State Of The States: Fuel Cells In America 2016

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State of the States:Fuel Cells in America 20167th EditionFuel Cell Technologies OfficeNovember 2016

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About this ReportThe information contained in this report was collected from public records, websites and via direct contact withstate and industry representatives as of July 31, 2016. This report is a follow-up to State of the States: Fuel Cells inAmerica 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010 editions. If we have missed something in your state, please let usknow at [email protected] report is being disseminated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As such, this document was preparedin compliance with Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001(Public Law 106-554) and information quality guidelines issued by DOE.Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulnessof any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privatelyowned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoringby the United States government or any agency thereof.Authors and AcknowledgementsThis report was written and compiled by Sandra Curtin and Jennifer Gangi of the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen EnergyAssociation (FCHEA) in Washington, D.C. for DOE. Support was provided by DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiencyand Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office.About FCHEAThe Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA) is the trade association dedicated to thecommercialization of fuel cells and hydrogen energy technologies. FCHEA represents the full global supply chain,including automakers, fuel cell materials, components and systems manufacturers, hydrogen producers and fueldistributors, government laboratories and agencies, trade associations, utilities, and other end users.Front Cover Photo CreditsTop: Fuel cell-powered bus operated by the Stark Area Regional Transit Authority (SARTA) (Ohio). Imagecourtesy of SARTA.Second: 400-kW fuel cell at CTTransit (Connecticut) which provides power to the transit agency’s maintenanceand storage facility. Image courtesy of Doosan Fuel Cell America.Third: 2.8-MW fuel cell system powering a wastewater treatment plant in Ontario, California. Image courtesy ofFuelCell Energy.Bottom: Fuel cell-powered ground support equipment, operated by FedEx at its Memphis International Airport(Tennessee) transport hub. Image courtesy of Plug Power.Section title Unt utaerest in pos eum quo con eti

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Table of ContentsAcronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivAbout Fuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vIntroduction: Fuel Cells Deployments on the Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Top 3 Fuel Cell States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1More 2016 Top Fuel Cell States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4U.S. Jobs and the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Manufacturing Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Partnerships and Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9International Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Federal Support for U.S. Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Fuel Cell Power Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Promoting Distributed Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Turning Brown into Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Reliable Backup Power for Cellular and Critical Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Support for FCVs and Hydrogen Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21H2USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Zero-Emission Vehicle States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Actions by Non-ZEV States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Municipal Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Commercial Hydrogen Iniatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Fuel Cell Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Appendix 1: States Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Appendix 2: Examples of Federally funded Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Appendix 3: Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Section title Unt utaerest in pos eum quo con etiii

STATE OF THE STATES: FUEL CELLS IN 2016AcronymsARPA-EDOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency - EnergyCARBCalifornia Air Resources BoardCECCalifornia Energy CommissionCCATConnecticut Center for Advanced TechnologyCHPCombined Heat and PowerDEEPConnecticut’s Department of Energy & Environmental ProtectionDOEU.S. Department of EnergyEEREDOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable EnergyFCBFuel Cell BusFCVFuel Cell VehicleFCTODOE EERE’s Fuel Cell Technologies OfficeFTAFederal Transit AdministrationkWKilowattMHEMaterial Handling EquipmentMoUMemorandum of UnderstandingMWMegawattNRELDOE’s National Renewable Energy LaboratoryNYSERDANew York State Energy Research and Development AuthorityPEMFCPolymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel CellRPSRenewable Portfolio StandardR&DResearch & DevelopmentSBIR/STTRU.S. Government’s Small Business Innovation Research and Small BusinessTechnology Transfer ProgramSOFCSolid Oxide Fuel CellZEVZero-Emission VehicleivSection title Unt utaerest in pos eum quo con et

About Fuel CellsA FUEL CELL is an electrochemical device that uses hydrogen and oxygen from the air to produce electricity,with water and heat as its by-products.HYDROGEN can be sourced from fossil fuels, such as natural gas or propane, or renewable fuels includinganaerobic digester gas and landfill gas. Hydrogen can also be produced by water electrolysis, which can bepowered by electricity from renewables such as solar or wind power or from nuclear energy and the grid.FUEL CELL BENEFITS Exceptionally low/zero emissions High quality, reliable power Durable and rugged Efficient – 50% electric efficiency, 90% electric and thermal efficiency (combined heat and power) Quiet Fuel flexible – can use conventional or renewable fuelsFUEL CELL CAPABILITIESMotive Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) – replicates today’s driving experience: range of 300 miles per hydrogen fueling,refuel at a pump in 3-5 minutes Material Handling Equipment (MHE) – fuel cell provides constant power, without lag, over an entire shift,reliable operation in refrigerated environments, can refuel in minutesStationary Flexible siting – indoors or outdoors Lightweight – enables rooftop siting Modular/scalable to meet any need, ranging from a few watts to multi-megawatt systems Able to provide primary, supplemental, or backup power Can be grid-tied, or can operate independently from the grid Compatible with solar, wind, batteries and other renewable/conventional technologies Can be used with, or instead of, fossil fuel generators Requires less space than solar photovoltaics Operates in water balance/uses very little water in operationPortable Refuel on the go by swapping a cartridge Provides longer run times Low-thermal, low-sound profileSection title Unt utaerest in pos eum quo con etv

STATE OF THE STATES: FUEL CELLS IN 2016EXAMPLES OF FUEL CELL APPLICATIONSAt the state and local level, fuel cells are helping meet environmental goals, boosting reliability and resiliency toensure constant power, and saving taxpayer dollars and industry investment.This includes primary and backup power to: Government offices, jails, fire and police stations Wastewater treatment plants Communications and emergency networks Schools and hospitals Zoos, parks and gardensMotive power for: Airports (baggage tow tractors, nose wheels) Ports (MHE) Fleet vehiclesIn the private sector, applications include some of the above as well as: Facilities, such as retail stores, corporate headquarters, data centers, hotels, apartment buildings Cell phone towers Railroad signals Electric grid substations, providing multi-megawatts of power to local users Off-grid equipment for security, energy exploration, recreation MHE Buses operating on public routes AutomobilesviSection title Unt utaerest in pos eum quo con et

Introduction: Fuel CellsDeployments on the RiseFUEL CELLS BY THENUMBERS – NATIONALLYThe fuel cell footprint is growing in the U.S. on a variety of levels. Theindustry consists of companies large and small, located in states across thecountry, representing the entire spectrum from components to systems tointegrators and end users. Installations and deployments are increasing everyyear, in number and in megawatts (MW). Cities are adopting fuel cells topower essential services when the grid goes down. Railroad and telecomcompanies use fuel cells to power communication towers and signalinginfrastructure. Major corporations are not only installing hundreds of fuelcell systems to power retail sites, data centers, and other facilities, they arealso deploying fuel cell-powered forklifts in warehouses and distributioncenters across the country. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are available forpurchase or lease in California and fuel cell buses are in operation in severalstates.While these deployments have been encouraged by federal research anddevelopment (R&D) and demonstration programs, and supported by federaltax incentives for FCVs, hydrogen infrastructure, and fuel cell stationarypower generation, it is the support and investment by state governments thathave propelled the use of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies in certain partsof the country.Top 3 Fuel Cell StatesThe top states for fuel cells promote the technology through programsand coalitions, planning and roadmaps, funding and incentives, businesssupport and R&D, and do so to encourage zero-emission transport and clean,efficient distributed power generation. Some states also target fuel cells andhydrogen as a growth industry for new jobs and as a revenue driver for thestate.The Top 3 states also have invested in the technology for the long-term,often with bipartisan support – extending through consecutive gubernatorialadministrations and legislative terms – and have developed ongoing fuelcell and hydrogen programs and incentives (and often have included themas eligible technologies within other programs). This commitment hasencouraged municipalities, schools, and commercial businesses – fromFortune 500 corporations to small family-owned businesses – to adopt fuelcell technologies in these states.CALIFORNIABy The Numbers:Hyundai Motor America (Fountain Valley) and Toyota USA (Torrance) sellor lease fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) in California, with more than 350 FCVsin California as of August 2016, and Honda Motor Company (Torrance)will bring its FCV to market in in California late 2016. There are more than 235 MWof large stationary (100 kWto multi-megawatt) fuel cellscurrently operating in theU.S. Fuel cell power plants arelocated in at least 43 states,providing power to commercialand municipal operations.CALIFORNIA is home to thegreatest number of stationaryfuel cells, while CONNECTICUTand DELAWARE are home tothe largest installations (14.9 MWand 30 MW, respectively). More than 11,000 fuel cellpowered forklifts operate incommercial warehouses anddistribution centers in at least26 states. Fuel cells provide backuppower to off-grid equipmentowned by telecoms andrailroads, with hundredsoperating in more than 40states. Fuel cell passenger vehiclesare now sold and leased inCALIFORNIA, with more than350 currently on the road. Thestate is also home to 20 publicretail hydrogen fueling stations.U.S. FUEL CELL POLICIES 30 states include fuel cells orhydrogen as eligible resources inRenewable Portfolio Standards. 32 states permit net metering offuel cells. 25 states offer funding for fuelcells in the form of rebates,grants, loans, bonds, PACEfinancing, or public benefitsfunding. 16 states provide personal,corporate, property and/or salestax incentives for fuel cells.California has nearly 50 hydrogen fueling stations open or indevelopment.Section title Unt utaerest in pos eum quo con et1

STATE OF THE STATES: FUEL CELLS IN 201618 fuel cell buses are operating in transit service.California has more fuel cell distributed power generation than any other state, with more than 480 fuel cellsystems, totaling more than 210 MW of power generation, that were placed in service with the support of stategrants.Major Influencers – State Agencies and Organizations:California’s state government and agencies, such as the Office of Business and Economic Development (GOBiz), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), California Energy Commission (CEC), the state’s Air QualityManagement Districts (AQMDs), the California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP), Alameda-Contra Costa TransitDistrict (AC Transit), SunLine Transit, and other transit agencies operating fuel cell buses.Key Programs and Policies:CARB’s Advanced Clean Cars Program builds upon the state’s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Regulation, and theClean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP) provides a 5,000 rebate for FCVs.1Assembly Bill 8, enacted in 2013, includes a provision to fund at least 100 hydrogen stations with a commitment ofup to 20 million per year and the Energy Commission’s Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle TechnologyProgram (ARFVTP) supplies funding for these hydrogen stations.The Fleet Rule for Transit Agencies that established a demonstration and purchase requirement of ZEVs, includingFCVs, for large transit agencies.The Self Generation Incentive Program (SGIP), which provides grant funding to support the deployment ofdistributed power generation resources, including stationary fuel cells.Assessment:California continues to display unparalleled leadership in the areaof FCV incentives and hydrogen infrastructure. The state’s ongoingplanning and support led it to be one of the first places in the world(and the first in the U.S.) to have commercial zero-emission FCVson its roadways.California is #1 in stationary fuel cell power. But recentmodifications to SGIP incentives1 will reduce the program’sallocation to generation technologies – including fuel cells, wind,waste heat to power, and combined heat and power technologies – tojust 25% of the program’s overall budget.“Hydrogen fuel cell electric andplug-in electric vehicles arepathways to achieve healthier andcleaner air for our communities.San Francisco is committed toreducing the number of vehicles onthe road by investing in sustainabletransit options and ensuring thatvehicles on the road will be zeroemissions.”– San Francisco Mayor Edwin LeeCONNECTICUTBy The Numbers:Conservatively, at least 35 MW of fuel cells now operate in the state and another 20 MW are planned. A 63.3MW fuel cell installation has been approved by Connecticut’s Siting Council. This would be the world’s largestfuel cell power park, surpassing a 59-MW fuel cell installation in Korea.In 2017, a public hydrogen fueling station will be opened in Hartford, one of 12 initial northeast U.S. hydrogenstations under development by Toyota and Air Liquide.CTTransit, a bus system that is a division of that state’s Department of Transportation, began operatingdemonstration fuel cell buses in 2007 and now operates one fuel cell bus in daily revenue service.Fuel cells and hydrogen are a key industry sector in Connecticut. Several major fuel cell manufacturers are locatedin the state and more than 600 companies are part of the fuel cell and hydrogen supply chain. In 2015, theindustry realized 726 million in revenue and investment, generated 3,400 direct, indirect and induced jobsand more than 340 million in labor income, and contributed more than 39 million in state and local taxrevenues.22Section title Unt utaerest in pos eum quo con et

Major Influencers – State Agencies and Organizations:Connecticut’s state government and agencies, such as the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection(DEEP), Department of Economic and Community Development (DECD), the state’s U.S. senators andrepresentatives, the Connecticut Hydrogen-Fuel Cell Coalition (CHFCC), CTTRANSIT, and the ConnecticutCenter for Advanced Technology (CCAT).Key Programs and Policies:DEEP’s Fuel Cell Program provides incentive funding though the Connecticut Green Bank’s On-Site DistributedGeneration Program, the Microgrid Grant and Loan Program, and the Low and Zero Emissions Renewable EnergyCredit Program (LREC/ZREC).Assessment:Connecticut’s support for stationary fuel cells is strong, deployingthe technology to enhance power reliability and reduce emissions.The state has provided funding for microgrids to provide reliablepower during adverse weather events, and many include fuel cells.A number of cities or towns are also siting fuel cells on brownfieldsites, putting marginal land to good use. Policies and activities suchas these have made the state #2 in stationary cell installations, with35 MW installed and more than double that amount proposed or indevelopment.Connecticut is preparing for FCVs, and the Connecticut Hydrogenand Electric Automobile Purchase Rebate (CHEAPR) offers 5,000to purchasers or lessors of the Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell and ToyotaMirai. This is timely, since the state’s first public hydrogen station isset to open in late 2016.“This project, when completed, willbring extraordinary benefits to thecommunity and region through itsclean energy generation, economicdevelopment of a former industrialsite and manufacture and useof Connectic

Section title Unt utaerest in pos eum quo con et v About Fuel Cells A FUEL CELL is an electrochemical device that uses hydrogen and oxygen from the air to produce electricity, with water and heat as its by-products. HYDROGEN can be sourced from fossil fuels, such as natural gas or propane, or renewable fuels including anaerobic digester gas and landfill gas.