LC Art – Pre-Christian – Bronze AgeThe new group ofpeople during theBronze AgeThe BeakerpeopleThe year theBeaker peoplearrived in Ireland2500 BCHousing duringthe Bronze AgeWooden frames,wattle and daubwalls, thatched roofsCist graveStone linedrectangular tombs,covered withcapstone
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Bronze AgePit gravesOval pits, coveredby a low mound andsurrounded by aditchWedgeTombsMound of loosestones, similar toStone Age court cairnBronze AgemonumentsFree standingstone circles, ringfortsFulacht fiaUsed for cooking;troughs in groundfilled with water andheated by hot stones
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Bronze AgeMaterials usedfor tools duringthe Bronze AgeCopper and gold;stronger andsofter toolsHow copper wassourced duringthe Bronze AgeOre-bearing rock wasmined for. It was thenheated until it crackedand revealed the copperwithinHow gold wassourced duringthe Bronze AgeFlakes of gold werepanned for in riverswhich were then melteddown to nuggetsHow bronze wassourced duringthe Bronze AgeTin was imported fromCornwall and mixedwith copper to formbronze
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Bronze AgeType of designsused during theBronze AgeGeometricEarly Bronze Agemetal workingtechniquesSheeting, cutting,incision,repousséMiddle BronzeAge metal workingtechniquesTwistinggoldLate Bronze Agemetal workingtechniquesCasting,soldering, goldfoil, riveting
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Bronze AgeClonesFibulaLunulaGleninsheenGorgetFunction ofClones FibulaDressfastener
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Bronze AgeFunction ofLunulaNeck ornamentworn duringceremonial orreligious occasionsFunction ofGleninsheenGorgetNeck ornamentworn duringceremonial orreligious occasionsDecoration onLunulaSymmetrical andgeometric: hatchedtriangles and squares,incised zig-zagsDecoration onClones FibulaIrregular concentriccircles and zig-zagpatterns on terminals
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Bronze AgeDecoration onGleninsheenGorgetSmooth ridges and ropepattern on the body,concentric circles andcones on the discsTime of EarlyBronze Age2000-1500BCTime of MiddleBronze Age1500-1200BCTime of LateBronze Age1200-500 BC
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Burial and Monastic SitesThe firstinhabitants inIrelandNomadichuntergatherersThe time theStone Ageoccurred700-2000BCThe 3 types ofmegalithic tombPortal dolmen,Court Cairn,Passage MoundNewgrange
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Burial and Monastic SitesKnowthThe yearKnowth wasbuilt4000 BCThe yearNewgrange wasbuilt3200 BCThe significance ofthe east and westpassages at KnowthThey are alignedto the spring andautumn equinoxes
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Burial and Monastic SitesThe significance ofthe roof box atNewgrangeIt is aligned to thewinter solsticeStone AgeconstructiontechniquesLog rolling, woodenscaffolding, earthenrampsStone AgeconstructionmaterialsStone (quartzand granite), sodand earthNumber ofkerbstones atKnowth127
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Burial and Monastic SitesNumber ofkerbstones atNewgrangeNewgrangeentrance stoneKerbstone 52,NewgrangeThe Sundialstone, Knowth97
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Burial and Monastic SitesStone Age stoneworkingtechniquesStone dressing,Incision, Chipcarving, smoothingPossible reason theStone Age moundscould have been usedfor burialThe remains ofindividuals havebeen foundPossible reason theStone Age mounds couldhave been used forbelief in the afterlifeIndividuals have beenfound with gravegoods at Knowth andNewgrangePossible reasons theStone Age moundscould have been usedfor sun worshipThe passage atNewgrange is aligned withthe winter solstice and thepassages at Knowth alignwith the spring andautumn equinoxes
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Burial and Monastic SitesThe motifs on theNewgrangeentrance stoneSpirals, arcs,lozengesThe motifs on theSundial stoneSpirals, circles,radialsThe possible meaningof the motifs on thesundial stoneSun worshipLocation ofNewgrange andKnowthBoyneValley
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Iron AgeNew group ofpeople in Irelandduring the Iron AgeThe CeltsHow we knowabout the CeltsMyths and legendswhich were laterwritten down byChristian monksThe two groups ofCeltic invaders toIrelandHalstatt and LaTèneThe two stagesof La TènedesignInsular andUltimate LaTène
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Iron AgeLa TènemotifsS-scrolls, leaf andvine forms, trumpetends, spirals, palmateforms, triskelesThe TuroeStoneThe approximateyear The TuroeStone was built50 BCDecoration ofThe TuroeStoneLow relief with casualsymmetry. A brick designseparates the detailed topfrom the plain bottom. Motifssuch as triskeles, spirals andtrumpet ends are used.
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Iron AgePossible functionof The TuroeStone‘Cloch an Tuair’ means RedPastor, which suggests humanor animal sacrifice. Its shapesuggests fertility rituals. It mayalso have been used to mark aboundary.Techniques usedto decorate TheTuroe StoneIron chisels were usedto cut out thebackground leavingthe design in low reliefForm of TheTuroe StoneDomed cylindricalboulder made fromwhite granite, 3 ft tall,4 tonnes in weightThe BroighterCollar
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Iron AgeThe 7 items inThe BroighterHoardCollar, Model boat,Bowl, Two chains,Two braceletsThe county theBroighter Hoardwas foundCo. DerryForm of TheBroighter Collar2 hollow gold tubesbent into a circularshape joined by amortice and tenonlockPossible functionof The BroighterCollarNeck ornamentworn on occasion byhigh status people
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Iron AgeTechniques usedto decorate TheBroighter CollarChasing, or hammering thebackground, to create adesign in relief. Gold washeated to mold it. Terminalswere riveted into place.Decoration ofThe BroighterCollarElaborate curvilineardesigns such as s-scrolls,spiral bosses and foliagepatterns. Roughlysymmetrical.TheLoughnashadeTrumpetForm of TheLoughnashadeTrumpet2 hollow bronze tubes,127cm long in total, flatcircular plate at the topof diameter 20cm
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Iron AgePossible function ofThe LoughnashadeTrumpetUsed to create noise,perhaps before goinginto battle to unnerveopponentsMaterial used to makeThe LoughnashadeTrumpetBronzeDecoration on thecircular plate of TheLoughnashadeTrumpetSymmetrical, 4-partpattern. Motifs such asthe Roman Pelta arevisible.Techniques used todecorate TheLoughnashadeTrumpetChasing/repoussé, orhammering thebackground, left thedesign in relief
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Iron AgeThe PetrieCrownForm of ThePetrie CrownBand with twobronze discs and acone rising from onediscPossible functionof The PetrieCrownHeaddress, tombornament, holes suggestit could have been sewnonto clothesMaterials usedfor The PetrieCrownBronze and redenamel
LC Art – Pre-Christian – Iron AgeDecoration onThe PetrieCrownLow relief: motifs such astrumpet curves, palmates,lotuses, triskeles andstylized bird heads arevisibleThe La Tène periodwhen The Turoe Stoneand The BroighterHoard were madeInsular LaTèneThe La Tène periodwhen The LoughnashadeTrumpet and The PetrieCrown were madeUltimate LaTèneMain purpose of Ironand Bronze duringthe Iron AgeIron- Tools andweaponsBronze- Decorativework
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueArchitectureThe century theRomanesque stylebegan inThe 11thcenturyThe continent theRomanesque stylebegan inEuropeSocietal reasons why theRomanesque stylepeaked in the 12thcenturyPeace had come to Europe.New farming methods led topopulation growth and thegrowth of cities. A middle classemerged. Education increased.The Catholic Church held adominant position.The feudalsystemThe way society wasstructured during theMiddle Ages; Kings,Nobles, Knights,Peasants
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueArchitecturePosition of TheChurch during the11th centuryVery powerful andinfluential politicallyand spirituallyPurpose ofMonasteriesPlaces of prayer,locations for the storageof sacred relics, centresof learningPurpose ofBenedictinemonasteriesEducation,music and artPurpose ofCistercianmonasteriesManual labourand selfsufficiency
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueArchitecturePilgrimageA journey to asacred place as partof a ReligiouspracticePopular pilgrimagedestinations duringthe 11th centuryRome andJerusalemThe initial attractionto Santiago DeCompostelaCrusades drove the MuslimArab Moors out of Spain,and the relic of St Jameswas rediscovered atSantiago De CompostelaThe new, mostpopular, pilgrimageroute during the 12thcenturySantiago DeCompostela
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueArchitectureRelicAn item, usually associatedwith Jesus, which wasoriginally kept in monasteries.Christians prayed to themwith the belief that they hadcurative powers.Sainte-Foy deConquesarchitecture styleRomanesqueSainte-Foy deConques floorplanCruciform shape, largeaisled nave, thick transepts,5 radiating chapelsextending from ambulatorySainte-Foy deConquesdesignLarge, blocky andgeometric in appearance,round arches, barrelvaulted roof, smallwindows
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueTympanum atSainte-Foy deConquesTympanum at the Westernfaçade depicts the LastJudgment; Christ is in themiddle, on his left are grotesquefigures from hell, on his right areMary and St PeterSainte-Foy deConquesSaint-Lazare ofAutun architecturestyleRomanesqueSaint-Lazare ofAutun floor planLoose cruciformshape
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueSaint-Lazare ofAutun designThick columns, piersand walls, smallwindows, roundarchesThe thing SaintLazare of Autun ismost famous forThe tympanumThe tympanum atSaint-Lazare ofAutunLocated at the west façade,depicts The Last Judgment; Christis in the centre, with the ‘saved’ onhis right, ‘damned’ on the left andhellish figures underneath him.Foliage designs are in the innerarchivolt and zodiac signs are onthe outer archivolt.The figures on thetympanum at SaintLazare of AutunUnrealistic, elongatedfigures. More importantfigures are larger. Ugly,grotesque creaturesare depicted.
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueSaint-Lazareof AutunSaint-Lazare ofAutun tympanumSaint-Lazare ofAutun tympanumsculptorGislebertus; Thetympanum says‘Gislebertus hoc fecit’,‘Gislebertus did this’Chatres cathedralarchitecture styleGothic
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueDifference betweenNorth and South Spireat Chartres cathedralSouth spire was built in the earlyGothic phase, the North spirewas built in the late/flamboyantGothic phase as a replacementfor the original which was struckby lightningChartrescathedral floorplanDefinite cruciformshape, very widenaveChartrescathedral designSlender columns andwalls, rib vaulting, 3 rosewindows over west door, 3lancet windows over RoyalPortalThe Royal Portalat Chartrescathedral3 portals and 3 tympanums: Leftdepicts the Old Testamentprophets, Right depicts VirginMary and the birth of Christ,Centre depicts the secondcoming of Christ surrounded bythe 4 evangelists
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueChartrescathedralThe Royal Portal,ChartrescathedralThe 4 evangelists andwhat they are representedby on The Royal Portal atChartres cathedralSmiling AngelGabriel statue,RheimsMatthew, Angel.Mark, Lion. Luke,Ox. John, Eagle.
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueThe Well ofMoses, ClausSluterShape ofRomanesquearchesRoundShape of GothicarchesPointedRomanesque wallsand columns andpiersThick
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueGothic walls,columns andpiersSlenderRomanesquewindowsSimple and small,resulting in darkchurches andcathedralsGothicwindowsLarge andornamented, resultingin bright churches andcathedralsRomanesquevaultingBarrel and groinvaulting
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueGothicvaultingRib vaultingRomanesquebuttressesButtressesbuilt into wallsGothicbuttressesFlyingbuttressesHeight of Gothicchurches/cathedralsReached greaterheights. Usuallyconsisted of an arcade,triforium and clerestory
LC Art – Europe – Gothic & RomanesqueExterior ofRomanesquechurches/ cathedralsPlain exteriors,often had atympanumExterior of squesculpturesUnrealistic,elongated, usuallyon tympanumsGothicsculpturesRealistic, natural posesand gestures, often inthe form of jamb figuresor standing statues
LC Art – Europe – ImpressionistInfluence ofphotography onImpressionismInfluence ofrealism onImpressionismThe SalonThe Salon desRefusésPhotos were used forsources and paintingsbecame more realistic.Artists started croppingSubject matter;Impressionists started paintingeveryday subjects. Realists oftenset their paintings outside, whichinspired the Impressionists to paint‘en plein air’.The official art exhibition of theAcadémie des Beaux-Arts. Itwas held annually and was themost prestigious art exhibitionof its time.In 1863 the Paris Salon rejected overtwo-thirds of work submitted, soNapoleon II set up the Salon desRefusés to house rejected work.Although it was mocked, it gainedattention for many Impressionists.
LC Art – Europe – ImpressionistThe year of thefirst Impressionistexhibition1874The father , MonetSignificance of‘Impression,Sunrise’It gave rise tothe term‘Impressionist’
LC Art – Europe – ImpressionistPainting ‘enplein air’PaintingoutdoorsMonet’sinnovations‘En plein air’, used a trenchand pully system for largerworks, used a studio boat,painted several series (e.gGrainstacks, Rouen Cathedraletc.), wheeled chassis (LesNymphéas).Monet’s subjectmatterScenes typical toFrance. Transienteffects of light, waterand steam.Monet, onpainting“I would like topaint the way abird sings.”
LC Art – Europe – Impressionist‘Bather’s at LaGrenouillère’Significance of‘Bather’s at LaGrenouillère’Rouen Cathedralseries, Monet‘Les Nymphéas’,Monet, located atL’Orangerie, ParisMonet and Renoirpainted there ‘enplein air’ for the firsttime
LC Art – Europe – ImpressionistDistinctiveaspects ofManet’s styleUsed a lot of black, oftenhad the main subjectmaking eye contact withthe viewer, used littleshadingManet’scompositionsOften borrowedcompositions from OldMasters and put theminto modern, Parisiancontext‘Olympia’,Manet‘Le DéjeunerSur L’Herbe’,Manet
LC Art – Europe – Impressionist‘A Bar at theFolies-Bergère’,ManetInfluence ofCourbet onImpressionismHe influenced theImpressionists to paintreal life, everyday scenesof common peopleCourbet’ssubject matterOften painted self-portraits,in which he would idealisehimself. Painted scenes ofthe countryside andworking-class people.Courbet on hissubject matterand realism“I have never seenangels. Show me anangel and I will paintone.”
LC Art – Europe – ImpressionistCourbet’scompositionInformal: often hadthe subject’s backfacing outwards.‘After dinner ourbetRenoir’sstyleRenoir had a Rococo style; heused light brushstrokes and apretty colour palette, which wasinfluenced by his previous workas a porcelain painter
LC Art – Europe – ImpressionistRenoir on hissubject matterand style“Why shouldn’t art bepretty? There areenough unpleasantthings in this world.”Renoir’sinfluencesPorcelain painting, Manet(use of black), Courbet(tints of realism), Japanesewoodblock prints(cropping)Renoir’s subjectmatterPainted people; oftenpretty women or crowds.He also painted acollection of nudes.‘Bal du Moulin deLa Galette’,Renoir
LC Art – Europe – Impressionist‘The Umbrellas’,Renoir‘Two young girlsat the piano’,RenoirDegas’influencesDegas’ mostpopular subjectmattersHe admired and was influencedby Ingres. The influence ofphotography can be seen in hishorse paintings. He alsoadmired Manet (‘The AbsintheDrinker’) and The Old Masters.The Opera,Horses, Caféscenes, BalletDancers
LC Art – Europe – ImpressionistDegas’ depictionof the Ballet‘L’Etoile’,Degas‘The DanceClass’, Degas‘The AbsintheDrinker’, DegasHe didn’t romanticise the ballet. Hepainted the dancers in relaxed poses(The Dance Class) and chose toinclude some of the darker aspects ofthe ballet, such as the middle-agedmen who would wait for the dancersin the foyer (L’Etoile).
LC Art – Europe – ImpressionistMorisot’sgreatestinfluenceManet: he encouraged her topaint contemporary life. Forexample, in ‘Le Courage Noir’,she uses black and eye contact,a clear influence of Manet.Photography (cropping in‘Summer’s Day’).Morisot’sexperience of beinga female artistThe Academy wasn’t open towomen, so she was self-taught.She was the only female toexhibit in the first Impressionistexhibition in 1874; ‘An outcastamongst outcasts.’Morisot’sstyleUsed optical mixing (differentcolours side by side), she didn’tpaint to the edge of the canvas,painted quickly ‘en plein air’ tocapture natural sunlight.Morisot’ssubject matterPrimarily domestic scenes,of her sisters, niece ordaughter, and seascapes.These were seen asappropriate subjectmatters for women.
LC Art – Europe – Impressionist‘The Cradle’,Morisot‘Summer’sDay’, MorisotSeurat’sstyleSeurat’s twomajor worksSeurat started pointillism/divisionism,which meant painting in dots. He tooka scientific approach to painting andpaint mixing. He left negative spacesaround figures to give them a glow.His figures were often stylized.‘Sunday afternoonat La Grande Jatte’and ‘Bathers atAsnières’
LC Art – Europe – ImpressionistContrast between‘Bathers at Asnières’and ‘Sunday Afternoonat La Grande Jatte’In ‘Bathers at Anières’ Seurat paintsworking class people relaxing duringa lunch break, but in ‘SundayAfternoon at La Grande Jatte’ thesubjects are high class and thecomposition is formal. Both paintingsare set on the Seine, however thesubjects face a different direction.Seurat’sinfluencesHis compositions, of stylizedsubjects at side profile, wereinfluenced by Assyrian andEgyptian art. His use croppingand straight line wereinfluenced by photography.Seurat’stechniqueHe would start by sketching ‘enplein air’ and then paint in hisstudio. He painted in dots andcross hatching. His work wasmore calculated rather thanintuitive.NeoimpressionismThe period of post-impressionistwork, by artists such as Seurat.They used techniques such aspointillism and optical mixing.The period was short lived anddied when Seurat did.
ornament worn during ceremonial or religious occasions Function of Lunula Function of Gleninsheen Gorget Neck ornament worn during ceremonial or religious occasions Symmetrical and geometric: hatched triangles and squares, incised zig-zags Decoration on Lunula Decoration on Clones Fibula Irregular concentric circles and zig-zag patterns on .