good quantitative movement analyst without first being agood qualitative analyst. The last three chapters focus on quantitative analysis. Evenhere, there are notable changes from the first edition. First, I have removed sectionsthat dealt with sports objects rather than the sports performer. This reflects thegrowth of sports engineering as the discipline that deals with the design and function ofsports equipment and sports objects. Secondly, rather than the structure of the firstedition – four chapters on fundamentals and four on measurement techniques – themeasurement sections are now incorporated within Chapters 4 to 6 (and touched onin Chapter 2) and are covered only in the detail needed for undergraduate students.More advanced students wishing to probe deeper into measurement techniques anddata processing will find the new text edited by Carl Payton and myself a source of morexvii

P R E FAC Edetailed information (Biomechanical Evaluation of Movement in Sport and Exercise,Routledge, 2007).So what do sports biomechanists – or movement analysts – do? We study and analysehuman movement patterns in sport to help people perform their chosen sportingactivity better and to reduce the risk of injury. We also do it because it is so fascinating.Yes, it is fascinating, otherwise so many of my generation would not still be doingit. And it is intellectually challenging and personally gratifying – if you can contributeto reducing an athlete’s injury risk or to improving his or her performance, it gives you awarm glow. Sounds exciting, doesn’t it? Indeed it is – a wealth of fascination. So, let usbegin our journey.This edition is intended to be more reader-friendly than the first. Each chapter startswith an outline of learning outcomes, and knowledge assumed, which is crossreferenced mostly to other parts of the book. At the end of each chapter, a summary isprovided of what was covered and eight study tasks are listed. Hints are given about howto go about each task, including referring to video clips, data tables and other materialavailable on the book’s website, which is, in itself, another important pedagogicalresource. The website also includes PowerPoint slides for lecturers to use as a basis fortheir lectures, and multiple choice questions for students to self-test their learningprogress. Further reading material is also recommended at the end of each chapter.The production of any textbook relies on the cooperation of many people other thanthe author. I should like to acknowledge the invaluable, carefully considered commentsof Dr Melanie Bussey on all the chapters of the book and, particularly, her glossariesof important terms in each chapter. All those who acted as models for the photographicillustrations are gratefully acknowledged: former colleagues of mine at ManchesterMetropolitan University in the UK – Drs Vicky Goosey, Mike Lauder and KeithTolfrey – and colleagues and students at the University of Otago in New Zealand – DrMelanie Bussey, Neil Davis, Nick Flyger, Peter Lamb, Jo Trezise a

bowling shoes 12 1.10 Another young female walking on a level treadmill at her preferred speed in high-heeled shoes 13 1.11 Young male walking on a 20% inclined treadmill at his preferred speed in work shoes 14 1.12 Three-year-old boy walking overground 15 1.13 Young female running at her preferred speed in trainers 16