English Language Arts - Ohio Department Of Education

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ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018Ohio’s Model CurriculumGRADE 8with Instructional SupportsEnglish Language ArtsPage 1 NAME OF PROJECT OR TITLE OF DOCUMENT January 13, 2014

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018Grade 8 . 2Model Curriculum Overview . 2Components of the Model Curriculum . 3Content Elaborations . 3Progressions . 3Instructional Supports . 4Instructional Strategies . 4Instructional Resources . 4Function of the Components and Supports. 5Using the Model Curriculum . 6Additional Resources to Support the Model Curriculum . 7English Language Arts Model Curriculum Webpage . 7English Language Arts Glossary of Terms . 8Literacy and Writing Instruction in Middle School . 8Grade 8 . 9Reading Literature Strand. 9Reading Informational Text Strand . 34Writing Strand . 51Speaking and Listening Strand . 78Language Strand . 94References . 114English Language Arts Model Curriculum Update Writing Team . 116English Language Arts Model Curriculum Resource Teams. 117Page 1 Grade 8

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018English Language Arts Model CurriculumWITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTSGrade 8Model Curriculum OverviewJust as Ohio Revised Code mandates the development of state standards, the law also requires the development of the model curriculum forthose learning standards [3301.079(B)]. The Model Curriculum is a tool that provides educators with information that clarifies the learning standardsand sets the foundation for planning and developing instruction aligned to Ohio’s Learning Standards for English Language Arts.In spring 2017, over 200 educational stakeholders (i.e., teachers, curriculum directors, principals, higher education personnel) from across thestate of Ohio revised the Model Curriculum. These educators volunteered to serve on eleven (11) English Language Arts grade level writing teamsthat met in Columbus, Ohio monthly from January to June 2017 to review the model curriculum and make updates to all current sections basedon the need for clarity, detail, and relevance to the recently revised learning standards. Specialists also volunteered for resource teams that metvirtually during the same time period in order to ensure the inclusion of educational technology, modifications for diverse learners, and careerconnections to the English Language Arts Model Curriculum at each grade level.The Model Curriculum in English Language Arts is organized by strand and topic. For example, the components below will be defined in groupsrepresented by the overall division and the category in that division that houses the standard statements.Page 2 Grade 8

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018Components of the Model CurriculumThe following descriptions provide clarification for and definitions of the components of the Model Curriculum. Each page of the Model Curriculumincludes the strand and standard statements associated with these components.CONTENT ELABORATIONSThis section contains information and illustrations for the teacher designed to clarify, support, and extend understanding of the learning standards.Content elaborations are specific to grade levels/bands and topics within each strand. This section of the model curriculum gives detailedexplanations of the knowledge and skills represented in the learning standards.PROGRESSIONSFound before and after the Content Elaborations section of the Model Curriculum, progression statements provide educators with a generaldescription of the knowledge and skills students learned prior to that grade level/band and the knowledge and skills students are expected to learnin the next grade level/band. Progressions reflect the gradual development of skills over time. The educators who updated the model curriculumpaid particular attention to vertically align these progressions, which means that they represent the way the standards’ skills and knowledge buildon one another and increase in complexity from kindergarten to the anchor standards.Page 3 Grade 8

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018Instructional SupportsStakeholders across the state of Ohio assisted with the development of this section of the Model Curriculum. Classroom teachers and othereducational personnel from schools, districts, administration, and higher education carefully selected and compiled strategies and resources forfurther review by English Language Arts program specialists at the Department.In addition, specialists in educational technology, diverse learners, career connections, and early learning ensured the inclusion of strategiesand modifications to strategies in these areas. You will find these special strategies and modifications in their respective font color. All early learningstrategies and resources are found within the Reading Literature, Reading Informational Text, and Reading Foundations Strands. The instructionalstrategies and resources section of the model curriculum will be updated periodically as additional resources become available.INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIESThe instructional strategies are suggestions of best practice instructional methods educators can use to address the learning standards and topics;these are meant to stimulate thinking and discussion among educational professionals, not to be used as a list of classroom lessons.INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCESThis section includes materials (print and nonprint) designed for use in instruction or for professional development/enrichment that addresses theskills and knowledge in the learning standards.Page 4 Grade 8

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018Function of the Components and SupportsPage 5 Grade 8

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018The Model Curriculum is a tool that provides educators with information that clarifies the learning standards and sets the foundation for planningand developing instruction aligned to Ohio’s Learning Standards for English Language Arts. As educators begin to use this tool, it is importantto understand how all of the components work together to accomplish the goal of educating Ohio students.As illustrated to the left, the classroom teacher gathers information related to each of the components of the model curriculum. Before the schoolyear begins or when teaching a new grade level, educators can review the Previous Grade Level Progression Statements which summarizethe prior year’s content standards and includes the following:» Information about what students should know and be able to do» Information on the background knowledge teachers can activate in students and scaffold learning» Information that will help teachers develop diagnostic and formative assessmentsWhile remaining mindful of the previous grade level expectations that students should carry with them, the teacher can use the ContentElaborations, as well as reviewing the Instructional Strategies and Resources, to gain an in-depth understanding of the knowledge and skillsthey will help students learn and retain throughout the school year. The Content Elaborations help teachers understand how their grade levelinstruction promotes students’ growth toward college and career readiness.As teachers facilitate learning using instructional best practices, the Next Grade Level Progression Statements help educators understandhow the standards will progress from their grade level to the next. These help teachers recognize the knowledge and skills students need inorder to be successful in the next grade level.With a greater understanding of what students bring to the classroom from theprevious year, the knowledge and skills in the learning standards, strategies andresources to help students learn the knowledge and skills in the learning standards,and awareness of the goal in preparing students to be ready for the next school year,educators can facilitate what is most valuable about all of these components workingtogether: Student Achievement.Using the Model CurriculumWHAT IT ISWHAT IT IS NOTPage 6 Grade 8

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018»»detailed descriptions of the knowledge and skills in thelearning standards at each grade level and topic lesson plansbest practice examples of instructional strategies and an exhaustive list of classroom activities per standardresources to serve as a catalyst to ignite thinking aboutinnovative teaching practices»a support for instructional planning using the learningstandards as a foundation instructional units a resource meant to replace your district’s decisions ordirectionAdditional Resources to Support the Model CurriculumENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS MODEL CURRICULUM WEBPAGEThe model curriculum documents are posted on this page, along with many other supporting resources, including the following:»»»»»»»Curriculum map introduction and description: this resource creates a framework from the standards and model curriculum for planning unitsaround big ideas/concepts; sequencing units to the school year; intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary connections; diverse learnerconsiderations; technology integration; formative, summative and performance-based assessment practices; and resourcesCurriculum map: this is a template that can be used for planningEnglish Language Arts Resource Evaluation Tool: this can be used to ensure that resources used by districts are aligned to the learningstandards and best practice, research-based instructionOhio’s Learning Standards for English Language Arts are posted on our Transition page, along with the helpful resources below, which arealso hyperlinked throughout the model curriculum documents.Determining Theme Standard Guidance provides support for RL.3-12.2 and RI.3-12.2.Types of Summaries Standard Guidance provides support for RL.3-12.2 and RI.3-12.2.Establishing a Thesis Standard Guidance provides support for W.6-12.1-2.Page 7 Grade 8

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS GLOSSARY OF TERMSThroughout the model curriculum documents, you will see small note iconsin various colors, illustrated to the right. If you hover over these notes in thedocument, a box will pop up containing terms and their definitions. Thesedefinitions provide clarity around content and process terms located in thelearning standards. Many definitions were adapted or taken directly fromAbrams’ A Glossary of Literary Terms and Harris’ and Hodges’ The LiteracyDictionary, among other state department of education web documents.Click the button to view the English Language Arts Glossary of Terms, whichcan be found in its entirety.LITERACY AND WRITING INSTRUCTION IN MIDDLE SCHOOLContributed by Maggie Demarse, Ohio Middle Level AssociationTeam-based teaching is a common approach used in middle school with teachers who cooperate in planning and provide flexible scheduling to meetthe needs of young adolescents. The benefits of this middle school philosophy are that it builds a sense of community for students and staff andprovides flexibility academically. The Association for Middle Level Education published This We Believe, a document that outlines the keycharacteristics to educating young adolescents. This document has the three main categories: (1) Curriculum Instruction, and Assessment, (2)Leadership and Organization, and (3) Culture and Community. The category, Curriculum Instruction, and Assessment, summarizes that teachers ofmiddle level adolescents can meet the needs of their students if they are engaged in a variety of active learning techniques and assessments and aredevelopmentally responsive with their decision making for their students.When developing learning activities for students, there are four main curricular approaches that are best practices for middle school education: (1)Subject Centered, (2) Exploratory, (3) Multidisciplinary, and (4) Interdisciplinary or Integrated. All four of these approaches are beneficial for middleschool students because they allow students learn not only their academic content, but to learn more about themselves and others, and to developmore global perspectives. For English Language Arts, literature circle groups for novel studies, whole class novel studies, and writing workshops area few best practices teaching and can meet all for curricular approaches.Literature circle novel studies and whole class novel studies are great instructional strategies to use to promote students’ growth in literacy. Duringthese activities, students read a section of the text and engage in thoughtful discussions and activities to help them analyze the text. This teachingstrategy allows teachers to assess student’s abilities and needs while giving the students more freedom and ownership over their own learning sincestudents are guiding the discussion groups. Writing workshop is similar in that this teaching strategy is student centered and led. Writing workshopsPage 8 Grade 8

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018begin with a mini-lesson about a writing skill or topic and lead into students choosing what they would like to write about, within the broad guidelinesthe teacher sets for students, such as the type of writing for the task (e.g., narrative, expository, argument). While students are writing, the teacher isable to assess students’ abilities and needs through conferencing with each student throughout class time.English Language Arts Model CurriculumWITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTSGrade 8READING LITERATURE STRANDStrandReading: LiteratureTopicKey Ideas and DetailsStandardsRL.8.1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well asinferences drawn from the text.RL.8.2 Analyze literary text development.a. Determine a theme of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship tothe characters, setting, and plot.b. Incorporate a theme and its relationship to other story elements into an objective summary of the text.RL.8.3 Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of acharacter, or provoke a decision.Page 9 Grade 8

OHIO’S MODEL CURRICULUM WITH INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ADOPTED FEBRUARY 2018Previous Grade Level Progression StatementIn the previous grade level, students were expected to cite several pieces of evidence in order to analyze a text. Students werealso expected to refer to the text for confirmation of plot details and determination of theme. In addition, students willunderstand how particular elements of a story or drama interact.Content ElaborationsStudents are expected to analyze the text in order to identify several pieces of textual evidence, which supports wh

For English Language Arts, literature circle groups for novel studies, whole class novel studies, and writing workshops are a few best practices teaching and can meet all for curricular approaches. Literature circle novel studies and whole class novel studies are great instructional strategies to use to promote students’ growth in literacy.