Wood Crate Design Manual - USDA Forest Service

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WOOD CRATEdesign manualAGRICULTURAL HANDBOOK NO. 252 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVICE

WOOD CRATEDesign ManualBy L. O. ANDERSON, Engineer, and T. B. HEEBINK, EngineerFOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY(Maintained at Madison, Wis., incooperation with the University ofWisconsin)AGRICULTURE HANDBOOK NO. 252FOREST SERVICEFEBRUARY 1964U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUREFor sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OfficeWashington, D.C., 20402 - Price 70 cents

CONTENTSIntroduction- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Factors that affect crate design - - - - - - - - - Contents - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Destination and method of transit- - - - - Handling hazards - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Storage conditions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Costs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Materials for crates- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Wood and wood-base materials - - - - - - - - Fastenings - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Designing crates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Importance of diagonals - - - - - - - - - - - - - Design principles - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Designing the crate base - - - - - - - - - - - - - Designing the top - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Sheathed crates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Military type sheathed crates-----------Limited-military sheathed crates - - - - - - Light-duty sheathed crates - - - - - - - - - - - Open crates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Military type open crates - - - - - - - - - - - - Limited-military type open crates - - - - - -Page12222445513232424293132324546505053Light-duty open crates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Skid assemblies - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Skid sizes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Floorboard sizes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Diagonal bracing- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Assembly - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Testing crates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Superimposed-load tests - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Handling tests - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Drop and impact tests - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Appendix I. Panel member sizes - - - - - - - - - Appendix II. Details of shipping - - - - - - - - Marking - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Packing lists- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Shipping loss prevention - - - - - - - - - - - - - Export shipping - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Anchoring crates to ship surfaces - - - - - - Carloading crates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Shipping losses and insurance - - - - - - - - - Tare weight of crates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Appendix III. Glossary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Index - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -ACKNOWLEDGMENTIn preparing this publication, the authors have been privileged to draw onmuch of the research of the late C. A. Plaskett, the late T. A. Carlson, andH. J. Kuelling, as well as a number of other members of the Forest ProductsLaboratory and various Defense Agencies.The number of these contributorsis so great that individual acknowledgment is 21121121121123123125129

INTRODUCTIONThe packaging industry consumes 15 to 20percent of each year’s timber cut, in the form oflumber, plywood, veneer, container fiberboard,composite materials such as paper overlaid veneer,and papers of various types. Because of thiscontinued heavy use of wood, the Forest ProductsLaboratory, U.S. Forest Service, has always devoted much research to packaging. Much of thisresearch has been conducted over the years incooperation with the Air Force, the Army Corpsof Engineers and Ordnance Corps, other agenciesof the Defense Department, and several industrialfirms.Of principal concern are the fundamental principles of design and the relationships of variousdetails in the construction of containers that arebalanced in strength. Special testing machinesand methods of testing have been developed.From this research, supplemented by study andobservation of shipping containers in service, hascome much information of value to packagingengineers.The growth of American industry has generatedgreat needs for containers of all kinds, from colorful wraps for retail merchandise to workhorsecontainers for the worldwide shipment of machinesand equipment of any size, shape, and weight.Among these containers, the wood crate is one ofthe most important used for shipping and is perhaps the most adaptable to the application ofengineering principles in design. Crates are generally made of wood (or a wood-base material)because it is strong and rigid, comparatively lightin weight, inexpensive, easily formed into a multitude of sizes and designs, and adaptable to avariety of conditions of use.A wood crate is a structural framework ofmembers fastened together to form a rigid enclosure, which will protect the contents duringshipping and storage. This enclosure is usually ofrectangular outline and may or may not besheathed. A crate differs from a nailed wood boxin that the framework of members in sides andends provides the basic strength (fig. 1), whereasa box must rely for its strength solely on the boardsof the sides, ends, top, and bottom. This framework can be considered to be similar to a type oftruss used in bridge construction. It is designedto absorb most of the stresses imposed by handling and stacking.Notable among the findings and developmentsof the Forest Products Laboratory is the evolutionM-120691Figure 1 .—Typical open crate.of crate design criteria for virtually any type ofmachine or other industrial product. Thesecriteria are based on the following considerations:1. A crate must be strong enough to protect itscontents from the hazards of shipping and storage.2. The lumber and other materials used to buildthe crate must be of suitable quality and dimensions.3. A crate must be as light in weight as shippinghazards and the inherent strength properties ofthe materials permit.4. It must require a minimum of shipping space.With design criteria based on these considerations, the effective engineering of crates for specificpurposes becomes possible. This handbook presents information of a general nature applicable tothe design of most types of crates and the solutionof crating problems. It is not intended to be aspecification; however, in order to clarify designand construction of crates, a number of cratedesigns are included to aid the designer in hisspecific problem. It includes all data required forthe design of crates, such as allowable workingstresses for the various species of wood and themethod of determining fastening requirements.The advantages gained from good crate designare many. The shipper gains from better protection of his products and from lower shipping costsfor lighter weight and lower space requirements.The carrier gains from lower liability costs. Theconsumer gains from the lower prices made possible for the goods shipped, and the Nation benefitsfrom the efficient use of raw materials.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT CRATE DESIGNThe selection of a crate depends on, in generalorder of importance, contents, destination, methodof transit, handling hazards, storage conditions,and costs. These factors overlap, but each will beoutlined separately to aid the designer or shipperin selecting the proper crate.CONTENTSThe nature of the item being crated is of fundamental importance in the selection of a shippingcrate. If the item is ruggedly constructed, suchas an axle assembly for a large truck, it has probably been prepared to resist the weather. Hence,an open crate would be more economical for thisuse than a closed one. While such an item couldwithstand a considerable amount of handlingwithout damage, it would be easier to handle andstore if it were crated.Items less rugged or requiring protection fromthe weather would be shipped in fully sheathedcrates. In all cases, however, the crate must besturdy enough to (1) provide ample anchorage forthe item, (2) resist rough handling, and (3) withstand superimposed loads.Disassembly or partial disassembly often allowsthe use of smaller crates. However, the shippershould consider the reassembly necessary at destination. If he is shipping to his own distributor,the cost of reassembly can be compared with thesavings made by the use of smaller crates. Unlessthe customer or distributor is equipped and willingto reassemble, it may be wise to ship the articlecompletely assembled.The type of base with which the item is equippedshould also be considered. Certain items may beadaptable to the use of a crate with a sill-typebase, but the majority are best suited to a skidtype base. The latter include equipment havinga flat base with a distributed load or a base of theleg, single or double column, end frame, or pedestaltype.DESTINATION AND METHOD OFTRANSITThe destination often automatically determinesthe style of crate. In surface shipment overseasthe crate might either be placed in the hold of aship or on the deck. For easy passage of a cratethrough the average hatchway and into the hold,the outside dimensions should not exceed 41 feetin length, 9 feet in width, and 7 feet in height.Any crate larger than this will likely be placed on2the deck. A sheathed crate with a waterprooftop is advisable for shipment on deck. Sincesmaller crates are not always placed in the hold,it would be logical to select a sheathed crate formost items that are destined for foreign ports.Ordinarily there is a maximum size for railshipment. This limit is to assure proper clearanceof crates on a flatcar going through tunnels, underbridges, and around curves. However, size limitations may change, and a thorough check shouldbe made with the transportation agencies involvedbefore unusually large crates are shipped.Consider if trucks may be used or short- or?long-distance hauling. For truck transportationwithin the country only a basic framework maybe needed to conveniently handle the item.Shipment of material by airfreight is becomingmore practical for certain high-value items.Because these are usually of small or moderatesize and receive preferential handling, they requireonly a light crate or a skid base.To design a crate capable of resisting the mostsevere of the many hazards to be encountered intransit would ordinarily result in overdesign. Itwould be costly, and justifiable only on rare occasions. However, a general idea of transit conditions will usually convince the shipper that noneof the generally accepted principles of crate designshould be overlooked.HANDLING HAZARDSCrates may be handled in a variety of ways,but the most important from the standpoint ofdesign are end slinging, forklift handling, andgrabhook lifting. Unless provisions are made forthese types of handling, damage similar to thatcaused by the grabhook in figure 2 will likelyoccur.Other stresses are placed on crates during shipment. Crates may be moved by pushing orskidding. Humping of freight cars can placeracking stresses on crates and cause failure similarto that shown in figure 3 unless crates are designed and constructed properly. The vibrationof railroad cars may cause failure of fasteningsor loosening of blocking and bracing. Transportation by motor truck also involves moreshipping hazards than are apparent. Loads areoften not secured to the truck bed, and containersare subjected to vertical movements. End orside impacts and accidental dropping of one endof the crate are other hazards during handlingthat must be considered.

WOOD CRATE DESIGN MANUAL3The crushing stresses of slings or grabhooksare resisted by the joists or other members in thetop. Racking stresses from end thrusts orhumping are resisted by the diagonals in lumbersheathed crates and by the plywood in plywoodsheathed crates. Correct nailing of the cratepanels as they are fabricated and using enoughfastenings in assembling panels into a crate willfurther insure adequate strength to resist vibration and other stresses.The handling of crates in foreign ports usuallydepends largely on the mechanical equipmentavailable for unloading. Crates are often placedaboard small lighters with the ship’s gear andunloaded at the dock site by a variety of methods.The crate designer should consider a design witha larger factor of safety to allow for such additional hazards.M-119659Figure 2.—Crate damage caused by a grabhook when there wasinsufficient joist support in the top of the crate.Figure 3.—Failure of crate on railway car.Crate did not have racking resistance or the capacity to carry top loads under these shippingconditions.

4AGRICULTURE HANDBOOK 252, U.S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURESTORAGE CONDITIONSA crate that will be transported in a coveredcarrier and either unpacked immediately uponarrival or placed in a warehouse does not requiresheathing for protection, and an open crate mightbe selected. If the shipment is stored outdoorsor exposed for a long time to the weather, thesheathed crate is a logical selection.All crates, open or sheathed, should be capableof withstanding top loads. When top loadingof crates is not considered in design, failure orexcessive deflection may occur and result indamaged contents. Under most conditions, cratesof like size and contents will be placed one atopanother in warehouse or outdoor storage. Thisis called like-on-like stacking. The sides and endsof the lower crates support the load, and littlestress is carried by the top panel. For thisreason it is logical to reduce the requirements fortops of sheathed crates. Crate tops are stressedwhen smaller containers are superimposed. Onlylike-on-like stacking is considered with opencrates. They are usually not designed for toploading with smaller containers.COSTSThe selection of the proper type of crate maygain a saving in both construction and shippingcosts. An open crate costs less than a sheathedcrate. It generally involves less material, lowerconstruction costs, and a lower shipping costbecause of less weight and cubic displacement.The amount of lumber saved by using opencrates rather than fully sheathed crates variessomewhat with the type of crate selected. Forlight and medium loads, the open crate uses aminimum of material and the saving is substantial.For heavy loads, the open crate uses proportionately more material and the saving is less.The nailed style open crate for heavy items requires the use of sheathing to provide fasteningareas for assembly nailing to the base. This styleis similar to a lumber-sheathed crate with some ofthe sheathing boards eliminated. The mainsaving of lumber in an open crate compared witha fully sheathed crate results from (a) the reduction of sheathing in top, sides, and ends; (b) theelimination of joists except the lifting joist; and(c) the elimination of most of the covering materialexcept diagonals for the base and crosspieces.The saving of material possible by using opencrates was further illustrated at the Forest Products Laboratory by the construction and testingof 11 large open, bolted crates carrying net loadsof from 2,600 to 24,700 pounds. The averagesaving of lumber compared with fully sheathedcrates was 12 percent in the bases, 47 percent inthe sides, 49 percent in the ends, and 58 percentin the tops, or 40 percent for the entire crate.The greatest saving was in the smaller, lightcrates. In the nailed, open style for heavy loads,the saving averaged about 30 percent comparedwith a fully sheathed crate designed for the sameload.A plywood-sheathed crate often costs less thana lumber-sheathed crate. The difference in costdepends largely on the comparative prices of plywood and lumber sheathing. Since a plywoodsheathed crate does not require diagonals, thematerial and installation costs of diagonals maybe weighed against the additional cost of the plywood. The lower tare weight and cubic displacement with plywood also should be considered.To further reduce cost, the cubic displacementand weight of the crate and contents must beconsidered. Even in domestic shipment any reductions in these are important to the cratedesigner. The cost of shipping crates by truck orrail is generally based on weight, although large,bulky items have higher rates than smaller butheavier ones.Air shipment of critical items is becoming morepractical, and large, odd-shaped items requiresome type of container for blocking and mechanical protection. Here careful analysis and designare necessary to provide sufficient strength withoutexcessive crate weight.Export vessel shipping rates are usually basedupon a ton (generally 2,240 pounds but sometimes 2,000 pounds) or on 40 cubic feet, whicheverproduces the greater tariff. As an average, thismeans that unless the crate and contents weighmore than 56 pounds per cubic foot (2,240 dividedby 40) the volume rate applies. Inasmuch asmost material shipped has a density much underthis figure, decreasing the cubic displacement of acrate becomes very important. Crates with unnecessarily large clearances have greater volumes,which mean higher costs. A crate that weighs only28 pounds per cubic foot will cost twice as muchin freight per pound as the same size crate thatweighs 56 pounds per cubic foot. The cubic displacement of a crate 100 inches long, 40 incheswide, and 50 inches high is about 116 cubicfeet. By decreasing the measurements only aninch in each dimension, the displacement wouldbe reduced to about 109 cubic feet, or a saving of6 percent.

MATERIALS FOR CRATESThe most important materials used in constructing crates are wood in its various forms andthe fasteners used for fabrication and assembly.Sound crate design criteria and proper use of materials will result in a crate that combines maximum strength with minimum materials.WOOD AND WOOD-BASE MATERIALSSpeciesThe species of wood most commonly used incrate construction are divided into four groups,largely on the basis of density. In general, it isgood practice to use species in the same group forsimilar parts.GROUP I.-softer woods of both the coniferous(softwood) and the broad-leaved (hardwood)species. These woods do not split readily whennailed and have moderate nail-holding capacity,moderate strength as a beam, and moderate capacity to resist shock. They are soft, light inweight, easy to work, hold their shape well aftermanufacture, and usually are easy to dry.magnoliaaspen ressfirs (true)pine (except uglas-firhemlocksouthern yellow pinetamarackwestern larchGROUP II.—heavier coniferous woods. Thesewoods usually have a pronounced contrast in thehardness of the springwood and the summerwood. They have greater nail-holding capacitythan the group I woods, but are more inclined tosplit. The hard summerwood bands often deflectnails and cause them to run out at the side ofthe piece.G ROUP III.-hardwoods of medium density.These woods have about the same nail-holdingcapacity and strength as a beam as the group IIwoods, but are less inclined to split and shatter.ash (except white)soft elmsoft maplesweetgumsycamoretupeloGROUP IV.-heavy hardwood species, the heaviest and hardest domestic woods. They have thegreatest capacity both to resist shock and holdnails. They are often desirable for load-bearingmembers, skids, or joists. They are difficult tonail and tend to split when nailed, but are especially useful where high nail-holding capacity isrequired.beechbirchhackberryhard maplehickoryOakspecanrook elmwhite ashStrength and variability.—In any species, a widerange in strength and other properties exists inlumber as it is sawed. However, average valueshave been established for most native species ofwood.1 Since these values were obtained fromsmall, clear specimens, a number of factors mustbe applied to arrive at stress values suitable forthe design of crates. Table 1 shows the variationsin these values among species that might be usedfor crates. It lists not only the densities and theshrinkages from green to ovendry condition, butalso such properties as static and impact bendingstrength, maximum crushing strength, and hardness. Designers using these values must recognizethat they are averages for each species. Widevariations are possible in individual pieces oflumber.Weight.—The unit weight or density of wood isan important consideration in selecting lumberfor a particular use (table 1). Weight per cubicfoot not only directly influences the cost ofhandling and transportation, but it also is arelatively good measure of strength and resistanceto nail withdrawal. And it roughly indicates theamount of shrinking and warping likely to occurwith changes in moisture content. Dense woodsare outstanding where high resistance to nailwithdrawal is important, but they must be morecarefully nailed to prevent splitting and generallythey shrink more than softer, lighter woods.As a rule, the lighter woods give less trouble inseasoning, manufacture, and storage of lumber,shook, or completed containers.The weight of dry lumber per thousand boardfeet varies from about 1,800 pounds for very lightspecies to over 4,000 pounds for very heavyspecies. A definite way of expressing the weightof wood at a given moisture content is in poundsper cubic foot or per square foot of a specifiedthickness.In the same species of wood the weight oflumber varies considerably because of differencesin density. Variations exist even within woodfrom the same tree. For example, the swelledbutts of trees of species such as sweetgum, tupelo,and ash grown in swampy soil usually containvery light wood with low strength properties;higher in the trunks of the same trees the wood isheavier and stronger.The water in green wood often weighs morethan the ovendry weight of the wood, but inthoroughly air-dried lumber the weight of wateris usually about 12 to 15 percent of the ovendryweight of the wood, and in kiln-dried lumber it isoften as low as 5 percent.The weight of some pieces of certain species,such as southern yellow pine, western larch, andDouglas-fir, is often materially increased by resinor gum.1U.S. Forest Products Laboratory, Wood handbook.U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Handbk. 72, 528 pp., illus. 1955.5

TABLE 1 .—Properties of wood species native to the United States that might be used for crate construction6

T A B L E 1 .—Properties of wood species native to the United States that might be used for crate construction—Continued

WOOD CRATE DESIGN MANUALOther Factors Affecting Wood StrengthSome important factors besides species thataffect the strength of lumber used for crates are(1) moisture content, (2) duration of load, and(3) size, number, and location of strength-reducingcharacteristics, such as knots and cross grain.Moisture content.-The wood of live trees contains tremendous quantities of water, which isslowly lost after trees are cut, and particularlyafter they are sawed into lumber. For most usesof wood, including crates, almost all moisture mustbe removed.Moisture is held in wood within the cell cavitiesand the cell walls. When all the moisture hasevaporated from the cell cavities, but the cellwalls remain saturated, wood is said to havereached the fiber-saturation point. For practicalpurposes, the fiber-saturation point is consideredto be 30 percent moisture content for most species.Moisture content is the weight of the water contained in the wood expressed as a percentage ofthe weight of the ovendry wood.As wood loses moisture below the fiber-saturation point, it begins to shrink. Wood dried to 15percent moisture content has shrunk about halfas much as possible. If dried in an oven, a sample would continue to shrink as moisture is lost,until reaching 0 percent moisture content.Actually, wood will stop drying when it reachesequilibrium with the temperature and humiditysurrounding it. This point, known as the equilibrium moisture content, varies widely with climaticconditions and use of the wood.As wood dries, the fibers begin to stiffen andstrengthen when the fiber-saturation point hasbeen reached. But toughness and shock resistance sometimes actually decrease. This isbecause dried wood will not bend as far as greenwood before failure (although it will sustain agreater load), and toughness is dependent uponboth strength and pliability.The gain in strength of large members by dryingis somewhat offset by the accompanying splittingand checking. A change from green condition to12 percent moisture content, however, can resultin a 30 to 100 percent increase in strength in thevarious species. The following tabulation represents the average change in wood and strengthproperties with a 1 percent change in moisturecontent (between approximately 30 and 12 percent).Changes(percent)Static bending:Modulus of rupture- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4.0Modulus of elasticity - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.0Work to maximum load - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 5Impact bending, height of drop causing completefailure um crushing strength (parallel to grain)- - - - - - 6 . 0Side hardness - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.59Duration of load.—Wood is able to supportlarge overloads for short periods and small overloads for longer periods. This property is important if short-time load is contemplated, suchas a one-trip crate shipped directly to its destination with no storage period. However, it is betterto disregard it in designing crates for longtimestorage. A wood member can support continuously for 1 year only about two-thirds of the loadrequired to cause failure in a standard strengthtest of only a few minutes’ duration.Wood under a continuous load, such as mightbe imposed on a crate in storage with other boxesor crates placed on top, tends to deform. The setor sag of the joists, an illustration of this, is greatestwhen moisture content of the material is high.Knots.-Knots are cross sections of branchesthat are visible on the surface of a piece of wood.They interrupt the direction of grain and causelocalized cross grain with steep slopes. Whilesome types of knots affect the resistance to stresses,no distinction is made between live knots, deadknots, and knotholes in determining the strengthvalue of any piece of lumber. In building cratesboth size and location of knots must be considered.The effect a knot has on the strength of a pieceof lumber depends on the proportion of the crosssection occupied by the knot. Limits of knotsizes should therefore be based on the width of theface in which the knot appears.Knots reduce tensile strength more than compressive or shear strength, and their location alongthe length of the piece is considered only in bending. Knots located near midspan and at the topor bottom edges have the most effect on thestrength of a piece subjected to bending. A soundknot at the top part of a joist near midspan is incompression and usually has only a moderateinfluence on the strength of the piece in bending.Slope of grain.—Slope of grain refers to the direction of the wood fibers in relation to the longitudinal axis of a piece of lumber. When thesefibers are not parallel with the longitudinal axis,the wood is said to be cross grained. The slope,measured by the angle between the general direction of the grain and the axis, is expressed as aratio, as 1 in 12 (1-inch slope in a 12-inch distance).Slight local deviations of grain direction are usuallydisregarded. When cross grain is quite steep,there is a marked reduction in strength. A slopeof grain of 1 in 8 in a member subjected to bending under impact loads will result in its having 53percent of the strength of a piece without graindeviation.This requires a reduction in theassigned working stresses to offset the loss instrength. Besides having less strength, pieceswith cross grain tend to twist with changes inmoisture content.Slope of grain, therefore, must be limited forsuch crate parts as joists, load-bearing floorboards,struts, upper and lower frame members, diagonals,

10AGRICULTURE HANDBOOK 252, U.S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTUREand skids of sheathed crates. Fewer restrictionson slope of grain exist for items such as lumbersheathing, rubbing strips, and nonstructural blockin and bracing than for structural members.Decay.—Decay, a disintegration of wood, results from the action of wood-destroying fungi.It seriously affects the strength properties of woodand its resistance to nail withdrawal.Blue stain .—Also called sap stain, this bluishdiscoloration of the sapwood is caused by a fungus.It does not reduce the strength of the wood.However, the conditions that favor development of this fungus are also ideal for the growthof wood-destroying fungi, so bad staining mayindicate existence of decay. When blue stainis present in sheathing boards or frame members,it may obscure markings on the crate.Insect attack.—Certain woods are subject toinsect attack as green lumber, some as dry lumber, and some as partly seasoned lumber. Thesapwood of some seasoned hardwoods is subject to attack by the powder-post beetle. Smallwormholes have only a very slight effect on thestrength and, if the wood is otherwise sound,it is quite satisfactory for crates.Wane.-Wane is either bark or lack of woodon the edge or corner of a piece of lumber. Acceptability of pieces with wane is usually restricted for structural members because of thereduced cross sectional area. Wane is less seriousin lumber sheathing than in such crate parts asframe members and skids.Shakes. —A shake is a separation along thegrain, largely between the growth rings, whichoccurs while the wood is seasoning. Shakes inmembers subjected to bending reduce th

ship or on the deck. For easy passage of a crate through the average hatchway and into the hold, the outside dimensions should not exceed 41 feet in length, 9 feet in width, and 7 feet in height. Any crate larger than this will likely be placed on 2 the deck. A sheathed crate with a waterproof top