Water Workout Guide - AquaJogger

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LOW IMPACT FITNESS AquaJogger is a registered trademark ofExcel Sports Science, Inc.P.O. Box 1453 Eugene, OR 97440(541) 484-2454 or Fax: (541) 484-0501800-922-9544www.aquajogger.com e-mail: [email protected] and Training Techniquesfor using AquaJogger Water Workout Gear

Table of ContentsThe AquaJogger Story2Unique Properties of Water4Heart Rate in Water5Elements of a Workout7Before You Begin / Safety Tips8Using Your AquaJogger Buoyancy Belt9Posture / Care of Your Equipment10AquaJogger Accessories11Using Resistance Equipment12EXERCISESAquaJogger Buoyancy Belt14AquaRunners RX17X-Cuffs 17DeltaBells 18Webbed Pro Gloves24Visit our website for additional exercises and product information.www.aquajogger.com 2008 Excel Sports Science, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The AquaJogger Story MOVING AEROBICS INTO THE WATERMeanwhile, back at the pool, the AquaJogger buoyancy belt anddeep water were taking the jolt out of aerobics. Deep wateraerobics opened up a new world of fitness for people of all agesand at all levels of fitness. The forgiving water environment is notonly effective, but it’s fun and has inspired deep and shallow waterclasses to start up all over the world.HOW IT WORKSA TOOL FOR INJURY RECOVERYThe AquaJogger water exercise buoyancy belt was originallydeveloped as a water rehabilitation tool for pre- and post-surgerypatients and world class athletes recovering from injury in Eugene,Oregon.TRAINING FOR COMPETITIVE ATHLETESThis unique flotation device soon captured the attention of otherathletes around the world who found the AquaJogger buoyancybelt valuable not only in recovery from injury but also as anextraordinary training tool in maintaining the high levels of fitnessdemanded by competitive sports. The AquaJogger became thekey that opened the door to the world of impact-free deep waterexercise and soon athletes began incorporating water workoutsinto their regular training regimens.THE FITNESS REVOLUTIONAlthough athletes were among the first to recognize theadvantages of deep water, they were not the only people tobenefit. The popularity of land-based aerobics was bringing highimpact to the muscles and joints of people of all ages. Along withthe advantages of aerobic activity came muscle soreness, stressfractures and aching joints resulting in flagging motivation andinjury. People turned to special fitness shoes with air cells and gelsand air pumps to cushion the impact, but the effects of gravitywere winning.2Suspended up to your neck in deep water with the AquaJogger buoyancy belt, you can breathe normally as you move, like you doon land. Your feet don’t touch the bottom of the pool so there isno impact and the water provides resistance in all directions thatyou control by the speed of your movements. Since your body issubmerged, the hydrostatic pressure around your body improvescardiac function, lowers blood pressure, assists the body in tissuehealing and sets in motion a host of other benefits. You can enjoyalmost any activity in the water that you traditionally do on land,including running, cross country skiing, aerobics, and dance moves.You are limited only by your imagination.OUR PRODUCTS MULTIPLY POSSIBILITIESNow there is a family of innovative water exercise productsthat will help you take water fitness to a new level. By addingAquaRunners RX footwear, X-Cuffs , DeltaBells (WaterResistance Dumbbells), and Webbed Pro Gloves, you canincrease the intensity, the range of exercise possibilities, and thefun of your workout program.HAVE FUN WHILE YOU ACHIEVE YOUR GOALSWhether your goal is to build strength and endurance, increasebody tone, lose weight, or speed recovery from illness or injury,why not join the tens of thousands of AquaJogger users whohave found a better way? It’s up to you!3

Unique Properties of WaterBuoyancy: An upward thrust exerted by water on a body which actsin the opposite direction of the force of gravity.Water’s buoyancy virtually eliminates the effects of gravity—supporting90 percent of the body’s weight for reduced impact and greater flexibility. For example, a 140-pound woman weighs only 14 pounds in water.Water acts as a cushion for the body’s weight-bearing joints, reducingstress on muscles, tendons and ligaments. As a result, aquatic workoutsare low impact and can greatly reduce the injury and strain common tomost land-based exercises. The patented AquaJogger buoyancy beltsuspends the body comfortably with the neck and shoulders above thewater for an effective, no-impact, deep water workout.Resistance: Due to viscosity, drag forces and frontal resistance,water provides a resistance which is proportional to the effortexerted against it.Resistance in water ranges between 4 and 42 times greater than in air,depending on the speed of movement. This makes water a natural andinstantly adjustable weigh-training machine. Unlike most land-basedexercise, water provides resistance to the movement in all directionswhich allows all of these directions be used in the strengthening process.Water’s resistance can be increased with speed and/or surface area andthe resistance is proportional to the effort required to move againstit. Adding water fitness equipment, such as the AquaJogger WebbedPro Gloves, DeltaBells and AquaRunners RX, increases resistance tostrengthen and tone the muscles.H2OFUNFACTS4Did you know?Water density is twelve timesgreater than air.Vertical position increasesresistance 75% over swimming.Any time you double your speed,you increase intensity times four.Working with ResistanceYou choose the level of intensity of your workout by how you utilize thewater’s resistance. Consciously work with resistance by finding the path of mostresistance—keep all moves below the water line. To make moves easier, bend limbs and move slower. To increaseresistance, straighten limbs, cup hands, and increase speed. Push and pull the water to work forces equally in both directions inorder to achieve balanced muscularity. Avoid being a “bobber” in the water and using buoyancy assistedmoves. Since you are working with resistance, be sure to pay attention toany injuries. Water is forgiving, but you can overdo it. If a particularmovement causes pain, eliminate it from your routine.Heart Rate in WaterThe unique properties of water enable your heart to work more efficiently.The hydrostatic pressure of water pushes equally on all body surfaces andhelps the heart circulate blood by aiding venous return—blood flow backto the heart. This assistance to the heart accounts for lower blood pressure and heart rates during deep water exercise versus similar exertionson land. Consequently, your heart rate is an estimated 10 to 15 beats lowerper minute during suspended water exercise than for the same effort onland. Research has shown that you are getting the same training effect inwater at a lower heart rate.Expect your heart rate to be 12 to 15 percent lower in the water than thesame exercise on land. For example, if your heart rate on land is 140 thenthe equivalent water heart rate will be between 119 and 124.Perceived Exertion ScaleHeart rate monitoring is valuable, but can be confusing and isn’t always anaccurate indicator of intensity in aquatic workouts. Your own experienceof perceived effort (or how hard you feel you are working) may be themost useful indicator of intensity during your water workout. In fact, afterpeople get used to exercising within a certain heart rate range, they learnhow it feels when they are working out at a proper level of effort, withoutchecking their pulse.5

A suitable way to measure effort would be to use Borg’s and Noble’sratings of perceived exertion. Borg, a research scientist, while studyingexertion found that people could accurately perceive their effort levelsduring exercise. He made a chart with word clues, "easy" to" hard", usingthe numbers from 1 to 20. Noble, a student of Borg, modified the scale andused a range of numbers from 1 to 10. Noble’s version of the scale, whileused less, is possibly more accurate. Noble’s scale is shown below.Perceived Exertion ScaleNumberPerceivedExertion1Very easy2Easy3Moderate4Somewhat hard5Hard67Very hard8910Very, very hardApprox %of VO2 Max*—45556270—85——100* VO2 Max is the maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken in byyour body, delivered to your muscles, and used.“Perceived Exertion” is simply reading your body signs. Here is an exampleof how you might use perceived exertion during a workout. As you warmup, begin working at a “moderate” exertion level (2-3). During the mainsession of your workout shoot for an exertion level between 4-7, with anoccasional push into the “very hard” (7-8) for people who are very fit. Asyou cool down and prepare your body to complete the session, move andstretch at a “moderate” to “easy” level (2-3).6Elements of a WorkoutWarm up – After you have entered the water, start with easymovements. Focus on the entire body, head to toe. Flex and extend allthe joints, keeping movements at a low to moderate speed. Use a lightpace and smooth flowing motions for 2-3 minutes. Begin slowly with asmaller range of motion (ROM), gradually increase both speed and ROM.Thermal Warm up (Pre-aerobic) – As you warm up, workat a low to moderate pace using long slow movements, such as crosscountry skiing, running or rock climbing. The thermal warm-up isdesigned to prepare your body for the aerobic workout by: Increasing heart rate Increasing respiration (breathing) Mentally preparing you for a workout Increasing blood flow to muscles Promoting body awarenessMain Session – 20-40 minutes of continuous aerobic activity. Workwithin your personal fitness level and established medical guidelines.Maintain an exertion level that allows you to keep your breathing undercontrol.Two options –Endurance training – Perform movements at a consistent pace.Incorporate long body movements, and keep breathing comfortably.Objective: Increase cardiovascular endurance, improve body compositionand burn fat.Interval training – Alternate between moderate speeds and fastersprints. Use smaller movements at a faster pace with rest intervalsranging from 30 seconds to 2 minutes in duration.Objective: Increase anaerobic capacity, muscular endurance, alleviateboredom and burn fat.Strength Workout (Optional) – 5–15 minutes of abdominaland/or arm exercises. See the DeltaBells section for specific exercises.Cool Down – 3 minutes of easy fluid movements in the water.Decrease speed and perform movements which emphasize those musclegroups worked during the session. Maintain proper body alignmentduring stretching.Objective: Return heart rate to normal range, prepare the body to leavethe water, complete the session, increase flexibility.The time durations given in “Elements of a Workout” are simply guidelines.The length ofthe workout should be gauged according to your fitness level and individual needs.7

Before You BeginConsult your physician before beginning AquaJogger waterworkouts or any other exercise program. Not all exercises aresuitable for all people.You must fully apprise yourself of the risksthat may be associated with using these products in the water.Safety must always be a prime consideration and we encourageyou to make it a part of your fitness planning. The instructions andadvice presented here are not intended as a substitute for medicalcounseling. The American Medical Association strongly recommendsthat any individual more than 35 years of age have a completephysical examination before starting an exercise program.General Guidelines Listen to your body. If you experience pain, stop exercising. Ifthe pain continues after you stop exercising, consult a physician.When in doubt, be conservative. Know the signs of overexertion: labored breathing, dizziness,loss of coordination, tightness or pain in your chest, nausea orvomiting, and irregularities in your heart rate. If you experienceany of these warning signs, stop exercising and get out of thewater. Consult a physician before continuing your program. It is better to do too little than too much. Work at your ownpace. Drink water frequently before, during, and after exercise.Safety WARNINGAs in all exercise, you must take care to exercise properly andensure that you are capable of the movement. The AquaJogger Water Workout is for adult use only. AquaJogger gear is notcertified nor intended to be used as life saving equipment. Thebuoyancy of the AquaJogger belt is not sufficient to float aconscious or unconscious person in the face-up position. Youshould use care to avoid turning your body upside down in thewater while using AquaJogger gear. Inverted use of AquaJogger gear could result in injury.8Using Your AquaJoggerBuoyancy Belt If your AquaJogger came unassembled,thread the elastic beltthrough the cutouts.Hold the AquaJogger vertical (up and down)with the AquaJogger logo to the right. Start with the buckle end (withoutthe prongs) of the elastic belt, push the buckle down into the first slot andalternately thread it through. Make sure that the adjustable portion of thebelt is face up, allowing you to pull on the elastic to tighten the belt.Getting the Right FitIt is important to correctly position and secure the AquaJogger onto your body.A snug fit will help you maintain good posture and perform the exercises correctly.If your AquaJogger is riding up on your body and interfering with your movements,review the following guidelines. Remove slack from the AquaJogger belt. Position the non-adjustableend of the buckle (without the prongs) directly on the foam. Workall the extra length of the black elastic back through the slots of theAquaJogger over to the adjustable end. This simple process will allow forgreater adjustability and a truly secure fit. Position the AquaJogger on your lower waistwith the narrow “arms” of the AquaJogger justunder your rib cage. Adjust the elastic belt untilit is tight around your waist. The belt should bepositioned across or just below your navel. Adjust the strap until the belt feels almost"too tight." The tight fit feels more comfortableafter you enter the water and helps prevent theAquaJogger from riding up during your workout.Alternative: You can reverse the AquaJogger and wear the large areain front, with the buckle in back. This works especially well if you areswimming on your stomach or snorkeling. You can also change the centerof flotation by turning the AquaJogger upside down with the foam humppointed down rather than up the back. This position is comfortably worn byshorter individuals with smaller back areas.9

Posture Vertical Body AlignmentThe key to any safe, effective exercise or movement is correct bodyalignment. Initially, as you adjust to the buoyancy you may find yourselfhunching over in the water. To adapt to this new environment and attaincorrect body position, lean back slightly and try a small flutter kick withyour feet directly under you.Do not compensate other body parts in order to perform a movement. Asyou exercise, aim for an even counterbalance between your arms and legs,as when you walk. Vertical body alignment not only protects against backstrain, but also strengthens your back, abdominals, and surrounding muscles.CORRECT Body Alignment Head upChest liftedShoulders positioned directly above hipsAbdominals tight (don’t hold your breath!)Buttocks squeezed together and slightlytucked under (pelvic tilt)INCORRECT Body Alignment Bent forward at the waist Back hunched over Shoulders out of line with hipsCare of Your AquaJogger Equipment Rinse your equipment, especially the black belting with fresh water aftereach use. (Webbed Pro Gloves should be rinsed and hung to dry.) Avoid exposure to hot sun and other heat sources. Excessive heat maycause the printing on your equipment to fade and the end piece of theDelta Bells to warp. Sharp objects and careless storage may leave impressions in thefoam. Most of these impressions are cosmetic and will not affect theAquaJogger’s effectiveness.10AquaJogger AccessoriesMultiply Your Workout PossibilitiesDeltaBells Water Resistance DumbbellsDiscover the gym in your pool with versatilehand-held DeltaBells . Made with softbuoyant foam and comfortable padded grips,DeltaBells add stability, intensity, and diversityto your deep or shallow water workout. Theirunique triangular design allows you to vary resistance and intensity with theturn of a wrist.Use DeltaBells to vary RESISTANCE, or to add BALANCE and SUPPORT.AquaRunners RX Zero-Impact FootwearAquaRunners RX are the first generation of"impact free" footwear. This innovative buoyancyproduct adds yet another level of intensity toyour AquaJogger program. Use the buoyancy andresistance of AquaRunners RX footwear to toneand strengthen muscles, build endurance and increase coordination. Made ofthe same quality foam used in the AquaJogger Belt, AquaRunners RX slipcomfortably on your feet and feature a rubber strap for a secure fit.Please note: Your AquaRunners RX will fit snug when new. However, if the fitis too snug, AquaJogger will send you a more expandable strap free of charge.Please contact AquaJogger directly for assistance at 1-800-922-9544.X-Cuffs Wear X-Cuffs on the ankles asa less-buoyant alternative toAquaRunners RX, or as an additionto AquaRunners RX if increasedbuoyancy is desired. They can beworn in deep or shallow water to addresistance and buoyancy for a moreintense lower body workout. If gripping is an issue, X-Cuffs can also beworn on the forearms as an alternative to DeltaBells . X-Cuffs feature arubber strap for a snug fit.11

Webbed Pro GlovesAdd intensity to upper body workoutsWebbed Pro Gloves provide resistance for theupper body. Made of a durable and long lastingpolyolefin/lycra material, Webbed Pro Gloveshave a snug fit that comes in three sizes: S, M, L.Vary the intensity of your workout by cupping or flexingthe webbed fingers, or use them for lap swimming.AquaHitch Tether for stationary workoutsGet maximum use from minimum pool spacewith the AquaJogger Hitch, a sturdy, five-footelastic tether with special hook fasteners. The Hitch isdesigned for use with the AquaJogger where space is limitedor when you want a stationary workout area. The Hitch can also help youfocus on exercises without moving around the pool.Using Resistive EquipmentBEGIN WITH CORRECT POSTURE. Correct body position and musclecontrol are essential when using buoyancy equipment.START SLOWLY. Each time you use DeltaBells or AquaRunners RX,begin slowly with small controlled movements. As you become strongerand more comfortable in the water, gradually increase the speed of yourmovements. Pace yourself according to your own capabilities and perceivedeffort. Listen to your body.MUSCLE BALANCE. Opposing muscle groups need to be worked equallyto ensure muscle balance during the workout. Focus on applying equal forcein both directions of the movement.KEEP JOINTS SLIGHTLY FLEXED. Eliminate full extension of theshoulders, elbows, wrists or knees. These joints should always be slightlyflexed to prevent injury.KEEP THE EQUIPMENT IN THE WATER. You should perform movesthat use resistive equipment completely in the water. Eliminate in-and-outof-water moves, as they can adversely affect joints and muscles.STRETCH WHAT YOU STRENGTHEN. While flexibility is importantin all types of exercise programs, stretching is even more vital whenequipment is used. At the end of your workout, stretch all muscle groupsworked with resistive equipment.12IllustratedExercisesImpact-free exercisesdesigned specifically for yourAquaJogger Water Workout Gear13

AquaJogger Buoyancy BeltAquaJogger Buoyancy Belt RUNNING AND WALKINGSIT KICKSPosition your body with your head, shoulders,hips and feet vertically aligned. Using amodified running/bicycle motion, coordinateyour leg and arm movements as in running.Additional equipment: AR, XC, WPTips A slight forward lean can be used as youincrease your speed in the water, but makesure you lean with your entire body. Do not hunch your shoulders, or bend atthe hips. Cup your hands and push down with your feet flat to increase resistanceand intensity.Variation: Run with high knees.Sit as if in a straight back chair with yourthighs stabilized. Alternating legs, kick outfrom the knee, then pull your heel back as iftrying to kick your buttocks. Try to make thewater boil in front of you.CROSS COUNTRY SKIBody is in a vertical position. Keeping legsstraight, bring each leg near the surface andreturn it to the starting position. Alternatingleft and right, reach for toes with youropposite arm and bring the other arm behindyou like a hurdler. This is a strong movementand is not recommended for people withback pain.Body is vertically aligned and legs andarms are straight. Scissor legs forward andbackward from the hip, leading with yourtoes. Coordinate the arms and legs as in crosscountry skiing.Additional equipment: AR, XC, WPTips Lead with fingers and toes. Point toes to increase resistance. Keep arms fairly straight and move from the shoulder. Push and pull arms through the water with scooped hands. Keep buttocks and abdominals tight. To decrease resistance and intensity, bend knees slightly.Additional equipment: AR, XC, WPTips Focus on keeping your thighs still, as if they are resting on a chair seat. Scoop the water in toward your chest with your arms, or try other armvariations. Point toes to increase resistance.STRAIGHT LEG TOE TOUCHAdditional equipment: AR, XC, WPTips Tighten buttocks as you push each leg down. Tighten abdominals as you pull each leg up. Lean back slightly as you reach. Focus on how hard you kick, not on how high. To decrease resistance bend knees slightly.KeyAdditional equipment which could be worn for this exercise:AR – Aqua Runners RX; XC – X-Cuffs ; WP – Webbed Pro Gloves1415

AquaJogger Buoyancy BeltTIRESThis move is similar to the football drill of runningthrough two parallel lines of tires. The body isopen and vertical. Have your legs turned out andfeet flexed as you alternate pushing down witheach leg.Additional equipment: AR, XC, WPTips Try breast stroke arms, or scoop the water in toward your chest.OPEN & CLOSEBegin with vertical posture, arms and legsstraight and toes pointed down toward thebottom of the pool. Open and close arms andlegs by extending straight limbs out to thesides of your body and returning them to thestarting position.Additional equipment: AR, XC, WPTips Keep your buttocks tight; this will help you avoid hyper-extending your back.ROCK CLIMBA full-body exercise similar to running except the movement is like climbing aladder diagonally. Reach forward with one arm into the water and then pull itthrough past your hip. Bring your opposite knee forward toward your chestand, at the same time, push the other leg straight back until it is fully extended.Additional equipment: AR, XC, WPTips Cup your hand to increaseresistance. Do not position your body horizontallyas in swimming. Instead, lower your hips so you are working at an angle. When you pull your knees to your chest, tighten abdominals.16AquaRunners RX AquaRunners RX add another level of buoyancy-created resistancewhen worn during a deep water workout. The exercises outlined in theAquaJogger Buoyancy Belt section on pages 14-16 which are marked withan AR would all be appropriate for use of AquaRunners RX.Using AQUARUNNERS RX While sitting on the side of the pool, wet the AquaRunners RX and slidethem onto your feet. Adjust the rubber strap for a secure fit. You may find it helpful to hold AquaRunners RX just below the watersurface to help glide them onto your feet. AquaRunners RX are designed to be worn only while suspended inwater. It can be slippery and unsafe to wear the footwear in shallow water(where you touch the pool bottom), on the pool deck, or on land. AquaRunners RX are only for use in deep water. Avoid walking in them. We recommend that you become comfortable with the AquaJogger Buoyancy Belt before adding the resistance of AquaRunners RX. You may find it helpful to use DeltaBells for support and balance whenyou first try AquaRunners RX.AquaRunners RX add resistance and intensity and therefore are NOTrecommended for those who: have knee or back trouble are recovering from injury have difficulty maintaining the correct posture while using theAquaJogger Buoyancy Belt.X-Cuffs Use X-Cuffs for deep or shallow water exercise. Wet the X-Cuffs andslide them onto ankles or forearms. Adjust the rubber strap for a secure fit.Ankles: Wear X-Cuffs as an addition (increased buoyancy) or an alternative(less buoyancy) to AquaRunners RX during any of the exercises on pages14-16 marked with an XC.Arms: X-Cuffs can be worn as an alternative to DeltaBells by individualswho have problems with gripping for any of the exercises on pages 18-23marked with an XC.17

DeltaBells Grip the handle of the DeltaBells as you would a dumbbell. Use a lightgrip and relax your fingers occasionally. You can use DeltaBells for twodifferent functions: resistance and support/balance.Resistance: Hold theDeltaBells below thewater's surface whentargeting upper bodymovements. To maximizeresistance, push the flatLess Resistancesides through the water.More ResistanceTo minimize resistance,push the pointed ends of the triangle into your exercise movement. Thefaster you move the DeltaBells , the greater the resistance and intensityof your workout.Support/Balance: A large range of exercises are also possible when youuse DeltaBells only for balance and support. Rest the DeltaBells on thewater's surface and keep your arms in a relaxed position while you focuson abdominal or leg movements.ArmsSWEEP INWith DeltaBells just below thewater surface and arms held outto the sides, sweep arms forwardand pull DeltaBells straight backtoward chest. Extend arms out toyour sides and repeat.Substitute equipment: WP, XCKeySubstitute equipment which could be used for this exercise in place of DeltaBells :WP – Webbed Pro Gloves; XC – X-Cuffs 18DeltaBells (Also AquaJogger AquaFit Barbells)Breast stroke armsBegin with DeltaBells just below thewater surface and arms relaxed atyour sides. Extend arms directly infront of your body and sweep out tothe sides. Return DeltaBells tothe starting position and repeat.Substitute equipment: WP, XCBICYCLE ARMSWith elbows bent and DeltaBells submerged infront of your chest, vigorously roll DeltaBells ina bicycle motion. Reverse direction.Substitute equipment: WP, XCPUNCH OUTWith body slightly leaning forward, puncharms downward and away from chest.Exercise Variation: Use both arms together to maximizeresistance.PUNCH DOWNWith elbows bent and DeltaBells held in atyour sides, alternate pushing DeltaBells downinto the water. Keep movements close to yoursides.Exercise Variation: Use both arms together to maximizeresistance.19

DeltaBells TOUCH IN FRONT /TOUCH IN BACKWith DeltaBells submerged at your sides,bring both DeltaBells together touchingin the front of your body. Bring DeltaBells around your body, touching in back. Substitute equipment: WP, XCTips To increase intensity - straighten arms. To decrease intensity - bend elbows. Keep the movement low, with DeltaBells moving around waist level.SCOOP UNDERWith DeltaBells near to the water’ssurface and arms held out to yoursides, alternately flex and extend armsat your elbows as you pull DeltaBells in toward arm pits.Substitute equipment: WP, XCDeltaBells CROSS COUNTRY SKIWith DeltaBells held close to yoursides, alternate swinging straight arms infront and in back of your body.Substitute equipment: WP, XCTips Keep equipment close to your sides. Maintain good posture. Swing your legs cross country ski stylefor balance. Lead with the DeltaBells . To decrease intensity – bend elbows and decrease range of motion.AbdominalsGuidelines:Tips Do not let DeltaBells break the water’s surface. Do not scrunch shoulders. Focus on pulling your abdominal muscles in and exhaling during thecontraction. Concentrate on squeezing your buttocks tight when you release themovement. Modification: If you experience any discomfort when using a reclinedposition, try the moves in a vertical position.CURLSJACK KNIFEExercise Variation: Use both arms together to maximize resistance.With elbows bent and arms held tightlyat your sides, alternate pulling equipmentdown into the water. Vary moves by grippingDeltaBells palm up or palm down.Substitute equipment: WP, XCExercise Variation: Use both arms together to maximizeresistance.20Assume a reclined position with hipssubmerged and lower legs at the surface.Using your abdominal muscles, curl forwardlifting chest toward knees. As you gainstrength in your abdominals, focus onkeeping your legs straight and maintaininglower leg position.21

DeltaBells DeltaBells CRUNCHCROSS OVER CRUNCHAssume a reclined position with hips submerged, knees bent, and lowerlegs at the surface. Using your abdominal muscles, curl forward reachingchest and knees toward each other. Extend and repeat.Lie on your side with knees drawnin toward chest. Focus on crunching(or pulsing) in at your side as youpull both upper and lower body intoward your waist. Change sides andrepeat.DIAMONDSTips Avoid straining forward with your neck. Keep toes above the surface. Remember to breathe during the movement. Do not hold your breath! Variation: Alternate reaching with one leg at a time.OBLIQUES(Double Knee Twist)Begin with body in a vertical position,bottoms of your feet pressed together,and knees turned out from the hips. Liftand lower heels, squeezing buttocks onthe lowering motion.DOUBLE KNEE TUCK (Front Facing Down)This move is similar to double knee crunch except the body is positionedwith the front facing down. Holding your DeltaBells at your sides, pullbent knees up to your chest, tightening your abdominal muscles. Extendlegs while squeezing buttocks ti

The time durations given in “Elements of a Workout” are simply guidelines. The length of the workout should be gauged according to your fitness level and individual needs. 6 7 Perceived Exertion Scale Number Perceived Approx % Exertion of VO2 Max* 1 Very easy — 2 Easy 45 3 Mo