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GIMP 2.10.8REPAIRING PHOTOS AND DOCUMENTS WITH GIMPGimpIntroductionSetting up GIMPPreferences344File TypesOpening FilesSaving FilesExporting Files5555FILETOOLS OPTIONS6SELECTION TOOLS7PAINTING TOOLSBrush OptionsClone and Healing ToolHeal Selection (Resyntesizing)Blur/SharpenSmudgeDodge/BurnColor PickerText9912121212121313COLORSRed EyeFixing Faded PhotosColor Adjustments141414TRANSFORMATIONStraighten & RotateScalePerspective CorrectionCropping1515151515LAYERSIntroduction to LayersLayer MasksLayer ModesVicky Getzpage 1 of 21161617Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8SHARPENINGSharpen (Unsharp Mask)High PassSharpen Wavelet-Decompose PluginG'IMC Qt [Octave] Plugin18181919DENOISESimple Denoise MethodTwo step method using HSL & G'MIC2020COPY AND PASTE21TROUBLESHOOTING21Vicky Getzpage 2 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8REPAIRING PHOTOS AND DOCUMENTS WITH GIMPAdding photos to your family history documentation makes them much more interesting. Most of thetime you will be scanning old photos. When scanning photos make sure the flat bed is dust free. Oldphotos produce a lot of dust and that dust will show up in your scans, so make sure to keep your glassdust free. . Another tip, is even though the ancient photo will most likely be in black and white,always scan your photos in color as you will be able to tease out more details.When doing family history you may come across images that are less than ideal. The image may becrooked, faded, or damaged image. In order to fix these issues you will need some sort of photo editingsoftware, with more options than MS Photos has to offer.We are using GIMP because it is the most powerful free alternative to PhotoShop.GIMP has a very busy interface because it does so many things. This booklet covers the some of thebasic concepts to get started with photo restoration. The videos have been carefully chosen for pacewith the 55 brain in mind.GIMP – GNU Image Manipulation ProgramThere are still some developers who write open source, and then support their products with ads ontheir site and solicit donations if you find their product useful. You are probably familiar withOpenOffice or LibreOffice, which are open source alternatives to Microsoft Office. Likewise, GIMP isan open source alternative to Adobe Photoshop. Adobe is the top of the line. Adobe has many productsthat manipulate photos. Photoshop Elements retails for 119, PhotoShop CC costs up to 20 a month.GIMP is a powerful photo editing program that you can download and use for free. If you find theprogram useful, you can make a donation to the developer through the website.Both GIMP and Adobe Photoshop Elements have an intimidating interface, but the processes I haveused for photo repair on each piece of software I have used has been about the same degree ofdifficulty. Getzpage 3 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8SETTING UP GIMP ON WINDOWS 7 OR 10.With any open source program you need to make sure you are getting it from the correct website, andbeware of ads that may masquerade as the official download. The base GIMP application can be foundat Gimp Add Ons /In the lab we have these GIMP and these plugins that were recommended by Make Use Of:GIMP 2.10.8G'mic (plug-in with great special effects)GIMP Scripts BundleDuplicate to Another ImageNIK CollectionReynthesize (a powerful healing addon, I could only find the Windows version in a blog post)Wavelet Decompose (powerful add on for working with skin tones)Darkroom (for use with .RAW files )Hugin Panoramas (windows 64 only)In Windows 7, GIMP doesn't show up on the Open With list for images. On Windows 7 you need tomanually setup file associations repeating the following steps for each type of image file.Right click on an image from the file explorer.,Select Open WithChoose Set DefaultChoose OtherNavigate to “C:\Program Files\GIMP 2\2.1\bin\GIMP 2.10”Uncheck Always Open With unless you want this to really be the default program.Repeat these steps for JPG, BMP, PNG, GIF.PREFERENCESInitial setup comes with a dark theme and dark icons, and for most of us will need color icons toactually differentiate the tools. First thing to do is visit the Edit Preferences menu and change theInterface settings :Themewe are using System ThemeTheme Icon we are using Legacy IconsToolboxuncheck Use tool groups (not present in 2.10.8, but is present in later versionsand makes icons harder to find.)Vicky Getzpage 4 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8FILESFile typesGIMP handles a large variety of file formats, but as a beginner, for the most part we will be limitingour discussion to XCF, JPG and PNG files. XCF, short for eXperimental Computing Facility, is the native image format of the GIMPimage-editing program. It saves all of the data the program handles related to the image,including, among others, each layer, the current selection, channels, transparency, paths andguides. This format is used inside of GIMP and is not suitable to share your finished work,instead you will be exporting to JPG or PNG. JPG – JPEG, short for Joint Photography Experts Group, is a format that is the most commonimage format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices. It is themost common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web.Its a “lossy” format, which means that every time you re-save the image, a little of the quality islost. PNG – Portable Network Graphics that supports lossless data compression. The PNG formatwas developed for transferring images on the Internet, not for professional-quality printgraphics. Export to PNG if you need to preserve transparency in a picture.Opening a file in GIMPThe File Open dialog box in GIMP is quite different than anything I have ever seen on a WindowsPC. Watch the video for an excellent demo on the ways to open a file in GIMP.VIDEO How to open an Image 5:07 Oiyx52f6sp0Saving a fileThe Save and Save As dialog box, allows you to save an XCF file. If the file has already been named,the Save feature will overwrite the previous version without a warning message, otherwise this willbring up the Save As dialog. Use Save As to change the name.Exporting a fileThe Export and Export As are the options you need to create a picture suitable for sharing or using ina document. To select the JPG or PNG format, merely change the file extension when you specify thefile name. If the file was an import, the Export option will be replaces with an Overwrite option.Vicky Getzpage 5 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8Dockable Dialog BoxesWhen you first installed GIMP, it was configured to be in Single-Window Mode. There are several tooldocks on the edges, each with multiple tabs. But GIMP can be easily customized. The Docks andtabs can be torn off made to float and can be docked and closed individually. This is really great if youare a power user, not so great if you use the software once in a blue moon.The docks can easily be restored by going to the Windows menu , (see troubleshooting) but the tabsmay be missing or moved .TOOLS OPTION TABThe Tools Option Tab is one of the most important dialog boxes. You need to view it any time youchange tools. It is quite easily dislodged from its dock and closed. While it is easy to get back, I'dsuggest beginners lock the Tools Option menu in place so that its always the first tab under the quicktools area.Quick ToolsPress this buttonTo see the tabs menuTabsVicky Getzpage 6 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8SELECTION TOOLSSelection tools are designed to select regions from the active layer so you can work on them withoutaffecting the unselected areas.In order to make changes, the area must be selected. You can use the selection to limit the areas thatare changed by the various painting tools BucketFill, Gradient, Pencil, Paintbrush, Eraser, Airbrush,Ink, Clone, Heal, Perspective Clone, Blur/Sharpen, Smudge, dodge /Burn)In addition there are more selection tools from the Select menu at the top of the screen.SelectSelect AllCtrl ASelect NoneShift Ctrl AInvert SelectionCtrl IGIMP offers advanced users a lot of great selection features by using the modifier keys (combinationsof ALT, CTRL, Shift) with the mouse and a lot of keyboard shortcuts. For now we are sticking withthe settings we can choose on the screen, but as you do become more proficient, do visit the GIMP helppages to see these advanced features.Vicky Getzpage 7 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8Selection ModeThe selection mode on the Tools Option tab determines the way that the selection you create iscombined with any pre-existing selection. Note that the functions performed by these buttons can beduplicated using modifier keys, as described above. For the most part, advanced users use the modifierkeys; novice users find the mode buttons easier.Replace mode will cause any existing selection to be destroyed or replaced when the newselection is created.Add mode will cause the new selection to be added to any existing selection regions.Subtract mode will remove the new selection area from any existing selection regions.Intersection mode will make a new selection from the area where the existing selection regionand the new selection region overlap.AntialiasingThis option only affects some selection tools: it causes the boundary of the selection to bedrawn more smoothly.Feather EdgesThis options allows the boundary of the selection to be blurred, so that points near the boundaryare only partially selected.VIDEO Selection 3:23: UfdtI1re3oMVicky Getzpage 8 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8PAINTING TOOLSThere are fourteen painting tools included in GIMP. All the paint tools except the Bucket Fill andGradient have a brush size in the Tool Options. For photo restoration, the clone tool, the heal tool, theblur tool, the dodge tool will be the most useful.BRUSHES OPTIONSYou'll be using sliders a lot in GIMP. These work differently than any other slider I have everencountered. Placement of your pointer is very important when using these sliders. If you drag theslider to adjust the value, the speed that the slider slides will depend on if you are in the upper or lowerhalf of the slider.TIP SLIDERS TIPPosition mouse in the upperportion of the slider for fastadjustmentIn the lower portion for slowerslider.Vicky Getzpage 9 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8MODEMany brushes have a mode drop-down menu available. I haven't been ableto find a comprehensive list of what these modes are used for, only a fewof the modes were shown in troubleshooting guides, as to why the toolswere not working as advertised.OPACITYThe Opacity slider indicates how sheer or opaque the brush is going to bepainting. Even at full opacity some of the tools will be slightly translucent.If you wanted to paint with nothing showing through choose the rightpainting tool. Ink will be opaque, while the paintbrush will be translucent.SIZEAs the name implies, Size allows you to control the size of the area being painted.Quick tip: instead of moving your mouse over to the tools Option tab, use the brackets [ and ] fromthe keyboard to get the brush to resize to fit in the area. This method lets you resize brush withouthaving to guess at the size.ASPECT RATIO and ANGLEChanging an Aspect Ratio and an angle together make a big difference in a round brush. The circle hadan aspect ratio of 0. When we changed it to 12.62 it flattened. When we change the angle to 42.10 itturned on its side.Vicky Getzpage 10 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8If you click on the brush icon it will show you a variety of standard brushes. The 4 round brushesshown here on the second row are the most common. They vary in hardness. Use a softer brush tomake the painting blend better.MY PAINT BRUSH – Advanced Topic not covered in class.This “My Paintbrush” tool is an advanced tool. You can make your own custom brushes orload pre-made brushes.VIDEO My Paintbrush 3:21 n77LssXpql4ARTICLE Brush Add Ons /Vicky Getzpage 11 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8CLONE & HEALINGThe clone and healing tools both have a source and a target. Set the source by hovering over a locationand then press the CTRL key on your keyboard and click the left mouse button. The Healing toolcopies and blends, while the Clone tool just copies pixels.VIDEO: Clone man out of Dog photo 3:33 QeP-TvXDDl4VIDEO: Cloning and Healing 6:53 1 QgEa9SiBUHEALING A SELECTION (RESYNTHESIZER )Resythesizer is a GIMP plugin that automates removing an object from a picture. We have theresynthesizer plug-in installed in the lab. Select the object to be removed, including a little bit of theare that you want to be copied. Then go to the Filters- Enhance- Heal Selection.VIDEO: Resynthesizer 10:07 J61ExqvNcBQBLUR SHARPENUse blur to blend colors. Use blur to decrease the differentbetween colors. Sharpen is supposed to increase the differencebetween colors. The tool can be toggled from blur to sharpen.VIDEO: Blur an Owl 2:06 UEMwRdOktIoSMUDGEBlurring with direction, more or less a smear.VIDEO: Smudge an Owl 1:02 oOdpLNevDngDODGE/BURN(Lighten/Darken)Scroll to the bottom of the dodge/burn tools options to see thecontrols that apply. The dodge tools works on a specific range oftones, dark, mid, or light. It lightens in Dodge mode, it darkens inburn mode.VIDEO: Dodge Burn 2:04 B4C2TC RjCsVicky Getzpage 12 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8COLOR TOOLJust about every program you use to create content has a color tool. The GIMP color tool shows youthe current foreground and background. You can click on either the foreground color to change thecolor. Unlike some of the simpler color sectors you may see in other programs, this color tool allowsyou to select any of the 16.7 million colors.The small iconin the lower left changesto black on white.The small icon in the upper right will swapforeground and background.COLOR PICKERThe color picker takes the guess work out of color selection by just choosing a color from a specificpixel or the average color of a group of pixels.VIDEO: Color Picker 4:40 names to photos can be very helpful in identifying photos, and can also be easily removed froma your final product.VIDEO: Text for Beginners 5:29 LoPLBbNeedoVicky Getzpage 13 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8COLORSRED EYE REMOVALRed eye in photos is easily corrected. This option is found on the Filter Menu.Filter - Enahance - Red Eye RemovalVIDEO: Red Eye Removal 4:17 PHOTOSBadly faded photos still carry a surprising amount of data. The best tool to fix a faded photo colorlevels tool. Open the faded photo in GIMP and from the Colors menu and select Levels and then clickon the Auto Input Level button.VIDEO: Auto Levels 4:08 ZhyvW-oa3JkIn another, we see how to repair a partially faded picture using lightness and contrast.VIDEO: Partial Faded Portion 12:15 eeiETD0VVpQOTHER COLOR ADJUSTMENSGimp offers many other color correction tools, you can adjust levels, curves, exposure, hue, colorbalance, color saturation, there are many Auto settings like Equalize, White Balance, Stretch Contrast,Color Enhance that can improve your photos. Each photo problem needs a custom solution. Use sometrial and error to see what changes you need.RECOMENDED VIDEOS ON COLOR CORRECTIONVIDEO Girl in Yellow Hat 9:48 DaeHrNt-HrsVIDEO Basic Color Settings 9:31 hUXc-fOovakVIDEO Advanced Colors 22:49 TiavEWDVQGEVIDEO Color Curves 13:57 JDY6voINTsoVIDEO Luminosity to fix dark objects 22:11 3Izcmh1ZB4UVicky Getzpage 14 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8TRANSFORMATION TOOLSOn both the Image and Layer menus you have Transform menus that let you flip images horizontally,vertically, rotate them 90º clockwise, 90º counter-clockwise, or 180º, but just about every imagehandling program can do that. Photo programs let you do more interesting moves.Rotation Tool to straighten a photo.Drag a horizontal guideline down from the top, or a vertical guideline from the left, then select therotation tool. Drag the image until the item is straight. Adjust the clipping setting in the tools optionbox to determine what to do with the corners that overhang the the layer boundries/ Then press theRotate button on the dialog box.VIDEO: Rotation with GIMP 9:14 CorrectionThis tool can square up an image. This tool is particularly useful if you've taken a photograph of animage instead of using a scanner.VIDEO: Perspective tool 5:44 an image for emailing or for display on the web is important. If an image is large it isgoing to take forever for the recipient to open the file, or the webpage to load. There are two ways toreduce the number of bytes being sent. One is to reduce the dimensions (pixels), the other is to reducethe quality when you Export the document.Hint: Use the Ctrl key while dragging the scale tool to keep the image ratio.VIDEO: Scaling an Image 2:14 6DHxgkSG Zw&t 0sCropping an imageCropping, (cutting the edge off of photos) is used to remove an unwanted irrelevant detail from aphoto, change its aspect ratio, or to improve the overall composition. Select the area with the croppingtool, and then click inside the image.VIDEO: How to crop an image 1:56 2QMAhaSWf3EVicky Getzpage 15 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8LAYERSAs you get more into creating content, you'll need to have some understanding of layers. You evenneed to understand layers to cut and paste.Canvas – the area that is going to be included in our JPGAlpha Channel – Include transparency on a layerThink of building a collage, you are given a bunch of pictures to arrange in some artful way on a pieceof paper or poster board, that would be your canvas. The order that you the pictures on it would beyour layers, and the finished product, everything on the canvas would be your image.VIDEO: Circles 6:44 v2ZE9oQH4YEVIDEO: Image vs Layer 5:21 gwJP7sUaXeIVIDEO: Door, Clock, Dog 6:12 v2ZE9oQH4YEARTICLE: ups-in-gimp-1701685Layer MasksLayer masks are a fundamental tool in image manipulations. Masks allow you to selectively modify theopacity (transparency) of the layer they belong to. This differs from the use of the layer Opacity slideras a mask has the ability to selectively modify the opacity of different areas across a single layer. Layermasks are a complicated subject but getting your head around the basic concept opens up many moreways to enhance your photos.VIDEO: Cutting out Hair 6:42 AnbxtMCHKV0VIDEO: Remove background 9:14 FD8qqh3ySI4VIDEO: Quick mask Cat 2:52 OR2yOhKJdnUVIDEO: Partial Colored Duck 3:11 qPMmfUNmsJMVIDEO : Partial Colored Toys 4:14 a7st18ZwlAYVIDEO: Scald the bunny 8:11 PI8 2FnIow0VIDEO: Sharpen an Image 4:06 6AvIAgjQCFoVIDEO: Sharpen an Image 1:44 (no sound) StNx2RJxbW4Luminosity MaskARTICLE: p-luminosity-masks.htmlVIDEO: Luminosity Mask 22.10 3Izcmh1ZB4UVicky Getzpage 16 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8Layer ModesLayer modes are also sometimes called “blending modes”. Selecting a layer mode changes theappearance of the layer or image, based on the layer or layers beneath it. If there is only one layer, thelayer mode has no effect. There must therefore be at least two layers in the image to be able to use layermodes.Gimp has 38 layer blending modes divided into 7 categories.Normal (Normal, Dissolve, Erase, Color Erase, Merge and Split)Lighten (Lighten only, Luma/Luminance, Screen, Dodge, Addition)Darken (Darken only, Luma/Luminance. Multiply, Burn, Linear burn)Contrast (Overlay, Soft light, Hard light, Vivid light, Pin light, Linear light, Hard mix)Inversion (Difference, Exclusion, Subtract, Grain extract, Grain Merge, Divide)HSV components (HSV Hue, HSV Saturation, HSL Color, HSV Value)LCh components (LCh Hue, LCh Chroma, LCh Color, LCh Lightness, LCh Luminance)On the Layer tab, click on the drop downarrow to change your blending mode.Lowering the Opacity will reduce theeffectDuplicating a layer will increase theeffectRemove excess layersAn understanding of layer modes, helps you get better results out of GIMP, and its worth whilewatching this 1 hour long video.VIDEO: Comprehensive look at layer modes 58:32 17Iivi0tmugVicky Getzpage 17 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8SHARPENINGThere are many ways to sharpen your images in GIMP. We are going to look at 4 of them. The firsttwo are built in functions of GIMP. The next 2 require adding plugins,. See section on “How to Add aGIMP PlugIn”Filter Enhance Sharpen (Unsharp Mask)Click on this option, fiddle with the sliders until you get the results you want, and then saveyour results.VIDEO: Raspberries in the bowl 4:05 fFZV4zT1fec .Filter Enhance High PassHigh pass filtering gives much better results than the Sharpen (Unsharp mask), but it is a littlemore complicated because now you are dealing with layers.Old method:1. Create a duplicate layer of the image. This is not just for comparison!2. Run Filter Enhance High Pass, and adjust the Std. Dev. and Contrast settings toyour liking.3. On the layer tab, change the Layer Mode type from Normal, to the desired blendingmode.4. Duplicate the layer, as necessary, to increase the effect.5. When you like what you see, merge the layers , Image Merge Visible layersVIDEO: The Fly 4:06 6AvIAgjQCFoVIDEO: Buttons cYWOK5v OuYVIDEO: The Keyboard and Watch 4:11 XQCZ6asVazoNew High Pass method:As of version 2.10.20, High Pass automatically creates a copy, and the Layer Mode is availableon the dialog box. The number of times I have forgotten step 1, makes this worth upgrading!1. Run Filter Enhance High Pass, adjust the STD. Dev. , Contrast and underBlending Options, select the desired Mode.2. On the Layer tab, duplicate the layer, as necessary to increase the effect.VIDEO: New Method demo: CdHUpnYgqVgVicky Getzpage 18 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8Filter Enhance Wavelet-decomposeWavelet decompose is a GIMP plugin. You will need to download and install this toolseparately.This tool makes a copy of your image and divides it into layers that can be worked onseparately. This tool is very good for airbrushing faces while leaving the detail intact.VIDEO: Retouching a face with wavelets13:02 3dbsIiSDCNgVIDEO: Fern Sharpen Octave Sharpening and Wavelet Decompose 5:01 m1YzNSHyytkFilter G'MIC Qt Details Sharpen [ Octave Sharpening ]The G'MIC Qt method requires a plugin.VIDEO: Fern Sharpen Octave Sharpening and Wavelet Decompose 5:01(same as above) m1YzNSHyytkVicky Getzpage 19 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8DENOISEThere are two types of noise, color and luminosity (white dots). They make the picture look grainy.The methods for fixing this involve blurring the photos.Filter Enhance DenoiseThis method blurs the whole picture or a selection. When used on the whole picture it generallyyields unacceptable quality.Two step method using HSL and G'IMC SmoothingThis method requires the G'IMC Plugin. It give much better results than a simple denoiseReduce Color noiseDuplicate the layerFilter Blur Gausian Blur until color noise disappearsSet Layer mode to HSL Color Mode to blend the colors with the layer belowLayer new from VisibleRemove Luminance noise with smoothingFilter G'MIC Qt Repair SmoothingTry various settingsVIDEO: How to Easily Denoise Photos in GIMP 7:25 Ie4yrT0angIVicky Getzpage 20 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8COPY AND PASTEEven Copy (Ctrl C) and Paste (Ctrl V) behave differently in GIMP. When you paste a floatinglayer is created. To finish pasting, right click on the floating layer, and then choose Anchor Layer orTo New Layer depending on what you want to do with the paste.VIDEO Copy and Paste 3:54 18Kx9k66coYTROUBLESHOOTINGMissing Controls and PanelsVIDEO MNRS e4lsxU&t 0s&list PLTNGHxWTtzJRdusrUb9BuZh0f95z6Ny7q&index 7When Tools don't workVIDEO kDOhxuiQ7ZUHint If you can't get your clone and healing to sample an area try selecting the magnifying tooland zooming in, and zooming out CTRL and Zoom and then reselect the healing tool and try toget the sample.Vicky Getzpage 21 of 21Revised 02/26/21

GIMP 2.10.8 REPAIRING PHOTOS AND DOCUMENTS WITH GIMP Gimp Introduction 3 Setting up GIMP 4 Preferences 4 FILE File Types 5 Opening Files 5 Saving Files 5 . Adding photos to your family history documentation makes them much more interesting. Most of the time you will be scanning old photos. When scanning photos make sure the flat bed is dust .