Introduction To Engineering Experimentation - GBV

4m ago
6 Views
0 Downloads
218.53 KB
7 Pages
Last View : 3m ago
Last Download : n/a
Upload by : Aarya Seiber
Transcription

Introduction toEngineeringExperimentationThird EditionAnthonyJ. WheelerAhmad R. GanjiSchool of EngineeringSan Francisco StateUniversityWith Third Edition contributionsbyV. V. KrishnanSan Francisco StateUniversityBrian S. dianapolisNew YorkSan FranciscoUpper Saddle RiverCape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal TorontoMexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei TokyoAmsterdam

Contents9PrefaceCHAPTER 111Introduction1.1ApplicationsofEngineering Experimentation1.1.1Measurement in1.1.2Measurement inand MeasurementEngineering ExperimentationOperational Systemsand OverviewCHAPTER 31113131.2Objective1.3Dimensions and Units131.4Closure1515ProblemsCHAPTER 211General Characteristics of MeasurementSystems2.1Generalized Measurement System2.2Validity1718of Measurement2.2.1Measurement Error and Related Definitions2.2.2Calibration of urements38References38Problems39MeasurementSystems nal Amplification3.2.2Amplifiers Using Operational Amplifiers3.2.3Signal Attenuation3.2.4General Aspects of Signal FilteringButterworth Filters Using Operational Amplifiers3.2.53.2.6Circuits for Integration, Differentiation, and ComparisonIndicating and Recording Devices3.3.1713.4Digital Voltmeters and MultimetersOscilloscopes3.3.3Strip-Chart Recorders3.3.4Data Acquisition SystemsElectrical Transmission of Signals Between Components703.3.2Signal rement463.1Systems47ConditionersGeneral Characteristics ofLow-Level Analog VoltageSignal TransmissionHigh-Level Analog VoltageCurrent-Loop Analog SignalDigital Signal ferences78Problems783

4ContentsCHAPTER 44.1Introduction814.2Computer Systems4.2.1Computer Systems for Data Acquisition4.2.2Components of Computer Systems4.2.3Representing Numbers in Computer SystemsData-Acquisition Components4.3.1Multiplexers824.3Basics of Analog-to-Digital 1024.4.2External4.4.3Digital Connectivity1034.4.4Virtual Instruments104Systems4.4.51054.4.6107Digital Storage OscilloscopesData LoggersSoftware for Data-Acquisition SystemsCommercial Software reteSampling and Analysis5.15.25.35.4CHAPTER 64.3.2Analog-to-Digital Converters4.3.4Digital-to-Analog Converters4.3.5Simultaneous Sample-and-Hold SubsystemsConfigurations of Data-Acquisition Systems4.4.1Internal Single Board Plug-in Systems4.4CHAPTER 581Computerized Data-Acquisition Systemsof Time-Varying112SignalsSampling-Rate TheoremSpectral Analysis of Time-Varying SignalsSpectral Analysis Using the Fourier Transform112Selecting the Sampling Rate and Filtering5.4.1Selecting the Sampling Rate5.4.2Use of Filtering to Limit .2General6.36.4Concepts138Data138140and Definitions6.2.1Definitions6.2.2Measures of Central1401426.2.3Measures ity Distribution Functions6.3.2SomeProbability DistributionEngineering Applications145Functions with149Parameter Estimation6.4.1Interval Estimation of the6.4.2Interval Estimation of the161PopulationMean162PopulationVariance170

Contents6.5Criterion for6.6Correlation of6.6.1ExperimentalData173175Correlation Coefficient175Least-Squares6.6.3Outliers in x-y Data Sets1856.6.4Linear188Linear Fit179Regression Using Data TransformationMultiple and Polynomial Regression6.7Linear Functions of Random Variables6.8Applying Computer Software for Statistical oblems196209Experimental Uncertainty ration ofof7.47.57.67.77.87.97.107.11CHAPTER 8Questionable Data Points6.6.26.6.5CHAPTER 7Rejecting5of Uncertainties —General ConsiderationsSystematicand Random209ComponentsUncertainty212Sources of Elemental Error219of the Final Results forUncertaintyExperimentsMultiple-Measurement224of the Final Result edure forStep-by-StepUncertainty AnalysisInterpreting Manufacturers' Uncertainty DataApplying Uncertainty Analysis in DigitalData-Acquisition SystemsAdditional Considerations for 7References240Problems240Measurement of Solid-Mechanical Quantities8.18.2MeasuringStrain2548.1.1Electrical Resistance Strain Gage2548.1.2Strain259Gage Signal ConditioningMeasuring Displacement8.2.1Potentiometer8.2.2Linear andRotaryCapacitive Displacement8.2.4Digital EncodersMeasuring Linear Velocity8.3.1Linear264264Variable Differential tyDoppler Radar Velocity8.3.3Velocity Determination Using DisplacementMeasurementand Acceleration Sensors265269271271271272273

6Contents8.48.58.6274Measuring Angular Velocity8.4.1Electric Generator Tachometers2748.4.2Magnetic Pickup2758.4.3Stroboscopic Tachometer2768.4.4Photoelectric Tachometer277Acceleration and Vibration2778.5.1Piezoelectric Accelerometers2778.5.2Strain-Gage Accelerometers2808.5.3Servo 2Load Cells282Measuring8.6.12848.6.28.7CHAPTER 9Proving RingsMeasuring Rotating Shaft Torque287Problems288294Measuring Pressure,Temperature, and 1.2Pressure Transducers3019.1.3Measuring aVacuum303Pressure-Measuring307Measuring ture9.2.3Thermistor and9.2.4Mechanical9.2.5Radiation Thermometers314DetectorsIntegrated-Circuit Temperature Common Temperature-Measurement ErrorsMeasuring Humidity9.3.1Hygrometric Devices9.3.2Dew-Point ber-Optic cal9.4.2General Characteristics ofFiber-Optic9.4.3Fiber-Optic DisplacementSensors9.4.4Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors3389.4.5Fiber3409.4.6CHAPTER 10285ReferencesFiber334Optic Pressure SensorsOther Fiber-Optic suringFluid FlowRate,FluidVelocity,Fluidand Combustion uid Flow RatePressure Differential Devices346346

Contents10.210.1.2Variable-Area Flowmeters36210.1.3Turbine Flowmeters36510.1.4Mass FlowmetersPositive-Displacement10.1.6Other Methods of Flow Measurement36910.1.7Calibrating 369Velocity10.2.1Pitot-Static Probe10.2.2Hot-Wire and Hot-Film Anemometers374FluidVelocity Measurement UsingLaser-Doppler EffectMeasuring Fluid 2Differential-Pressure Devices38210.3.3Capacitance10.3.4Conductance Devices38410.3.5Ultrasonic Devices38410.3.6WeightDevices383MethodsMeasuring Air miluminescent10.4.3Flame Ionization Detectors10.4.4Other Gas-Analysis Devices10.4.5General Considerations aboutandCHAPTER 1136610.1.510.2.310.37386Infrared ant Gases390References391Problems392Dynamic397Behavior of Measurement Systems11.1Order of11.2Zero-Order Measurement Systems39811.3First-Order Measurement .1Basic Equations39911.3.2Step Input39911.3.3Ramp Input40011.3.4Sinusoidal Input11.3.5ThermocoupleSecond-Order402as aMeasurement402First-Order System407Systems40711.4.1Basic11.4.2Step Input40811.4.3Sinusoidal41011.4.4Force Transducer11.4.5Pressure-Measurement d Cell)Systemsas aasSecond-Order SystemSecond-OrderSystemsfor Acceleration and Vibration411414423427References428Problems428

8ContentsCHAPTER 12Guidelines for12.1PlanningOverview ofanand432Documenting Experiments432Experimental Program43212.1.1Problem Definition12.1.212.1.3Experiment DesignExperiment nt434GatheringAnalysisInterpreting Data and ReportingCommon Activities in Experimental Projects12.2.1Dimensional Analysis and Determining12.2.2Uncertainty Analysis43412.1.612.2434the TestRigScale43443812.2.3Shakedown Tests43812.2.4Test Matrix and Test439SequenceScheduling and Cost EstimationDesign ReviewDocumenting Experimental Activities12.2.512.2.612.2.712.3434ClosureAPPENDIX BSelected448456Answers to Selected ProblemsComputational447456ReferencesAPPENDIX A443457Methods forChapterProperties of Substances5460463Glossary468Index476

Introduction to Engineering Experimentation Third Edition AnthonyJ. Wheeler Ahmad R. Ganji SchoolofEngineering SanFranciscoState University WithThird Edition contributions by V.