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HINDU PHILOSOPHYDownloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

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HINDUPHILOSOPHYBy THEOS BERNARD, PH.D.PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARYNew YorkDownloaded from https://www.holybooks.com


PREFACEThis book is an attempt to outline the essence of the six classic,ystems of Hindu Philosophy, namely; Nyaya, Vaise ika, Samkhya,Yoga, Mimari1sa, and Vedanta. All other schools of thought are but,ariations of these six. I felt it necessary to present only one additional;chool, namely Kasmir Saivism which gives the most detailed analysis f the Ultimate Principle; however, it can hardly be fully understoodmtil the other six systems are comprehended.To understand correctly Hindu Philosophy, it is paramount thatme realize that the basis of all the schools is the same. Together they:orm a graduated interpretation of the Ultimate Reality. Each schools based on the same metaphysical doctrine, while discussing someJarticular aspect pf the whole. For example: Nyaya discusses theneans by which knowledge may be had of the Ultimate Reality;Vaise ika, the things to be known about that Ultimate Reality;,amkhya, the evolution of metaphysical doctrine; Yoga, the metaphysical doctrine in relation to the individual; Mima1i1sa, the rulesmd method of interpreting the doctrine; Vedanta, the relationshipJetween God, Matter, and the world; and Kasmir Saivism, the nature f the Ultimate Spirit and the Cause of the Initial Impulse. Thismtline is intended merely to show the interrelationship of these;chools and how each assumes the doctrines of the other while it;olves its special problem.In this introduction to the classic philosophical schools of India,:here is no attempt to prove or disprove but rather to present the;ystem of each school-many eminent scholars have ably discussed:he philosophical implications in full detail. My problem has beenme of deciding what would be omitted rather than what should bencluded. Only the essentials of each system are presented.According to the classic schools of Hindu Philosophy, the methodJY which the individual can evolve himself during this life is throughviiDownloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

viiiPREFACEthe practice of Yoga. This is the universal technique recommendedto enable man to acquire actual insight into the true nature of things.All schools agree that until the faith is fortified with understanding,little progress can be made, for knowledge without application is likemedicine that is not taken.To aid those who do not have a knowledge of Sanskrit, each term,in most cases, is defined when it is introduced, giving the seed concept of the word, so that the intended metaphysical idea can be morereadily grasped. For future reference a glossary of all important termshas been provided in the hope that it may aid those who wish toread some of the recommended bibliographical material. In the useof the English translation of these technical Sanskrit terms, one iscautioned not to take them literally, for it is impossible to adequatelytranslate them. Various writers have used different translations whichwill be the source of confusion at first. However, if one learns to usethe technical term, he will soon grasp its full connotation.This work is a synthesis rather than an original contribution. Inits preparation, I have relied extensively upon the writings of recognized authorities on Hindu Philosophy. For the sake of simplification,I have avoided extensive use of quotations and footnotes, and I havemade use of the traditional chronology throughout without comment.In conclusion, I wish to express my gratitude to those authors,listed in the bibliography, from whose works I have drawn. Specialmention should be made of two outstanding guides: Indian Philosophy by S. Radhakrishnan, and A History of Indian Philosophy byS. Dasgupta. I am also indebted to Professor Herbert W. Schneider,for many helpful recommendations in the preparation of the manuscript, and to Professot. Louis H. Grey, for his constructive criticismand technical assistance.THEOSDownloaded from https://www.holybooks.comBERNARD.

TABLE OF CONTENTSPREFACEviiINTRODUCTIONPurpose of Hindu PhilosophyTest of PhilosophyThe DarsanasInauence .Sari1kara .RamanujaMadhva .Kasmir SaivismThe TantrasSaivism .Saktism .Vai r:i,avismNYAYA234779I[121317181820PurposeScope .PhilosophyLiterature2122VAISESIKA43PurposeScope .Philosophy444547ParamalJUS47AkasaKi.ilaDik .545657ixDownloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

TABLE OF pe .PhilosophyPurufaPrakrtiThe Gu asMahatAhamkiiraManasIndriyasTanmiitra YOGAPurposeScope .PhilosophyJivaGu asCitta.BuddhiAhamkiiraManasIndriyas TanmiitrasBhutasLiterature e.10262IOI102Downloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

xiTABLE OF 27I17120123125KASMIR SAIVISMPurposeScope .PhilosophyThe Siva T attvaThe Sakti T attvaThe Sadiisiva T attvaThe 1svara T attva .The Sadvidya T attvaThe Maya Tattva and Its EvolutesThe KaiicukasLiteratureGENERAL WORKSNyaya .Vaise ikaSarhkhyaYoga .Mimarhsa .VedantaKasmir SivaismABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS .GLOSSARY.Downloaded from https://www.holybooks.com1 57

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INTRODUCTIONThere is innate in the human heart a metaphysical hunger toknow and understand what lies beyond the mysterious and illusiveveil of nature. This is true from savage to savant. Each in his ownway, according to his own capacity, tries to fathom the eternal mys·tery of life. From the beginning of time, teachers have endeavouredto bridge the gap between the seen and the unseen and to showcause for the inescapable experiences of sorrow and suffering thatengulf mankind. But the questions still remain: What is the natureof Reality? What is the nature of human existence? What is thecause of pleasure and pain? How can Liberation be attained?The solutions and explanations offered by man range from thesimplest superstitions to the most subtle philosophical speculations.In the West, man's perceptual knowledge of the external world hasbeen his measuring rod, his basis for theorizing. The primitive whois unable to see beyond the phy ical manifestation of forces displayedby nature constructs an animism or a pantheism; the scientist examining the depths of matter with his microscope and sweeping theheavens with his telescope postulates a materialism. Nowhere isthere any record. Mystery still remains.Since the dawn of Western Civilization, there have been fewachievements in the realm of philosophy that have been able to outlive the scientific findings of a single century. With the advent ofevery new discovery, we have to revise our scheme of things. Theentire sea of science is strewn with theories that have had to beabandoned because the inventive genius of man has been able tobring to light new facts that would not fit into the previous theories.The latest ideas are always called improvements and "evolution."The West refuses to accept the postulate that the world of mindand matter is but an appearance of a deeper reality which lies beyondthe perception of our senses, regardless of how magnified these mayDownloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

2PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF INDIAbe by pawerful instruments of precision. One of the reasons for thisis due to the preconceived notion that man cannot know metaphysical truths by direct experience; therefore, at best, metaphysicaltruths can only be speculations, inferences, or ungrounded faith.Even if it were passible, the West maintains that no man has everattained such supreme knowledge. Another attitude is that all systems of thought must be mutually contradictive, and that, if oneof them be true, the rest must be false. There is little place left forvarious interpretations of a single philosophy to suit different minds.In the Orient, it has been accepted that man can know metaphysical truths by direct experience. He need not depend upon speculation, inference, or faith. The literature is replete with the writingsof men who are said to know the whole truth of Nature and humanexistence, and the teachings of these men have been set forth in thephilosophical systems of ancient India.Purpose of Hindu PhilosophyAll systems of Hindu Philosophy are in complete agreement thatthe purpose of philosophy is the extinction of sorrow and sufferingand that the method is by the acquisition of knowledge of the truenature of things which aims to free man from the bondage ofignorance which all te chers agree is the cause of human suffering.Hindu Philosophy docs not attempt to train one to discern metaphysical truths; it offers a way of thinking which enables one rationally to understand the reality experienced by self-fulfilled personalities, and thereby to lead one to the realization of Truth. In thislight, philosophy is sef;.n as an art of life and not a theory about theuniverse, for it is the means of attaining the highest aspirations ofman. It is not for the discovery, but for the understanding of Truth.There are said to be three stages by which the student can arriveat this realization of the true nature of things. They are: ( 1) Faith;(2) Understanding; and (3) Realization. The first stage is that ofaccepting the laws of nature as taught by the great minds of thepast. In the next stage, through the process of analysis, the studentDownloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA3arrives at a rational and logical conviction; however, reasoning andspeculation about transcendental principles can never lead to morethan probability, for there can never be certainty in reason as ameans of discovering transcendental truths. At best, reasoning ismerely a means of understanding the principles of nature and it isthe purpose of philosophy to guide and aid the reasoning of thestudent. The last stage enables the individual actually to become onewith the Ultimate Reality. This is accomplished through the practiceof Yoga. The techniques and methods used for the attainment ofthis end have been treated at length in a previous book 1 by theauthor.These stages are not unlike those employed in teaching geometry.First the student is given the proposition that the sum of the anglesof a triangle is equal to two right angles. This must be accepted c;saxiomatic, until it is finally demonstrated through reason to be anactual fact. Still it is only a rational convict10n which does notnecessarily carry certainty. The truth of this proposition can beverified only by actually cutting out from a piece of paper a triangleand measuring the angles, thereby actually experiencing beyond anymeasure of doubt that the sum total of the three angles is 180 degreesor the equivalent of two right angles. This last procedure of obtaining direct knowledge or realization of a geometrical truth might besaid to correspond to the realization of transcendental truth throughYoga.Test of PhilosophyPhilosophy is one of life's noblest pursuits; although its wisdom isthe reward of few, it ought to be the aspiration of all. If a philosophyis going to satisfy the intellectual life of the modern world, its conclusions must be able to withstand the acid test of analysis in thedry light of reason. Nothing can be taken for granted; the necessityof every assumption must be established. It must be capable of explaining all things from the Great Absolute to a blade of grass; it1Hatha Yoga, New York, Columbia University Press, 1944.Downloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

4PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF INDIAmust not contradict the facts of experience, conceptual or perceptual.Its hypathesis must satisfy all the demands of our nature; it mustaccount for all types of experience: waking, dreaming, sleeping, andthose moments which are claimed by the religious ascetic during hisdeep contemplation. It must be realistic as well as idealistic; it mustnot be a brutal materialism, worshipping facts and figures and ignoring values, idealizing science and denying spirituality. Nor must itbe predominantly a philosophy of values which evades and ignoresall connection with facts. It must be comprehensive enough to account for every new discovery of science; it must embrace all theconcepts of religion and other philosophical systems. All ideas mustreceive recognition and find their proper place within the border ofits synthesis; every fact of the universe, every aspect of life, everycontent of experience must immediately fall within the scope of itsmould. The March of Science must justify it at every step.It is not enough merely to interpret reality as perceived by thesenses; it must explain both sides of reality, the change and theunchangeable, being and becoming, permanent and impermanent,animate and inanimate. The emphasis on one or the other of thesetwo aspects brings about many of the radical differences in philosophy. The need is to unite them in a deep abiding harmony. Allthese conditions have been satisfied by the philosophical systems ofIndia.The DarsanasAccording to Indian tradition there is only one Ultimate Reality,but there are six fundamental interpretations of that Reality. Theseare called the a Darsanas or "six insights," because they give mansight of the sensible verities and enable him to understand in thelight of reason the super-sensible Truth attainable only through therevealed scriptures or through the experience of nis (sages). Theword darsana comes from the root drs, "to see," and is the Sanskritterm used for philosophy. The six darsanas constitute the classicphilosophical systems of India. They are Nyaya, Vaise ika, Samkhya,Downloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA5Yoga, Mimfui1sii, and Vedanta. They are not the creation of any onemind nor the discovery of any single individual. The real foundersare unknown, and there is considerable controversy as to when theywere first reduced to writing, but neither of these conditions detractsfrom the value of their principles. Together they form a graduated interpretation of the Ultimate Reality, so interrelated that the hypothesis and method of each is dependent upon the other. In no way arethey contradictory or antagonistic to one another, for they all lead tothe same practical end, knowledge of the Absolute and Liberation ofthe Soul.They have many characteristics in common. They all grew out ofthe Upani ads, the philosophical portion of the Veda which is accepted as the supreme authority; they are delivered in the Siitra style,that is as aphorisms; as such, they are extremely concise, avoiding allunnecessary repetition and employing a rigid economy of words,making it difficult to understand them correctly in their originalform without the use of commentaries, for they use many of thesame terms, but each system give its own meaning to the use of theterm. They rest their conclusions on several common concepts: allaccept the eternal cycle of Nature which is without beginning andend, and which consists of vast periods of creation, maintenance, anddissolution; all accept the principle of regeneration of the soul thatmaintains that life and death are but two phases of a single cycle towhich the soul is bound and to which it clings because of ignoranceof the true nature of things; all accept Dharma as the moral law ofthe universe that accounts for these eternal cycles of Nature, as wellas the destiny of the human soul; all agree that knowledge is thepath to freedom and that Yoga is the method to attain final liberation.For the purpose of study, the six Darsanas have been classified intothree divisions:Nyaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vaise ikaSamkhya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YogaMimamsa . VedantaThe first division lays down the methodology of science and elabDownloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

6PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF INDIAorates the concepts of physics and chemistry to show how manifestation of phenomena comes into being; the second division sets forthan account of cosmic evolution on purely logical principles; and thethird division critically analyses the basic principles, developing themin greater detail and furnishing arguments to substantiate, as well asmaking incidental contributions on points of special interest.Nyaya was founded by Gotama. It is purely a system of logic,concerned with the means of acquiring right knowledge which itclassifies under 5ixteen topics.Vaisc ika was founded by Ka9iida. It classifies all knowledge ofthe objective world under nine realities and discusses how the variouscombinations of these nine basic realities bring all things into being.Siimkhya was founded by Kapila who is considered the Father ofHindu Philosophy. This system comprehends the universe as a sumtotal of twenty-five categories. In no way does it discard the basicrealities of the previous system. It only shows that they are not final,in the same way that the breaking down of the atom to electrons andprotons did not discard the existence of the atom, but only showedthat it was not the last possible reduction of matter. It shows thatall derived things in this world are not produced from the ninerealities, but from two realities, Spirit and Matter, which are considered as the Ultimate Realities. It discards the creation of theVaise ika system and shows that all things are evolved out of preexisting material which is the static background of the universe andwhich simply unfolds itself as a rose unfolds from its seed.Yoga was founded by Pataiijali. This is the individual aspect ofthe system laid down by the Siiriikhya doctrine. Here the concernis with the ways and means by which the individual can knowReality by direct experience.Mimamsii was founded by Jaimini. It is concerned chiefly with thecorrect interpretation of Vedic ritual and texts.Vedanta was founded by Badariiyar;ia. It is an inquiry into thenature of the Ultimate Principle (Brahman). It does not discardthe finding of Samkhya, but it endeavours to show that there canbe only one Ultimate Reality which makes its appearance to theDownloaded from https://www.holybooks.com

PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA7sense as an illusion (miiyii). Its analysis of the process of cosmicevolution is virtually the same as the Siimkhya with only those cliff erences which must logically follow from its original premise. Itshows how the world with its infinite variety is only an appearance,and that all things are one and the same, only appearing differently.ln uenceThree schools have developed from the interpretation of the opening siitra of the Vedantasutra, the classic text of the Vedanta systemwritten by Badaraya!'a:"Now, therefore, enquiry should be made into Brahman [theUltimate Principle]." 2 They are: The Advaita (non-dualism),Visigadvaita (qualified non-dualism), and Dvaita (dualism),founded respectively by Samkara (8th cent.), Ramanuja ( r r th cent.),Madhva (12th cent.). Fundamentally they have a single conceptionwhich they individually develop to suit particular minds. TheAdvaita school contends that all phenomenal existence is an illusion,called miiya in Sanskrit, and that only the Ultimate Principle(Brahman) is real; the Visi tadvaita system maintains that there isonly One Reality, but that in the objective world it manifests itselfas a duality; the Dvaita school treats the evolutionary scheme in thesame way as Samkhya. Its only contribution is the way in which itdeals with the Supreme Deity. Specia

PREFACE This book is an attempt to outline the essence of the six classic ,ystems of Hindu Philosophy, namely; Nyaya, Vaise ika, Samkhya,