Transatlantic Airline Fuel Efficiency Ranking, 2017

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WHITE PAPERSEPTEMBER 2018TRANSATLANTIC AIRLINE FUELEFFICIENCY RANKING, 2017Brandon Graver, Ph.D., and Daniel Rutherford, [email protected] J I NG BERLIN B R U SS E LS SAN FRANCIS CO WAS H INGTO N

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe authors thank Tim Johnson, Andrew Murphy, Anastasia Kharina, and Amy Smorodinfor their review and support. We also acknowledge Airline Data Inc. for providingprocessed BTS data, and FlightGlobal for Ascend Fleet data.International Council on Clean Transportation1225 I Street NW Suite 900Washington, DC 20005 [email protected] www.theicct.org @TheICCT 2018 International Council on Clean Transportation

TRANSATLANTIC AIRLINE FUEL EFFICIENCY RANKING, 2017TABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY. iii1. INTRODUCTION. 22. METHODOLOGY. 32.1 Airline selection. 32.2 Fuel burn modeling. 52.3 Fuel efficiency calculation.63. RESULTS. 73.1 Airline comparisons. 73.2 Aircraft-specific analysis.83.3 Drivers of transatlantic airline efficiency.93.4 Airline-specific analysis.133.5 Route comparisons.174. CONCLUSIONS AND NEXT STEPS. 204.1 Conclusions. 204.2 Next steps.215. REFERENCES.22APPENDIX A: MODEL VALIDATION.26APPENDIX B: ADJUSTED 2014 TRANSATLANTIC FUEL EFFICIENCY. 27i

ICCT WHITE PAPERLIST OF TABLESTable 1. Airlines evaluated. 3Table 2. Aircraft types used on transatlantic operations. 4Table 3. Key modeling variables. 5Table 4. Airline operational parameters.10LIST OF FIGURESFigure ES-1. Fuel efficiency of 20 airlines on transatlantic passenger routes, 2017. iiiFigure ES-2. Key drivers of transatlantic airline fuel efficiency, 2014 and 2017.ivFigure 1. Fuel efficiency of 20 airlines on transatlantic passenger routes, 2017. 7Figure 2. Fuel efficiency of aircraft types used on transatlantic routes, 2017.9Figure 3. Key drivers of transatlantic airline fuel efficiency, 2014 and 2017. 11Figure 4. Comparison of transatlantic market capacity provided by eachaircraft type, 2014 and 2017.12Figure 5. Fuel efficiency for airlines serving New York-London routes.17Figure 6. Fuel efficiency for airlines serving Los Angeles-London routes. 18Figure 7. Fuel efficiency for airlines serving New York-Paris routes. 18Figure 8. Fuel efficiency for airlines serving New York-Reykjavik routes. 19Figure A-1. Airline-reported versus modeled fuel efficiency. 26Figure B-1. Adjusted fuel efficiency of 20 airlines on transatlanticpassenger routes, 2014.27ii

TRANSATLANTIC AIRLINE FUEL EFFICIENCY RANKING, 2017EXECUTIVE SUMMARYPublic information on airline fuel efficiency remains scarce. Starting in 2013, theInternational Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) began assessing the fuel efficiencyof U.S. airlines on domestic operations for 2010, with subsequent updates for 2011through 2016. In 2015, the ICCT compared the fuel efficiency of 20 major airlinesoperating in the transatlantic market, specifically nonstop passenger flights betweenNorth America and Europe. This report updates that ranking.Figure ES-1 illustrates the fuel efficiency of the 20 carriers analyzed. Passenger-basedfuel efficiency was estimated after correcting for cargo carried on passenger flights,referred to as belly freight, which increases the absolute burn of a given flight butimproves the fuel efficiency per unit of mass moved. Norwegian Air Shuttle was themost fuel-efficient airline on transatlantic operations in 2017, with an average fuelefficiency of 44 passenger-kilometers per liter of fuel (pax-km/L), 33% higher than theindustry average. British Airways (BA) ranked as the least fuel-efficient, falling 22%below the industry average. On average, BA burned 63% more fuel per passengerkilometer than Norwegian. The gap between the most- and least-efficient transatlanticairlines has grown since the 2014 rankings.ExcessFuel/pax-kmAverage Fuel Economy [pax-km/L]Norwegian44WOW airSWISS 19%37KLM— 13%39 22%36Turkish35 26%Air France35 26%Thomas Cook35 26%Virgin Atlantic35 26%Icelandair34 29%Iberia34 29%Delta34 29%34 29%ScandinavianAmerican33 33%Austrian33 33%Aer Lingus33 33%Alitalia33 33%Aeroflot33 33%UnitedLufthansaBritish Airways 42%31 47%30 63%27INDUSTRY AVERAGEFigure ES-1. Fuel efficiency of 20 airlines on transatlantic passenger routes, 2017.The report also assesses key drivers of the observed fuel efficiency gap acrosscarriers (Figure ES-2). Factors investigated include aircraft fuel burn, seating density,passenger load factor, and freight share of total payload. Of these, aircraft fuel burnwas found to be the most important driver overall, explaining almost 40% of theiii

ICCT WHITE PAPERvariation in airline fuel efficiency across carriers, followed by seating density, whichaccounted for one third of the variation. Freight share and passenger load factorswere relatively less important. The importance of seating density as a driver of fuelefficiency has increased since 2014 due to the expansion of carriers like Norwegianand WOW air, which operate transatlantic flights with higher seat counts and a lowerpercentage of premium seats compared to competitors.100%90%15%Freight SharePassenger Load FactorSeating DensityAircraft Fuel %20142017Figure ES-2. Key drivers of transatlantic airline fuel efficiency, 2014 and 2017.Other conclusions of this work include:»» The industry average fuel efficiency improved from 33 pax-km/L in 2014 to34 pax-km/L in 2017 after adjusting for a common modeling methodology. Thisimprovement could be attributed to an increase in fuel-efficient aircraft. Between2014 and 2017, the margin to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standard for the average transatlantic aircraftimproved from 8% to 5%, while passenger load factor, seating density, and freightshare varied very little.»» Major improvers in the ranking from 2014 to 2017 include Virgin Atlantic(30 to 35 pax-km/L) and Aeroflot Russian Airlines (30 to 33 pax-km/L). Theseimprovements are linked to the increased use of more fuel-efficient aircraft—the Boeing 787-9 for Virgin Atlantic and Boeing 777-300ER for Aeroflot.The introduction of new supersonic aircraft, which are expected to have fuelefficiencies around 7 pax-km/L, could reverse Virgin Atlantic’s efficiency gains.»» The estimated gap between the most and least fuel-efficient transatlantic airlineswidened since 2014. Norwegian’s average fuel efficiency increased by 3 pax-km/L,while British Airways’ decreased by 1 pax-km/L. Although the fuel efficiency ofiv

TRANSATLANTIC AIRLINE FUEL EFFICIENCY RANKING, 2017British Airways’ fleet increased and average passenger load factors were similarin 2014 and 2017, the freight share of total payload and average seating density ofBA’s fleet fell during this time.»» There was an inverse relationship between aircraft size and fuel efficiency ontransatlantic operations—as aircraft weight, or maximum takeoff mass (MTOM),increases, fuel efficiency declines. This is predominantly because aircraft with fourengines are generally less fuel-efficient than those with two.1

ICCT WHITE PAPER1. INTRODUCTIONPublic information on airline fuel efficiency remains scarce. U.S. carriers reportquarterly fuel burn and operations by aircraft type and market, whether domestic orinternational, to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the U.S. Departmentof Transportation (DOT). Fuel burn data is not required from foreign carriers, nor aresimilar data sets published by governments outside of the United States. Several onlinecarbon calculators, including from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO,n.d.), ClimateCare (2017), and individual airlines (United Airlines, n.d.), can be used toestimate fuel consumed and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over origin-destinationpairs for passengers and air freight. These calculators do not provide carrier or flightspecific comparisons and are designed mostly to support carbon offsetting programsrather than to help consumers choose more fuel-efficient flights or carriers.Starting in 2013, the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) began assessingthe fuel efficiency of U.S. airlines in its benchmark study of domestic operations for 2010(Zeinali, Rutherford, Kwan, & Kharina, 2013), with subsequent updates for 2011 through2016 (Kwan, Rutherford, & Zeinali, 2014; Kwan & Rutherford, 2014; Kwan & Rutherford,2015; Olmer & Rutherford, 2017). The gap between the most and least efficient airlines onU.S. domestic operations was 26% in 2016. This led the ICCT to compare the fuel efficiencyof 20 major airlines operating in the transatlantic market, specifically nonstop passengerflights between North America and Europe. For 2014, there was a 51% gap betweenthe most and least efficient airlines flying over the North Atlantic (Kwan & Rutherford,2015). Overall, airlines with more fuel-efficient aircraft, less premium seating, and higherpassenger and freight load factors operated more fuel-efficient flights.This report updates the previous work on transatlantic fuel efficiency usingrefinements from a study of transpacific airline fuel efficiency (Graver & Rutherford,2018). According to an ICAO forecast of future airline traffic, in 2020 “Europe andAsia/Pacific will have the largest share of CO2 emissions from international aviationwith 36.6% and 31%, respectively, followed by North America with 14.8%” (ICAO, 2013).There are some notable differences between the transpacific and transatlantic markets.Whereas twin-aisle and very large aircraft are also used on transatlantic flights, morepremium flight offerings are available for the Asian market, typically resulting in fewerseats on each plane.In addition, the amount of freight transported between Asia and the United States, bothin dedicated freighter aircraft and in the cargo hold of a passenger plane, dwarfs whatis carried between the United States and Europe. In addition, average flight distancesacross the Atlantic Ocean are shorter than across the Pacific.For the first time in the transpacific rankings, we directly integrated primary,as opposed to estimated, data of freight carriage on passenger flights into themethodology. Belly freight accounted for approximately 25% of the total payload massmoved on transpacific flights (Graver & Rutherford, 2018).The balance of this report is structured as follows. Section 2 introduces themethodology used to estimate airline fuel efficiency. Section 3 presents and discussesthe average fuel efficiency of the incorporated airlines and aircraft, and on key routes.Section 4 offers conclusions along with potential future work to refine and extend themethodology presented.2

TRANSATLANTIC AIRLINE FUEL EFFICIENCY RANKING, 20172. METHODOLOGYIn a previous ICCT study (Graver & Rutherford, 2018), a methodology was derived toestimate airline fuel efficiency on nonstop transpacific routes. An international flightschedule database and detailed operational data reported to the BTS were used tomodel airline fuel burn for 20 major airlines. The estimated airline fuel efficiencies werevalidated using activity and fuel burn data reported by three U.S. carriers. The samemethodology was used in this study.All airlines operating flights to, from, and in the United States must reportoperations data to the BTS. The data are made available to the public via the BTST-100 database. We purchased T-100 International Segment data from Airline DataInc., which completes quality assurance and control procedures on the BTS data.The T-100 data provide information on air carrier, flight origin and destination,frequency, distance, aircraft type, seats available, passenger load factors, and freighttransported. Separately, fuel burn reported through BTS Form 41 financial data wasused to validate the fuel burn modeling (see Appendix A). Calendar year 2017 wasused in this analysis.2.1 AIRLINE SELECTIONThe 20 airlines with the greatest capacity on nonstop flights from the United Statesto Europe, as defined by ICAO, were analyzed. Unlike the 2014 transatlantic rankings,flights to and from Canada were excluded because operations data for those flightsare not publicly available. Table 1 presents the 20 airlines analyzed in this report, alongwith each airline’s total number of transatlantic flights, average flight length, share ofavailable passenger seat kilometers (ASKs), share of available freight tonne kilometers(ATKs), and the prevalent aircraft used by each airline. More information on the aircrafttypes used in 2017 for transatlantic flights is included in Table 2.Table 1. Airlines evaluatedFlightsperformedAverage flightlength (km)Share ofASKsShare ofATKsAer Lingus8,8445,8883%2%Airbus A330-300Aeroflot3,1568,5792%1%Boeing 777-300ERAir France12,1597,2496%5%Boeing 777-300ERAlitalia4,5217,6432%2%Airbus A330-20036,4266,89312%13%Boeing 777-200ER2,9497,7971%2%Boeing 767-300ERBritish Airways30,5497,07311%11%Boeing 747-400Delta45,4356,81814%14%Boeing 767-300ERAirlineAmericanAustrianMost prevalentaircraftIberia4,4207,0342%2%Airbus A330-300Icelandair7,4674,8561%1%Boeing 757-200KLM7,0557,6493%3%Boeing 747-400Lufthansa21,1217,74910%9%Airbus A340-600Norwegian10,6417,1664%4%Boeing 787-87,1077,2782%3%Airbus A330-300Scandinaviancontinued3

ICCT WHITE PAPERAirlineFlightsperformedAverage flightlength (km)Share ofASKsShare ofATKsMost prevalentaircraftSWISS7,3107,5373%3%Airbus A330-300Thomas Cook2,2817,1801%1%Airbus A330-200Turkish7,0659,3464%4%Boeing 777-300ERUnited43,2146,80513%13%Boeing 767-300ERVirgin Atlantic14,5157,1246%8%Boeing 787-9WOW air4,2625,0771%1%Airbus A321280,4977,028100%100%TotalAirbus A330-300Note: ASK Available seat kilometers. ATK Available tonne kilometers. Source: Airline Data Inc. (2018)Table 2. Aircraft types used on transatlantic apacity(m3)Number ofengines, max.thrustRange(km)Airbus A31868107212 @ 106 kN5,750Boeing 737-70070128272 @ 116 kN5,570Boeing 737-80079160442 @ 120 kN5,436Boeing 737 MAX-882162442 @ 130 kN6,570Airbus A32194185522 @ 147 kN5,950Boeing 757-200116200432 @ 193 kN7,250Boeing 757-300124243622 @ 193 kN6,295Boeing 767-300ER1872611142 @ 282 kN11,070Boeing 767-400ER2042961392 @ 270 kN10,415Boeing 787-82282421372 @ 280 kN13,620Airbus A330-2002422471322 @ 316 kN13,450Airbus A330-3002422771582 @ 316 kN11,750Boeing 787-92542901732 @ 320 kN14,140AircraftAirbus A340-3002772771624 @ 151 kN13,500Airbus A350-9002803251622 @ 375 kN15,000Boeing 777-200ER2983132022 @ 417 kN13,080Boeing 777-300ER3523962022 @ 513 kN13,650Airbus A340-6003683802084 @ 249 kN14,600Boeing 747-4003974161604 @ 282 kN11,250Boeing 747-8I4484101764 @ 296 kN14,816Airbus A380-8005755441844 @ 311 kN15,200Note: MTOM maximum takeoff mass. Sources: Airbus (2017); Airbus (2018); Boeing (1999); Boeing (2008);Boeing (2010); Boeing (2011); Boeing (n.d.) Table was revised on 10 October, 2018 to correctly depict themaximum takeoff mass of the Boeing 757-200 and 757-300 in tonnes, rather than thousand pounds.4

TRANSATLANTIC AIRLINE FUEL EFFICIENCY RANKING, 20172.2 FUEL BURN MODELINGSimilar to the ICCT’s previous fuel efficiency rankings (Kwan & Rutherford, 2015; Graver &Rutherford, 2018), aircraft fuel burn was modeled using Piano 5, an aircraft performanceand design software (Lissys Ltd., 2017). Piano 5 requires various inputs to model aircraftfuel burn, and Table 3 contains a list of the key modeling variables and sources.Table 3. Key modeling variablesTypeVariableSourcesRouteAircraft usedAirline scheduled flightsAvailable seatsDeparturesBTS T-100 InternationalSegmentsPassenger load factorFreight carriageType and countAirline-specific aircraftparametersEngineWinglets/scimitarAscend FleetsMaximum takeoff massSeatsAircraft weightsOperating empty weightPiano 5Passenger weightIndustry standardSeat and furnishings weightICAO defaultEngine thrustAircraft fuel burnDragPiano 5Fuel flowTaxi timeOther operational variablesFuel reservesFlight levelsBTS T-100 InternationalSegments, FAA Part 121,Piano 5SpeedThe Ascend Fleets database from FlightGlobal provides comprehensive carrier fleetand aircraft specific information (FlightAscend Consultancy, 2017). This database wasused to assign representative Piano 5 aircraft to each airline by matching aircraft type,use of wingtip device, engine type, seat count, and maximum takeoff mass (MTOM) asclosely as possible.For flight distance, the great circle distance for each route was adjusted upward by 4%to account for air traffic management inefficiencies over the North Atlantic, as was donein the previous transatlantic ranking. More information can be found in Appendix A ofthat report (Kwan & Rutherford, 2015).International passenger flights carry both passengers and freight, so the fuel burn ofindividual flights must be apportioned between passengers and freight based on mass.The average payload per flight was estimated using Equation 1 for each airline-aircraftseat count-distance flight group given the reported number of departures, availableseats, passenger load factor, and freight carriage. The industrywide standard mass for apassenger and luggage of 100 kg is used (ICAO, 2017). Changes in aircraft weight dueto an aircraft type having multiple seating configurations were incorporated into themodeling by adjusting the default number of seats in Piano, assuming 50 kg per seat.5

ICCT WHITE PAPERpayload [kg] ()seatsdepartures((load factorpax)100kgpax) ( freight[kg]departures)(1)In the 2014 ranking, actual freight carriage from the T-100 International Segmentsdataset were not used for the non-U.S. carriers, but instead were modeled as a functionof aircraft cargo capacity by volume (Kwan & Rutherford, 2015). This method couldeither under or overestimate the amount of freight carried by an airline and aircraft,which could affect fuel efficiency estimates. In the 2016 transpacific rankings, it wasobserved that freight share was the major driver in the fuel efficiency rankings (Graver &Rutherford, 2018). Therefore, in order to make comparisons between the 2014 and 2017transatlantic rankings, airline fuel efficiencies for 2014 were recalculated based on T-100reported freight carriage. More information can be found in Appendix B of this report.Default Piano 5 values for operational parameters such as engine thrust, drag, fuel flow,available flight levels, and speed were used because of the lack of airline- and aircraftspecific data. Cruise speeds were set to allow 99% maximum specific air range. Taxitimes were set at 34 minutes, as estimated by T-100 International Segments data fortranspacific flights by the three U.S. carriers (Bureau of Transportation Statistics [BTS],U.S. Department of Transportation, 2018). This is equal to the average taxi time usedin previous transatlantic and transpacific rankings (Kwan & Rutherford, 2015; Graver &Rutherford, 2018). Fuel reserves were set for a 370 km diversion distance, 10% missioncontingency fuel to account for weather, congestion, and other unforeseen events, and45 minutes at normal cruising fuel consumption, corresponding to U.S. Federal AviationAdministration’s Operations Specification B043 (FAA, 2014).2.3 FUEL EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONThe fuel efficiency of each flight was calculated using the method developed for the ICCT’sprevious transpacific ranking (Graver & Rutherford, 2018). The average fuel efficiency foreach airline (represented by index a) was calculated using a bottom-up approach.After modeling each unique airline-aircraft-seat count-distance-payload flight group,represented by index i, the total fuel consumption for the full set of nonstop transatlanticflights flown by each of the 20 airlines was calculated according to Equation 2.fuel [L]a Σ (fuel [L])(departuresa,i )a,ii(2)Aircraft fuel use is proportional to the total payload mass transported. For passengerflights that also carry cargo, or belly freight, payload is calculated as the total massof passengers and freight per flight. Belly freight, while increasing the absolute burnof a given flight, improves the fuel efficiency of an airplane per unit of mass movedbecause the airframe is loaded closer to its maximum payload capability. The ratio ofpayload-distance to fuel burned for each airline was used as a starting point for theaverage fuel efficiency metric. This was then converted to the passenger-based metric,passenger-kilometers per liter of fuel (pax-km/L), using the passenger weight factor,as shown in Equation 3.pax km/La Σ (payload [kg]i)(distance[km]a,i )a,i(fuel [L]a)(100kg/pax)The resulting fuel efficiencies for the 10 aircraft types operated by U.S. airlines werevalidated using Form 41 fuel burn data, as described in Appendix A.6(3)

TRANSATLANTIC AIRLINE FUEL EFFICIENCY RANKING, 20173. RESULTSThis methodology allows for comparison of transatlantic fuel efficiency at the airline,aircraft, and route level. Section 3.1 presents the overall fuel efficiency results. Section 3.2relates the overall results to the aircraft types, and Section 3.3 explains the findings interms of key drivers of fuel efficiency, including aircraft fuel efficiency, seating capacity,passenger load factor, and freight carriage. Sections 3.4 and 3.5 provide context forindividual airlines and select routes.3.1 AIRLINE COMPARISONSThe average fuel efficiencies in pax-km/L of 20 airlines operating transatlantic routesin 2017 are shown in Figure 1. The orange bars indicate the industry average fuelefficiency of 33 pax-km/L. Norwegian Air Shuttle was the most fuel-efficient airlinewith an average fuel efficiency of 44 pax-km/L, 33% higher than the industry average.Another low-cost carrier, Iceland’s WOW air, ranks second. British Airways (BA) wasthe least fuel-efficient carrier at 30% below the average. In 2017, BA burned on average63% more fuel per passenger-kilometer than Norwegian. This gap is 17 percentagepoints higher than that seen on 2014 transatlantic flights based on a commonmodeling methodology (see Appendix B).ExcessFuel/pax-kmAverage Fuel Economy [pax-km/L]Norwegian44WOW air 13%39SWISS 19%37KLM— 22%36Turkish35 26%Air France35 26%Thomas Cook35 26%Virgin Atlantic35 26%Icelandair34 29%Iberia34 29%Delta34 29%Scandinavian34 29%American33 33%Austrian33 33%Aer Lingus33 33%Alitalia33 33%Aeroflot33 33%UnitedBritish Airways 42%31Lufthansa 47%30 63%27INDUSTRY AVERAGEFigure 1. Fuel efficiency of 20 airlines on transatlantic passenger routes, 2017.7

ICCT WHITE PAPERThree airlines are new to the rankings—WOW air, Thomas Cook Airlines, and AustrianAirlines—replacing Air Berlin, Air Canada, and US Airways. Air Berlin ceased operationsin October 2017 and was excluded from analysis. Air Canada was omitted due to alack of Canadian operations data (see Appendix B). US Airways ceased operations inOctober 2015 when it merged with American Airlines.The three worst-performing airlines—United, Lufthansa, and British Airways—accountedfor one out of every three ASKs between the United States and Europe of the airlinesanalyzed. The top 10 airlines in the rankings combined had a fewer number of ASKs.Some patterns in the fuel efficiency by country carrier can be seen. The U.S. carriers haddiffering fuel efficiencies, with Delta and American at the industry average, and Unitedbelow average. Delta provided the most capacity, at 14% of all ASKs, followed by Unitedand American at 13% and 12%, respectively. All four Nordic airlines analyzed—Norwegian,WOW air, Icelandair, and Scandinavian Airlines (SAS)—had average fuel efficiencies ator higher than the industry average. With BA ranked at the bottom, Thomas Cook andVirgin Atlantic were the most fuel-efficient carriers from the United Kingdom, each withan average fuel efficiency 8 pax-km/L higher than BA.3.2 AIRCRAFT-SPECIFIC ANALYSISFigure 2 compares the average fuel efficiency for each aircraft model operated to thetransatlantic average of 33 pax-km/L. The Airbus A330 family of aircraft was the mostwidely used on transatlantic routes in 2017, accounting for 25% of all flights. Its fuelefficiency averaged approximately 1 pax-km/L better than the industry average. TheAirbus A350-900 and Boeing 787 Dreamliners, in contrast, were notably more fuelefficient with average fuel efficiencies at or above 40 pax-km/L.There are two outlier aircraft in this analysis: (1) a British Airways Airbus A318, and (2)an SAS Boeing 737-700. The BA A318 is configured with 32 business class seats and isused for weekday service between New York-JFK and London-City. SAS wet-leased the737-700 from PrivatAir, which owns the aircraft and provided the flight crew for flightsbetween Boston and Copenhagen from March 2016 through October 2017. The aircraftwas configured with 20 business class seats and 66 economy class seats.Excluding the A318 and 737-700, there is a general trend with respect to aircraft size: adecrease in fuel efficiency as MTOM increases. The largest aircraft require more than twoengines for propulsion and, as seen in Figure 2, aircraft with four engines are generally lessfuel-efficient than those with two. It is important to note that variations in passenger loadfactors and freight carriage could affect the magnitude of difference in fuel efficiency.8

TRANSATLANTIC AIRLINE FUEL EFFICIENCY RANKING, 201745B787-9Average Fuel Efficiency [pax-km/L]4035B787-8B757-300B737 7-200ERINDUSTRY AVERAGEB747-8IA380-800B747-4002520B737-700(86 seats)1510A318 (32 seats)5Twin engine00100200300400Quad engine500600Maximum Takeoff Mass [tonnes]Figure 2. Fuel efficiency of aircraft types used on transatlantic routes, 2017.Note: Figure was revised on 10 October, 2018 to correctly depict the maximum takeoff mass of the Boeing757-200 and 757-300 in tonnes, rather than thousand pounds.3.3 DRIVERS OF TRANSATLANTIC AIRLINE EFFICIENCYTable 4 summarizes key airline operational parameters, including passenger load factor,freight share, premium seating share, overall seating density,1 and relative fuel burn ofthe aircraft operated2 for 2017 nonstop transatlantic carriers in order of efficiency. Asshown in the table, the share of belly freight as a share of total payload varied greatlyacross carriers, from 2% for Thomas Cook to 34% for SWISS, compared with an averageof 21%. Relatively smaller were differences in passenger load factors, from 75% to 88%,and aircraft fuel burn, from -8% to 13% of ICAO’s fuel efficiency standard. Averageseating densities ranged from 0.75 seats/m2 for British Airways to 1.58 seats/m2 forWOW air, ranking second to freight share in terms of variation across carriers.1As measured by seats per square meter (m2) of Reference Geometric Factor, or RGF. RGF is a close proxy forthe pressurized floor area of an aircraft. It was developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization as ameans to assess aircraft fuel efficiency. See ICCT (2013) for further details.2As measured by margin from the International Civil Aviation Organization’s fuel efficiency or CO2 standard,which established an internationally agreed means of assessing and comparing

Sep 12, 2018 · fuel efficiency was estimated after correcting for cargo carried on passenger flights, referred to as belly freight, which increases the absolute burn of a given flight but improves the fuel efficiency per unit of mass moved. Norwegian Air Shuttle was the most fuel-efficient airline