Aboratory Measurements, Equipment, And Safety

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aboratory Measurements,Equipment, and SafetySection 1.2Laboratory Equipmentost of the time, conducting scientific experiments requires the use of one or more types ofequipment. The following is a review of the most common types of equipment and their uses.Glassware lor Measuring and Dispensing LiquidsWhen accurate measurements are needed for liquid volume, scientists use glassware that are marked with graduations.Graduated Cylinder,.-A graduated cylinder (figure 1-4) is used to accurately measure the volume ofliquids. The most common measurement for volume is milliliters, abbreviatedmL. In figure 1-4, each mark or "graduation" represents 2 mL.50-::::40-:: 30- 4·····:: 9-,:: 10- meniscusWhen measuring liquid in a graduated cylinder, you read the amount of liquidfrom the center of the meniscus. The meniscus is the curve at the surface of theliquid. The meniscus of most liquids curves down, but the meniscus of mercurycurves up. The volume of liquid shown in figure 1-4 is 22 mL.Fig. 1-4BuretteGraduated cylinders are not the only pieces of glasswareused for measurements. For very small liquid measurements,you can use a pipette (figure 1-5), burette (figure 1-6), orsyringe (figure 1-5). These pieces of equipment are usuallyused for dispensing liquids in measured amounts.PipetteFig. 1-5SyringeFig. 1-6Fig. 1-7DropperDroppers similar to the one in figure 1-8 are used sometimes for dispensing andmeasuring small amounts of liquids, but they must be used carefully to make sure that thedrops are the same size. As a general rule of thumb, 20 drops equal 1 mL.AHSGE: Science 2005 Jerald D. Duncan33Section 1.2Laboratory Measurements, Equipment, and Safety

Section 1.2, continuedlaboratory EquipmentTest TubeClassware for Storage, Handling, and ObservationsNot all glassware is used for measuring and dispensing liquids. Some types are used for holding,mixing, or storing liquid.For small amounts of liquids, test tubes (figure] -8) can be used for mixing and handling. Somehave caps that allow them to be used for storage as well.Fig. 1-8ErlenmeyerFlaskBeakerBeakers (figure] -9) and Erlenmeyer flasks (figure 1-10) are commonlyused for storing and mixing liquids. Some have measurement markings, butthese containers do not give accurate measurements. A 250 mL beaker orErlenmeyer flask will hold 250 milliliters of liquid, but you wouldn't usethe beaker or the flask to accurately measure 250 mL.250Petri DishFig. 1-9Fig. 1-10A petri dish (figure 1-11) has several uses. It is commonly filled with an agar and nutrientsolution and then used to grow and observe bacteria cultures. It can also be used to observeseed germination or small animal behaviors.Fig. 1-11Equipment for Measuring MassTo find the mass of an object, a scale balance isused. The most common types of scale balances arethe triple beam balance (figure 1-12) and theelectronic balance (figure 1-13). Both types ofbalances measure mass in grams.Triple Beam BalanceElectric BalanceFig. 1-12Fig. 1-13Equipment for Measuring Weight or ForceRemember, mass and weight are not the same thing. Weight is a measurement of the force of gravity on an object,and it is measured in newtons. (The newton is the SI unit for force.) If you went to the moon where the gravity is onlyabout 20% of the earth's gravity, your mass would not change since your body would contain the same amount ofmatter, but your weight would be less on the moon than on earth due to gravity.Spring ScaleFig. 1-14AHSGE: Science 2005 Jerald D. DuncanWeight or force is measured using a spring scale. Your bathroom scale is aspring scale although it does not look like the one in figure 1-14. Some scaleshave a dial readout, and others have a linear scale as shown in figure 1-14. Tofind the weight of an object using this spring scale, you would hold the scale upand attach the object to be weighed to the hook at the bottom. The spring willstretch, and the pointer will move along the scale and point to the number thatshows the object's weight.34Section 1.2Laboratory Measurements, Equipment, and Safety

Section 1.2, continuedLaborafory Equi menfBunsenBurnerEqui menf for HeatingMany scientific experiments use a heat source as part of the labequipment. While the heat source may be as simple as a light bulb, it ismore often a Bunsen burner or a hot plate burner.A Bunsen burner (figure 1-15) uses gas to produce a flame. The flameof a Bunsen burner can reach temperatures up to 1500 C. That's hot!Bunsen burners are commonly used to heat liquids in test tubes or to heatsolid objects that can be held by tongs.Hot PlateFig. 1-15Fig. 1-16Hot plates (figure 1-16) may be used for some experiments. Even though they do not produce an open flame, theymust be used with caution. They should never be left unattended. Hot plates are commonly used to heat liquids inbeakers and flasks, especially when the liquid needs to be stirred. (Many hot plates have built-in stirrers that will spinmagnetic stir bars when these bars are placed in the liquid on top of the hot plate.)The thermometer is the most common piece of equipment used in thelaboratory to determine temperature. Most laboratory thermometers are markedin degrees Celsius, but they may be marked with degrees Fahrenheit as well.Equi menf for Measuring TimeThe SI Unit for time is the second. When an experiment requires time to be recorded, themost often used piece of equipment is the stopwatch.Optical EquipmenfMany times, scientists need to observe either very small objects or objects that are far away. In these cases, differenttypes of optical equipment are used.Probably the most widely used piece of optical equipment is the microscope. Most people can't see details clearly onanything much smaller than 0.1 mm, so scientists may use a microscope to study smaller objects. The units oflengthusually used for microscopic measurements are the micrometer, 11m,which is only one thousandth (1/1 ,000) of amillimeter, and the nanometer, nm, which is one millionth (111,000,000) of a millimeter,A light microscope (figure 1-17), the most common type, focuses light rays thatpass through the specimen to produce a magnified image. A light microscope can beused to view cells and some cell organelles. The light microscope is sometimescalled a compound microscope. To view objects under a light microscope, theobjects must be thin enough for light to pass through them. Objects to be viewed aremounted on slides, special pieces of glass that fit under the microscope's lens.Temporary slides called wet mount slides are made by placing a specimen in a dropof water and then covering the specimen with a cover slip.Light (or Compound)MicroscopeElectron microscopes focus beams of electrons instead of light rays. Electronmicroscopes have much better resolution - that is, they magnify objects more andget clearer details at higher magnification than light microscopes. They can be usedo iew objects as small as a strand of DNA, which cannot be viewed by a lightmicroscope. Electron microscopes cannot be used to view living objects though.SGE: Science2005 Jerald D. Duncan35Section 1.2Laboratory Measurements, Equipment, and Safety

ion 1.2, continuedratory EquipmentTelescope-0 view objects that are far away, scientists use binoculars or azelescope.BinocularsBinoculars (figure 1-18) can be used to view everyday objectsmat are too far away to be seen clearly.A telescope (figure 1-19) is commonly used to view objects inouter space, such as planets, moons, stars, asteroids, etc.Fig. 1-18Fig. 1-19PracticeAnswer the following question on laboratory equipment. @1. Which of the following pieces of optical equipment would you use to view a wet mount slide?A. compound microscopeC. binocularsB. electron microscopeD. telescope @2.Which of the following would be the BEST choice to mix and store a small amount of a liquid?A. beakerC. pipetteB. syringeD. capped test tube @3.In a chemistry experiment, Tyson needs to measure exactly 10 mL of chemical. Which of thefollowing pieces of equipment would be MOST appropriate for him to use?A. beakerC. Erlenmeyer flaskB. graduated cylinderD. test tube @4.A scientist needs to determine the exact mass of a residual powder. Which of the followingpieces of equipment should be used?A. scale balanceC. spring scaleB. thermometerD. compound microscope @5.A laboratory experiment requires students to find the change in temperature of several liquidsover time as the liquids are heated. Which of the following pieces of laboratory equipmentwould MOST likely be used in the experiment?A. hot plate, petri dishes, spring scale, thermometerB. petri dish, Bunsen burner, thermometerC. test tubes, slides, microscope, stop watchD. beakers, hot plate, thermometer, stop watch @6.A physical science experiment requires students to find the average velocity of a rolling ball asit travels down a ramp at different slopes. If velocity is calculated by dividing 'distance overtime, which of the following pieces of equipment would be MOST appropriate for theexperiment?A. stop watch and graduated cylinderC. tape measure and binocularsB. tape measure and stop watchD. scale balance and stop watchAHSGE: Science 2005 Jerald D. Duncan36LaboratoryMeasurements,Equipment,Section 1.2and Safety

Laboratory Measurements,Equipment, and SafetySection 1.3Laboratory Procedures and SafetySafety Equipment -Before you start your first lab activity, you should know the location of the safetyequipment in the room and when and how to use it. Most laboratories include thefollowing safety equipment:An emergency eyewash station should be used only when needed to rinseaway chemicals that have gotten into your eyes. Instructions for using theeyewash are on the eyewash. They will include holding your eyes open in thestream of water for 5 to 15 minutes.A safety shower is used only when necessary to rinse off chemicals that are splashed or spilled onto your skin orclothing. Absorbent material is used to contain small spills.A biohazards container is used for disposal of living tissues, cells, or any other biohazard. - A broken glass container should be used instead of a trash can to get rid of broken glassware. A fire extinguisher is used to put out small fires. You should read the directions before an emergency occurs.Most fire extinguishers work by using "PASS" PASS-pull the pinaim the nozzlesqueeze the handle to release the foam/chemicalsweep the nozzle from side to side, always pointing at the base of the flamesSome personal safety equipment is used routinely in a lab for your protection.Safety GlasseslSafety GogglesLab ApronLatex or nitrile gloves maybe needed to protect yourhands against biohazards orchemicals.Safety glasses or gogglesmust be worn if anychemicals or glasswareis used.AHSGE: ScienceQ 2005 Jerald D. DuncanAsbestos glovesmay be needed toprotect your handsfrom heat.Lab aprons helpprotect your skin andclothing fromchemicals.37Section 1.3Laboratory Measurements, Equipment, and Safety

Section 1.3, continuedlaboratory Procedures and SafetyGeneral laboratory Procedures and Safety RulesYour teacher may provide you with a specific list of safety rules. Here are some safety rules that everyone shouldknow:Do not attempt any unauthorized experiments. Do only what your teacher has approved and told you to do.Read all directions before you begin every lab activity and follow the instructions carefully.If you are not sure what you should do during the activity, stop and get help from the teacher.If you get confused during an activity and are not sure of what you have done, dispose of the materials you wereusing and start over.Your teacher will tell you how to dispose of chemicals correctly. Never pour them down the drain unless told todo so.In case of a spill or broken glass, follow your teacher's instructions. Broken glass is usually put into a brokenglass container and NOT in the trash can.Tell your teacher about any accidents -even little ones that you think don't matter.Clean up your area after finishing the activity. Clean the laboratory table and equipment thoroughly.Return all materials to their proper places.Wash your hands before you leave the classroom.Biohazard and Chemical SafetyMany chemicals or materials used in the laboratory can be harmful if used improperly. The following is a list of safetyprocedures that should be followed when using certain chemicals and biohazards. Biohazards are materials that cantransport disease or illness. Examples of biohazards are human and animal blood, animal tissues, viruses, bacteria,fungi, and cultured cells.Never bring food or drinks into the laboratory when performing an experiment.Always wear safety goggles or glasses to protect the eyes and a laboratory apron to protect skin and clothing whenworking with chemicals or biohazards.Never inhale fumes from chemicals unless directed to do so. If an experiment callsfor a chemical to be smelled, it should be wafted to the nose by holding the chemicalaway from the nose and gently moving the fumes towards the nose with the hand.See figure 1-20.Wafting a ChemicalDo not allow chemicals to come into contact with skin or clothing. In case of skin oreye contact, rinse with water immediately. In some cases, immediate medicalattention may also be needed.Keep flammable chemicals away from open flames or sparks.Keep poisonous chemicals under a fume hood.Dispose of unused chemicals according to your teacher's directions. Do not pourdown the drain unless directed to do so. NEVER put unused chemical back into theoriginal bottle.Fig. 1-20Dispose of biohazards as directed by your teacher. These materials are usually placed in a biohazards container.AHSGE: Science 2005 Jerald D. Duncan38Section 1.3Laboratory Measurements, Equipment, and Safety

Section 1.3, continuedLaboratory Procedures and SafetyHeat SafetyOpen flames and hot plates should never be left unattended.Test Tube ClampKeep all flammable and combustible materials away from open flames.Use appropriate equipment to handle hot glassware. Use test tube holders for testtubes (figure 1-21); use tongs for beakers, flasks, or crucibles (figure 1-22); or useheat-resistant gloves (often made of asbestos) when handling hot glassware (figure1-23).Hot glassware looks the same as cold glassware! You cannot tell if glassware ishot by looking at it. If in doubt, handle the glassware as if is too hot to touch byusing the appropriate clamps, tongs, or gloves.When you heat materials in a test tube over a Bunsen burner, you should rememberthese special rules:Always use a test tube clamp to hold the test tube by the body, not the rim. Tongsand holders not designed to hold test tubes can easily break the glass, so use onlytest tube clamps specifically made to hold test tubes. See figure 1-21.Fig. 1-21Crucible/Beaker Tongs Fig. 1-22Asbestos/HeatResistant GlovesDo not cap or plug the tube while you are heating it.The open end of the test tube should always be pointed away from others.Do not fill the test tube all the way to the top.Do not put the test tube in the hottest part of the flame. Keep the test tube movingin and out of the flame so one part doesn't overheat.Fig. 1-23Practice 1Match each of the following pieces of safety equipmentl. eyewash station2.absorbent materialto its correct description.A. used to protect the hands from heatB. correct way to dispose of living material3. fire extinguisherC. protects the eyes from chemicals and broken glass4. safety showerD. used in an emergency to rinse chemicals from eyes5. biohazards containerE.in an emergency, will rinse away chemicals on skin and clothes6. broken glass containerF.used for small fires7. safety gogglesG. helps contain small spills8. lab apronH. used to protect skin and clothes from chemicals and biohazards9. asbestos gloves1. " used for cracked, chipped, or broken glass39Section 1.3Laboratory Measurements, Equipment, and Safety

Section 1.3, continuedLaboratory Procedures and SafetyPractice 2Answer the following questions about laboratory procedures and safety.o @1. If chemicals or glassware are used during a lab activity, you should always wearA. asbestos gloves.C. a lab apron.B. safety glasses.D. nitrile gloves.o @2. Latex and nitrile gloves help protect your hands fromA. chemicals and biohazards.C. broken glass and radioactivity.B. heat and chemicals.D. heat and biohazards.o @o @o @o @o @o @o @o @AHSGE: Science 2005 Jerald D. Duncan3. The foam or chemical from a fire extinguisher should be sprayedA. at the top of the flames.C. in a circle around the flames.B. as close to the flames as possible.D. at the base of the flames.4. Mrs. MacDonald's class is doing an experiment to determine the most effective anti-bacterialsoap. The students are to use the following materials: glass pipette, cotton swab, petri dish withagar solution, bacteria culture, microscope slides with coverslips, microscope. Which list ofsafety equipment is most appropriate for this experiment?A. safety glasses, apron, biohazards container, broken glass container, nitrile glovesB. safety glasses, fire extinguisher, asbestos glovesC. safety shower, broken glass container, fire extinguisher, nitrile glovesD. safety goggles, apron, safety shower, asbestos gloves5. When any accident occurs during a lab activity, you shouldA. always report it to the teacher.C. include it in your lab report.B. notify the office.D. tell the students in the next class.6. If you are not sure about what to do during a lab activity, you shouldA. ask someone else at your table.C. ask the teacher.B use your best judgment.D. watch to see what everyone else is doing.7. Leftover chemicals should be disposed of byA. pouring them down the drain.C. putting them in the trash can.B. following the teacher's directions.D. leaving them for the next class.8. TheA.B.C.D.correct way to heat a test tube over a Bunsen burner is tohold the tube directly into the hottest part of the flame.securely plug the tube before placing it in the heat.use test tube tongs to move the tube in and out of the flame.point the test tube towards a lab partner so he or she can make observations.9. A lab activity instructs you to smell a substance in a test tube. Which of the follow describeswhat you should do?A. Ignore the instructions since chemicals should never be smelled.B. Place your nose directly over the test tube and inhale.C. Waft the aroma towards your nose using your hand.D. Place your nose about two inches above the test tube and sniff.10. Which of the following is true about hot glassware?A. It looks the same as cool glassware.C. It looks slightly reddish.B. It should be cooled in ice.D. It can usually be handled with bare hands.40LaboratoryMeasurements,Equipment,Section 1.3and Safety

more often a Bunsen burner or a hot plate burner. A Bunsen burner (figure 1-15) uses gas to produce a flame. The flame of a Bunsen burner can reach temperatures up to 1500 C. That's hot! Bunsen burners are commonly used to heat liquids in test tubes or to heat solid objects that can be held by