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Designers & Dragons:The ’70s CreditsShannon AppelclineAuthor and ResearcherJohn AdamusEditorKaren TwelvesProofreaderFred Hicks and Adam JuryLayoutDaniel SolisGraphic DesignAndrew BosleyCover ArtChris HanrahanBusiness DevelopmentCarrie HarrisMarketing ManagerSean NittnerProject ManagerAn Evil Hat Productions [email protected]@EvilHatOfficial on and Dragons: The ’70sCopyright 2013 Shannon AppelclineAll rights reserved.First published in 2013 by Evil Hat Productions, LLC.10125 Colesville Rd #318, Silver Spring, MD 20901.Evil Hat Productions and the Evil Hat and Fate logosare trademarks owned by Evil Hat Productions, LLC.All rights reserved.Softcover ISBN: 978-1-61317-075-5Kindle ISBN: 978-1-61317-076-2ePub ISBN: 978-1-61317-077-9Printed in the USA.All covers, ads, and other images from otherpublishers remain the property of their respectiveowners and are used here under fair use provisions forcriticism, commentary, and scholarship.No part of this publication may be reproduced, storedin a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form orby any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or otherwise, without the prior expresspermission of the publisher.That said, if you’re doing it for personal use, knockyourself out. That’s not only allowed, we encourageyou to do it.For those working at a copy shop and not at all sureif this means the person standing at your counter canmake copies of this thing, they can.This is “express permission.” Carry on.

ContentsForeword: The ’70s A Future History of Roleplaying A Note to Readers of the First Edition Part One: Founding Days (1953–1974) TSR: 1973–1997 A Brief Introduction: 1958 Gary Gygax & Chainmail: 1967–1971 Dave Arneson & Black Moor: 1969–1972 Publishing the Fantasy Game: 1972–1973 Selling the Fantasy Game: 1974–1975 A Year of Innovative Products: 1975 A Year of Innovative Changes: 1975 A Year of Expansion: 1976 Allies & Competitors: 1976–1982 The Tolkien Connection: 1974–1977 Basic & Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: 1977–1980 Growing Staff, Changing Priorities: 1977–1980 Back to Basics: 1981 D&D Supplements & Growth: 1978–1981 Mutants, Gunfighters, Spies, Gangsters & Knight Hawks: 1978–1983 A Hysterical Interlude: 1979–1982 Rapid Expansion & Growth: 1980–1983 The Blumian Revolution: 1981–1982 The SPI Takeover: 1982 The Lawsuits, Round One: 1982–1984 The Book Explosion: 1982–1983 D&D Soldiers On: 1982–1984 The Bubble Bursts: 1983–1985 Dragonlance & Other Media: 1984–1985 Marvel Super Heroes & Other Color-Chart Games: 1984–1986 The Gygaxian Counter-Revolution: 1985–1986 Lorraine Williams vs. Gary Gygax: 1985–1986 Enter the Forgotten Realms (and Mystara): 1987–1989 Other Media—Books, Computers & Comics: 1988–1993 The Rest of the Hysteria: 1982–1990 AD&D 2: 1984–1989 TSR West: 1989–1992 Early Second Edition Lines: 1989–1991 New Settings: 1989–1993 Basic D&D Ends (Triumphantly): 1989–1996 A Buck Rogers Interlude: 1988–1995 Other Games: 1987–1994 The Lawsuits, Round Two: 1987–1994 AD&D’s Nadir: 1993–1996 Innovation to the End: 1994–1996 TSR’s Demise: 1996–1997 Thoughts on a Rise & Fall: 1997 Thoughts from the Future: 2013 4114

Part Two: The Floodgates Open (1975–1976) Flying Buffalo: 1970-Present PBM Beginnings: 1970–1975 Enter Tunnels & Trolls: 1975 Other Roleplaying Beginnings: 1975–1980 Death, War, Traps, and Retail: 1980–1981 Blade Appears: 1982 A Hysterical Interlude: 1979–1982 The Crunch: 1983–1985 RPG Endings: 1986–1997 Quiet Years: 1995–2004 The RPG Revivals: 2005–2009 Flying Buffalo Today: 2010-Present Games Workshop: 1975-Present Before the Dwarf: 1975–1977 The Birth of White Dwarf: 1977–1978 Citadel & Explosive Growth: 1978–1982 Fighting Fantasy: 1980–1995 The End of the Beginning: 1982–1985 The Move to Nottingham: 1986 The Last Years of Roleplay: 1986–1988 Beyond Roleplaying: 1989–2004 The Black Library: 1997-Present Back to Miniatures: 2008-Present GDW: 1973–1996 Wargaming Beginnings: 1972–1975 The Path to Traveller: 1975–1977 Traveller the RPG: 1977 Little Black Books All the Same: 1978–1984 The Early Licensees: 1979–1984 The Rest of Classic Traveller: 1982–1987 Wargames and Twilight: 1977–1987 The First New Traveller: 1986–1989 DGP and MegaTraveller: 1985–1987 Hard Times: 1987–1991 The New Era Dawns: 1990–1991 The New Era Emerges: 1991–1995 The Dangerous Journey: 1992–1994 Final Days: 1991–1995 Latter Days: 1996-Present Judges Guild: 1976–1983, 1999–2010 The Founding of the City State: 1974–1976 The Initial Subscriptions: 1976–1977 Becoming a Business: 1977–1978 A Dungeoneer Interlude: 1975–1981 Meeting the Competition: 1978–1980 Licenses, Licenses, Licenses: 1978–1982 Guilded Heights & A Fall: 1980–1981 Judgement Day: 1981–1983 Rebirth: 1999–Present 75177179180183184187190190193195200202204206208211

Part Three: The First Wargaming Wave (1976–1977) 215Metagaming Concepts: 1975–1983 Board Game Beginnings: 1975–1976 Roleplaying Beginnings: 1975–1977 The MicroGame Breakout: 1977–1982 A Fantasy Trip Begins: 1977–1978 The Metagaming/Jackson Split: 1980–1981 TFT after Jackson: 1980–1981 The Rest of The Fantasy Trip: 1981–1982 Final Trends: 1981–1983 Fantasy Games Unlimited: 1975–1991 Scattered Beginnings: 1975–1976 A Chevalier Rides Through: 1976–1979 Other Early Publications: 1978–1980 Space Opera & The Rest of Simbalist: 1980–1984 Picking Up Other Lines: 1981–1983 The Good Times: 1981–1986 FGU’s Waterloo: 1987–1988 Aftermath (Not the Game): 1988-Present Chaosium: 1975-Present Board Game Beginnings: 1975–1981 Roleplaying Beginnings: 1977–1980 The Birth of RuneQuest: 1977–1983 Other Supplemental RPGs: 1979–1987 The Birth of BRP: 1980–1982 BRP Growth & Change: 1982–1987 A Licensing Interlude: 1979–2000 The Emergence of Arkham Horror: 1984 The Waking of the King: 1985–1987 The First Downturn: 1985–1988 The Second Golden Age: 1989–1992 Fiction Lines: 1992–1997 Another Boom & Bust: 1993–1998 The Chaosium Split: 1997–2000 Modern Chaosium & The Third Downturn: 1999–2003 Mostly Monographs & Reprints: 2003-Present A BRP Renaissance: 2008-Present Gamescience: 1965–1969, 1974-Present Wargaming Beginnings: 1965–1969 Lou Zocchi, Independent Author: 1971–1973 Lou Zocchi, Independent Distributor: 1973–1975 The Early Dice Chronicles: 1975–1980 The Return of Gamescience & The Start of Roleplaying: 1974–1977 The First Superhero RPG: 1977–1978 Soldiers & Martians: 1978–1980 The Empire Strikes Back: 1980–1987 The Rest of the Roleplaying: 1987–1995, 2010 The Rest of the Dice: 1983-Present Winding Down: 1997-Present ge Models, 1974–1983 310Separate Paths: 1964–1976 The Boom Years: 1977–1979 The Year of Change: 1979 The Final Years: 1980–1983 310312315316

Part Four: Universal Publishers (1978–1979) Grimoire Games: 1979–1984, 1993 The San Francisco Bay Area Before Grimoire Games: 1975–1977 Dave Hargrave Before Grimoire Games: 1968–1978 Enter Grimoire Games: 1979–1980 An Adventure & Other Revisions: 1981–1984 Dragon Tree & The Last of Grimoire Games: 1984–1993 Arduin After Grimoire Games: 1993-Present DayStar West Media: 1979–1982 A Few Publications: 1979–1980 Secrets Uncovered: 1981-Present Midkemia Press: 1979–1983 The Press Gang: 1975–1977 The Publication History of Midkemia Press: 1979–1983 Raymond Feist’s Midkemia: 1977-Present The Chaosium Rebirth: 1986–1988 Latter-Day Midkemia: 1993-Present Appendix I: 10 Things You Might Not Know About Roleplaying in the ’70s 1. Roleplaying Still Lay Very Near Its Wargaming Origins 2. Games were Competitive 3. Rules were Guidelines 4. D&D was the De Facto Standard 5. Science-Fantasy was a Heavy Influence 6. Players Made Up Their Own Stuff 7. Players Published Professional Content Too 8. Companies Didn’t Know What to Publish 9. There Were No Editions as We Know Them 10. Centralization Was Poor Appendix II: Bibliography & Thanks 9352353353354355355356357358359360361Books 361Magazines 362Web Sites 362Fact Checkers 363Scanners 364Special Thanks 364

TThe Magic ofBeginningshe dawn of the gaming industry was magical, like the start of a new year or thebirth of a baby. A bright and promising event was occurring as we watched,somewhat wide eyed with amazement and tickled by every new thing thatoccurred. It was like getting a new game that’s so cool that we started to play beforewe even knew the rules.I was in that zeitgeist up to my ears. I had just moved to California and mydaughter had just been born. There I was, a young father in a new place seekingto establish myself. All options were open. Every act had long-term implications,none of which were known.Incredibly, magic literally did help form Chaosium, which was like anotherchild for me. I had not planned to start a company and help shape an industry.I designed my first game simply to fulfill a passion. My personal magic of thebeginnings was a Tarot card reading that commanded me to start a company for anindustry that did not yet exist. I dove into it; ignorant of what was needed, ridingentirely on that passion. I published my game and went forth to sell it. Detailsof this courageous and naïve act are contained in Shannon’s history of Chaosium,including wonderful facts about how our industry was formed.Accurate facts and data fail to picture the excitement of the early days. At myfirst convention, sponsored by Avalon Hill, I discovered I was not alone in thispassion. I was giddy from the discovery of other game companies. I knew AH

would be there, and also TSR, and also Archive Miniatures, run by my friendNevile Stocken who hauled in money literally hand over fist for his line of StarWars figures. I was especially amused to find a company led by a guy named Bizarreand publishing a game by a guy named Symbolist (actually of course Bizar andSimbolist, being FGU with the monumental Chivalry & Sorcery released.) ScottBizar met my wife and in an exuberant burst of gentlemanship asked, “Do youhave a sister?” He would later become my brother-in-law.Except for a one aloof company and one sinister figure, all was bright and warmfriendship. I met more people than I can remember, including a pair of Englishmenwho slept on my hotel floor and later founded the first English roleplayingcompany, Games Workshop. TSR stood aloof, but that was apparently a corporatestand because Tim Kask, publisher of The Dragon magazine, the Englishmen and Ispent an extremely jolly afternoon sitting under an oak tree, laughing and coughingand swapping hopes and jokes and stories. Those friendships have lasted for years.One figure stands a generation ahead of all of us, who are now the Grandfathersof the game industry. Lou Zocchi was there, as he has been at every significantgame convention ever since. Lou has had some of his own games published, andis known for his world-famous dice. We all bought our dice from him, and for awhile I thought that the polyhedral dice might go down in history being calledZocchis. But neither his games nor his dice are the reason he’s the great-grandfatherof gaming. Nor is it due to the fact he sold games out of his car for decades like anitinerant peddler with an endless pack of fun and frivolity. No, it is not becausehe has entertained us for 38 years with his musical saw, magic tricks and his dearcompanion Woody. Nor is it due to his virtuous dedication to rid our industry ofthe aforementioned sinister figure. It is because Lou’s heart has always been in theright place. He has been a model for us all with his generosity and willingness toshare any and every bit of knowledge we needed to start this crazy business of ours.His benevolent attitude infected us all back then, to share whatever we needed toget into the business.Other early conventions brought out the other luminaries of the gaming dawn.Rick Loomis was practically as established as Lou, but in the mail-order gamingbefore his first RPG, Tunnels and Trolls, by Ken St Andre. Frank Chadwick andMark Miller almost shyly brought their first science fiction outer space game,Traveller. I particularly remember Pete Fenlon of I.C.E. who released his first RPG,Rolemaster, informing me proudly that it had a table for every possible combatinteraction. “Small claws against full plate, we got it.”

“Cool. Our new RPG doesn’t have any tables,” I shared. That of course wasRuneQuest.In those days everyone gave copies of their latest product to every other publisher. We were small enough to do that, and it was done with a generosity of spiriteven if their game was over the top, without much promise of success.Not everything was fun and perfect, of course. That villain mentioned above?That was Dave Casciano, who I saw at my first Origins convention sitting undera Nazi flag cleaning a firearm. I remember thinking, “Whoa, what have I gotteninto!?” He used to advertise games and collect money, but never publish theproduct. He was ejected before the convention opened. He kept coming backthough, the herpes of the gaming industry. Once again it was our hero, Lou Zocchiwho got rid of him. He, and I too, were sued by the rotter, but Lou let no expensecome between him and his crusade for virtue in gaming. He spent thousands ofdollars to fly witnesses to testify at federal court until the judicial system acceptedthat Casciano was a pirate, thief and “one bad apple among us.” Thank you Lou.After the headlong rush of the 70’s, our industry changed. The first wave wasnearly all designer-publishers like Chaosium. Afterward, we hired actual businesspeople, like accountants and sales people; and formed a business association.Slowly, the emphasis changed from “gaming” to “industry.” Our initial small groupof enthusiastic publishers grew.While I am nostalgic for those early days, I will not complain about the businessside. Such transformations are natural and necessary for the industry to thriveenough to become embedded in American culture to such an extent as to appearin such diverse outlets as X-files and Futurama. We have grown and mutated fromthat thrilling sprout to be a forest of creativity. We have changed from that wondrous infant into a mature entertainment medium that has withstood the impactsof computer games and collectible card games. We played that new game of “GameIndustry” before it had rules, and had a great time. In addition to that glorious past,we also still have a bright future to look forward to.That pleases me.Greg StaffordNovember 25, 2013

TForeword:The ’70shis is a book about the roleplaying industry as it existed in its most primordialdays. It’s about hobbyist gaming in the ’70s. More specifically, it’s about 13different companies that began publishing roleplaying games in the ’70s —from TSR itself, through the wargame companies and the miniatures manufacturers that leapt into the industry, to the companies that were formed specifically toproduce roleplaying games.The roleplaying industry is a very creative one, built on the backs of dreamersable to imagine different worlds. It’s also a small industry, which makes it vulnerable to any numbers of disasters. That’s what you’ll find at the heart of this book,beneath the trends and under the skin of the companies: a story of designers andtheir dragons.There are designers aplenty within these covers.The names from TSR are among the best known: Dave Arneson and GaryGygax, who together created Dungeons & Dragons; Jeff Perren and Dave Wesely,who provided some of its foundations; and Eric Holmes, Tom Moldvay, David“Zeb” Cook, and Frank Mentzer, who each rebuilt the game.However, the stories of designers from other companies are no less important,among them: Ken St. Andre, who dared to create the second FRP; Greg Stafford,who created a game to depict his long-imagined world of Glorantha; Bob Bledsaw,who believed in RPG supplements; and Dave Hargrave, who was willing to sharehis own vision of D&D.

2Designers & Dragons: The ’70s 7 Shannon AppelclineAnd the dragons, they’re sadly here as well. They roosted upon the eaves of theold Dungeon Hobby Shop.Ten different legal threats or lawsuits all get some attention within TSR’shistory, including: Dave Arneson vs. TSR (twice), TSR vs. Heritage Models, ElanMerchandising vs. TSR, TSR vs. Mayfair Games (twice), TSR vs. New InfinitiesProductions, TSR vs. GDW (twice), and TSR vs. the whole internet. And that wasjust the pick of the litter, ignoring more mundane issues such as Rose Estes andWill Niebling suing TSR for rights related to stock options.TSR also faced dragons of other sorts, including board fights, ousted presidents,Californian exiles, decade-long vendettas, secret cabals, hysterical media, and along fight with the moral minority. Dragons come in all shapes and sizes, you see.Don’t think that the rest of the industry was left out. Other publisher historieshighlight a veritable flight of dragons, including corrupt printers, abrupt changesof direction, poorly received revamps, massive overprinting, fights over copyright,disagreements over contracts, near bankruptcies, thieving partners, and more.Of the 13 companies profiled within these pages, only 3 to 4 are still in business(depending on how you count), and one of those is entirely out of the roleplayingbusiness. As for the rest: they’re all shadows of companies at their heights. That’sbecause dragons have stamina; they keep wearing away at companies and theirdesigners, like the sea against the shore. In the end, they always win.The story is not in the victory or the loss, but in the fight.Come and read the story of the first 13 notable companies to enter the RPGindustry — the story of their designers and their battles against the dragons.About the Icon: Daniel Solis’ icon for the ’70s is a pair of crossed swords. Itrepresents the origins of the industry in wargaming and the game of Dungeons &Dragons itself, which started out as monster-slaying treks through dungeons.

7 Foreword: The ’70s3A Future History of RoleplayingThough this book focuses on roleplaying companies that began publication inthe ’70s, many of their stories continued beyond that decade. Thus, the trends oflater times affected these early publishers. The most important future trends aredetailed, in brief, below.8 The RPG Boom & Bust (1980–1983). The early ’80s saw a boom period forRPGs in the wake of increased media attention. Unfortunately, it turned into abust in 1982 or 1983. Many early publishers met their end as a result. The ones thatremained were forced to increase their quality of production to keep up.8 The Storytelling Revolution (1984). Prior to 1984, most RPGs had beenabout location-based exploration. A variety of publications that year — amongthem Dragonlance, Paranoia, and Toon — moved the medium toward story-oriented play. More would follow in the years thereafter.8 The Desktop Revolution (1985). The Mac computer appeared in 1984, andwithin a year personal desktop publishing had become possible. This allowed manynew small press publishers to appear, starting around 1985.8 The Cyberpunk Revolution (1988). R. Talsorian Games changed the face ofscience-fiction roleplaying with their publication of Cyberpunk (1988). It broughtthe creation of new space opera games to an end for at least a decade and sent a lotof publishers haring off after their own cyberpunk RPG.9 The CCG Boom and Bust (1993–1996). When Wizards of the Coast published Magic: The Gathering (1993), they created the collectible card game genre.It was much more lucrative than roleplaying publishing, and thus many RPGpublishers created CCGs of their own. Meanwhile, distributors started puttingtheir dollars toward CCGs rather than RPGs. Unfortunately, much of the initialinterest was a fad, and publishers who committed too much to the trend ended upsorry.0 The D20 Boom and Bust (2000–2004). Wizards of the Coast changed thewhole industry a second time when they released Dungeons & Dragons ThirdEdition (2000) under a license that allowed anyone to create supplements for it.Hundreds of new companies appeared to do so, while many old publishers alsomoved into the new and lucrative space. Existing publishers who didn’t do sofound it hard to stay afloat. Just as with CCGs, a bust quickly followed the boom.0 The Indie Revolution (2001 ). Many of the storytelling ideas from the ’80sand ’90s have been reborn in recent years as the indie game movement. Small

4Designers & Dragons: The ’70s 7 Shannon Appelclinepublishers are publishing games that matter to them, and they’re often aboutstories, morality, emotions, or other weighty issues — not just fighting goblins.A Note to Readers of the First EditionIf you read the previous, black monolith edition of Designers & Dragons, you’llfind that the information on the ’70s in this new edition has dramatically increased.The histories of Judges Guild, Metagaming, and TSR were all vastly expanded,thanks in each case to lots of new material that I was able to access (mostly moremagazines from the period).In addition, the final five histories in this book are brand new: Gamescience,Heritage Models, Grimoire Games, DayStar West Media, and Midkemia Press.The article in Appendix I is new too.Finally, information has been updated for the scant ’70s companies stillpublishing.Whether you’ve encountered an edition of this book before, or are a newcomer toDesigners & Dragons, I hope you enjoy yourself while reading many of the earliesthistories of the hobbyist industry.Shannon AppelclineJanuary 6, 2013

Part One:Founding Days(1953–1974)

Before 1974 there was no roleplaying industry. The hobbyist game industryexisted, but it centered on a different type of game: the wargame. Thehistory of these games of warfare went back to at least the 17th century,but it wasn’t until 1953 that they gained a foothold among American gamingenthusiasts, and that was thanks to a man named Charles Roberts.Roberts created the first mainstream wargame, Tactics (1953), and afterwardhe decided to leverage that game’s success into something more: the firstwargame company, Avalon Hill. It would be the leader of the industry for manyyears, and it would attract many followers, including SPI and numerous otherpublishers that we’ll meet as they enter the RPG industry in a series of threesuccessive waves.In the meantime another trend was overtaking the United States. J.R.R.Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings was introduced in a few different mass-marketeditions beginning in the 1960s. It was one of the literary touchstones of the’60s, and buttons that read “Frodo Lives” could often be found at love-ins andpeace demonstrations alike.As much as anything the story of roleplaying games is the story of howthese trends came together — of how two miniatures wargamers interestedin medieval warfare and fantasy realms created a new game and a new hobby.Those wargaming enthusiasts were Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson, and theirgame was Dungeons & Dragons (1974). This was the state of the hobbyistindustry when the first roleplaying company, TSR, began publishing RPGsin 1974.CompanyYearsFirst RPGPageTSR1973–1997Dungeons & Dragons (1974)7

TSR: 1973–1997TSR founded the roleplaying industry and ruled it for almost 25 years.A Brief Introduction: 1958 The story of TSR begins with the story of two men, Gary Gygax (of LakeGeneva in Wisconsin) and Dave Arneson (of the Twin Cities in Minnesota), whowould soon create the world’s first roleplaying game. They each came into thehobbyist gaming field through the same publication — Avalon Hill’s Gettysburg(1958) wargame — and from there they soon advanced to positions of leadershipin the wargaming community.Before we meet these men, though,we should first briefly acknowledge thesources of their stories. Traditionally,the early history of TSR is muddled,primarily because interviews with theprincipals have diverged and differedover the years. This has resulted in different remembrances, often from thesame people.More recently, Jon Peterson madea heroic effort to detail the earliestyears of the hobby in his own Playingat the World (2012), a dense tome thatprimarily covers the miniatures wargaming scene and TSR through 1977.1974: Dungeons & Dragons

8Designers & Dragons: The ’70s 7 Shannon AppelclineBy digging up hard-to-get primary sources from the era, Peterson put many dateson events and otherwise straightened out a lot of facts. This history of TSR mostlyfollows Playing at the World’s chronology for its earliest years, but adds detailsfrom many other sources as appropriate.With that said, let’s return to our two creative gentlemen.Gary Gygax & Chainmail: 1967–1971Gygax’s rise within wargaming circles began in 1967, when he helped to reformthe International Federation of Wargamers (IFW) — a society that had beenformed the previous year to promote the play of Avalon Hill’s board wargames. Hewas soon after contributing to numerous wargaming ’zines.At the IFW’s Gen Con I (1968) Gygax saw a demonstration of a medieval miniatures game, Henry Bodenstedt’s “Siege of Bodenberg” (1967). This led Gygaxto new interests in both miniatures wargaming and pre-Napoleonic wargameplay — at the time the era was largely neglected by wargamer leader Avalon Hill.Meanwhile, Gygax began his own game design work with the Little Big Hornwargame (1968), released through the War Game Inventors Guild of the IFW. Hisrevision of Dane Lyons’ Arbela (1968), an “ancient wargame,” may be more notablebecause Gygax distributed it under his own company name: Gystaff Enterprises.In 1969 Gygax formed a miniatures gaming group to support his new interest:the Lake Geneva Tactical Studies Association. At its formation it included sevenmembers: Gary Gygax, Donald Kaye, Rob Kuntz, Jeff Perren, Michael Reese, LeonTucker, and either Gygax’s son Ernie or Kuntz’s brother Terry — depending onwhich source you prefer. That group in turn became the core of a special interestgroup within the IFW called the Castle & Crusade Society, which focused onmedieval warfare.It was actually Jeff Perren who got the ball rolling for what would become D&Dwith a two-to-four page medieval miniatures rule set. When Gygax saw these rules,he decided to edit and expand them — a tendency that we’ll see repeated in thefuture. The results, by Perren & Gygax, were published as the “Geneva MedievalMiniatures” in Don Greenwood’s Panzerfaust fanzine (April 1970), then expandedas the “LGTSA Miniatures Rules” in issue #5 ( July 1970) of The Domesday Book,the Castle & Crusade Society’s own periodical. This sort of amateur publicationof new rules was entirely common for the period, and in general showed how theminiatures hobby was amateur, yet creative. Fortunately, Gygax would soon be ableto reach a much wider audience.

Part One: Founding Days (1953–1974) 7 TSR: 1973–19979This was thanks to Don Lowry, an ex-Air Force Captain who formed LowrysHobbies — a mail order store for wargaming — in 1970. He also began publishingsome games of his own, including some “Fast Rules” (1970) for tank combat byTucker and Reese of the LGTSA.Lowry met Gygax at Gen Con III (1970); it proved to be an important connection when Gygax lost his insurance job just a couple of months later. That’sbecause Lowry was in the process of creating Guidon Games to publish more (andmore professional) games. Thanks to his new availability, Gygax was able to signon with Guidon to edit and produce miniatures wargaming rules in a series called“Wargaming with Miniatures.”Guidon’s first book, produced in March 1971, was Chainmail (1971) — afurther expansion of the medieval miniatures rules by Perren and Gygax. The newrules contained two new sections that are of particular note.The “siege” rules offered the first crucial step on the road to Dungeons &Dragons. Whereas Perren’s original game had a 20:1 scale, and the LGTSA versionof the rules had a 10:1 scale, while the siege rules suggested a 1:1 scale that hadpreviously been used only for army commanders. In other words, it offered upman-to-man combat rules of the sort that would be at the heart of RPGs.Chainmail’s “fantasy supplement” may have been even more important. Its 14pages described how to introduce singular heroes, superheroes, and wizards intoChainmail play. Wizards even had a variety of spells such as fire ball, lightning bolt,phantasmal force, darkness, and more.Though Chainmail was clearly the most important Guidon publication for thefuture roleplaying industry, the series would come to include books by many futureRPG luminaries, among them Lou Zocchi, Tom Wham and Dave Arneson.Dave Arneson & Black Moor: 1969–1972Stepping back to 1969, we find Dave Arneson gaming with Dave Wesely, anamateur game designer who was particularly interested in games that were openended, run by a referee, and supportive of more than just two players. Weselybrought these ideas together in his own “Braunstein” Napoleonic miniatures games.Players in a Braunstein rather uniquely took on the roles of individuals who hadspecific objectives in the game. In fact, there was so much involvement with thesevarious roles that Wesely never got to the actual wargame in his first Braunstein!Just as Arneson began playing in Wesely’s Braunsteins, he also became moreinvolved in the wider wargaming community, attending Gen Con II (1969) —where he met Gary Gygax — and joining the IFW. Toward the end of 1969 Arnesonused these new connections to run a game for wargamers scattered across thecountry — eventually including Gary Gygax, Don Kaye, and Rob Kuntz. Arneson’s

10Designers & Dragons: The ’70s 7 Shannon AppelclineNapoleonic Simulation Campaign used Gary Gygax’s Napoleonic Diplomacyvariant for large-scale strategic play, bu

Grimoire Games: 1979–1984, 1993 321 The San Francisco Bay Area Before Grimoire Games: 1975–1977 321 Dave Hargrave Before Grimoire Games: 1968–1978 323 Enter Grimoire Games: 1979–1980 329 An Adventure & Other Revisions: 1981–1984 331 Dragon Tree & The Last of Grimoire Games: 1984–1993 333 Arduin After Grimoire Games: 1993-Present 336