The Honolulu Strategy - NOAA Marine Debris

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The Honolulu StrategyA global framework for prevention and management of marine debris

AcknowledgementsThe Honolulu Strategy was developed with the support and assistance of scientists, practitioners,managers, and the private sector from around the world. The United Nations EnvironmentProgramme (UNEP) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine DebrisProgram provided technical and financial support throughout the development process before,during, and after the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference. UNEP’s technical consultant, Ms.Seba Sheavly (Sheavly Consultants), gathered input from marine debris experts and practitioners todevelop the draft elements of the Honolulu Strategy that was provided to participants during theFifth International Marine Debris Conference. NOAA’s technical consultants, Dr. Kitty Courtney(Tetra Tech Inc.) and Mr. John Parks, (Marine Consultants, LLC) developed and refined theframework for the Honolulu Strategy through a pre-conference workshop and incorporatedcomments after the conference to produce the Draft and Final versions of the Honolulu Strategy.The draft was then reviewed by the 5IMDC Steering Committee and opened for review andcomment by 5IMDC participants and non-participants. We thank the individuals and organizationswho provided comments to improve the Strategy.The writers would also like to address three issues that were raised in several comments – setting azero target for marine debris creation, Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM), and ExtendedProducer Responsibility. These areas are clearly relevant to the scale and nature of the marinedebris problem and were the focus of multiple comments. These issues and comments werediscussed by UNEP and NOAA, as the primary document drafters. After much discussion, it wasdecided that, while extremely important, these issues could not be integrated into the HonoluluStrategy for the following reasons: As a Framework, target-setting would not be appropriate within the Strategy itself. Eachlocal, regional, or national organization must set its own targets based on its needs andcapabilities. This Strategy is providing ideas for organizations to address marine debristhrough their own means; it is not creating a global, integrated effort with associated goals,tracking, measurement, or funding.Integrated Solid Waste Management is an extremely important and complex issue which isbeing encouraged by and addressed through other international organizations, whichacknowledge marine debris as a related issue. The ISWM is acknowledged within theStrategy, but it would be replicating effort done by others to go into more detail within it.Extended Producer Responsibility is another issue that the authors felt was beyond thescope of the Honolulu Strategy to go into detail on, because of the larger issues and themultiple levels of debate regarding them. It also has many layers beyond that of justapplying to marine debris prevention and reduction.As stated, these issues are important and do need to be addressed in a holistic response, but for thereasons outlined above it was decided that the Honolulu Strategy was not the place to explain andaddress them. In this context, the Honolulu Strategy should be viewed as a companion document toother global, regional and national processes to address these issues.

Executive SummaryThe marine debris problem is global in scale and intergenerational in impact. Marine debris, ormarine litter, is defined to include any anthropogenic, manufactured, or processed solid material(regardless of size) discarded, disposed of, or abandoned that ends up in the marine environment.It includes, but is not limited to, plastics, metals, glass, concrete and other construction materials,paper and cardboard, polystyrene, rubber, rope, textiles, timber and hazardous materials, such asmunitions, asbestos and medical waste. In some instances, marine debris may also be a vessel fordangerous pollutants that are eventually released into the marine environment. Marine debris mayresult from activities on land or at sea.Marine debris is a complex cultural and multi-sectoral problem that exacts tremendous ecological,economic, and social costs around the globe.The Honolulu Strategy is a framework for a comprehensive and global effort to reduce theecological, human health, and economic impacts of marine debris globally. The Honolulu Strategy isintended for use as a: Planning tool for developing or refining spatially or sector-specific marine debris programsand projectsCommon frame of reference for collaboration and sharing of best practices and lessonslearnedMonitoring tool to measure progress across multiple programs and projectsThe Honolulu Strategy is a framework document. It does not supplant or supersede activities ofnational authorities, municipalities, industry, international organizations, or other stakeholders;rather, it provides a focal point for improved collaboration and coordination among the multitudeof stakeholders across the globe concerned with marine debris. Successful implementation of it willrequire participation and support on multiple levels—global, regional, national, and local—involving the full spectrum of civil society, government and intergovernmental organizations, andthe private sector.This results-oriented framework consists of three goals and associated strategies to reduce theamount and impact of marine debris from land-based and sea-based sources and marine debrisaccumulations (Table ES-1). Conceptual models and results chains were the basis of the frameworkin the Honolulu Strategy. The Fifth International Marine Debris Conference, in March 2011,catalyzed development of the Honolulu Strategy. Input from conference participants andstakeholders around the world was solicited and incorporated into development of the HonoluluStrategy.ES-1

Table ES-1. Global Framework for Prevention and Management of Marine DebrisGoal A: Reduced amount and impact of land-based sources of marine debris introduced into the seaStrategy A1. Conduct education and outreach on marine debris impacts and the need for improved solidwaste managementStrategy A2. Employ market-based instruments to support solid waste management, in particular wasteminimizationStrategy A3. Employ infrastructure and implement best practices for improving stormwater managementand reducing discharge of solid waste into waterwaysStrategy A4. Develop, strengthen, and enact legislation and policies to support solid waste minimization andmanagementStrategy A5. Improve the regulatory framework regarding stormwater, sewage systems, and debris intributary waterwaysStrategy A6. Build capacity to monitor and enforce compliance with regulations and permit conditionsregarding litter, dumping, solid waste management, stormwater, and surface runoffStrategy A7. Conduct regular cleanup efforts on coastal lands, in watersheds, and in waterways— especiallyat hot spots of marine debris accumulationGoal B: Reduced amount and impact of sea-based sources of marine debris, including solid waste; lostcargo; abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG); and abandoned vessels,introduced into the seaStrategy B1. Conduct ocean-user education and outreach on marine debris impacts, prevention, andmanagementStrategy B2. Develop and strengthen implementation of waste minimization and proper waste storage at sea,and of disposal at port reception facilities, in order to minimize incidents of ocean dumpingStrategy B3. Develop and strengthen implementation of industry best management practices (BMP) designedto minimize abandonment of vessels and accidental loss of cargo, solid waste, and gear at sea.Strategy B4. Develop and promote use of fishing gear modifications or alternative technologies to reduce theloss of fishing gear and/or its impacts as ALDFGStrategy B5. Develop and strengthen implementation of legislation and policies to prevent and managemarine debris from at-sea sources, and implement requirements of MARPOL Annex V and other relevantinternational instruments and agreementsStrategy B6. Build capacity to monitor and enforce (1) national and local legislation, and (2) compliance withrequirements of MARPOL Annex V and other relevant international instruments and agreementsGoal C: Reduced amount and impact of accumulated marine debris on shorelines, in benthic habitats,and in pelagic watersStrategy C1. Conduct education and outreach on marine debris impacts and removalStrategy C2. Develop and promote use of technologies and methods to effectively locate and remove marinedebris accumulationsStrategy C3. Build capacity to co-manage marine debris removal responseStrategy C4. Develop or strengthen implementation of incentives for removal of ALDFG and other largeaccumulations of marine debris encountered at seaStrategy C5. Establish appropriate regional, national, and local mechanisms to facilitate removal of marinedebrisStrategy C6. Remove marine debris from shorelines, benthic habitats, and pelagic waterES-2

ContentsAcronyms.iii1.0 Introduction . 11.1What’s in the Honolulu Strategy . 21.2How to Use the Honolulu Strategy . 32.1Impacts of Marine Debris . 42.0 Understanding the Problem . 42.2Research and Monitoring Needs for Marine Debris.113.0 Strategies to Prevent and Reduce the Impacts of Marine Debris. 13Goal A:Reduced amount and impact of land-based sources of marine debris introduced intothe sea. 13Strategy A1. Conduct education and outreach on marine debris impacts and the need forimproved solid waste management .14Strategy A2. Employ market-based instruments to support solid waste management, inparticular waste minimization .15Strategy A3. Employ infrastructure and implement best practices for improving stormwatermanagement and reducing discharge of solid waste into waterways .15Strategy A4. Develop, strengthen, and enact legislation and policies to support solid wasteprevention, minimization and management .15Strategy A5. Improve the regulatory framework regarding stormwater, combined sewersystems, and debris in tributary waterways .16Strategy A6. Build capacity to monitor and enforce compliance with regulations and permitconditions regarding litter, dumping, solid waste management, stormwater, andsurface runoff. 16Strategy A7. Conduct regular cleanups of solid waste on coastal lands, in watersheds, and inwaterways—especially at hot spots of marine debris accumulation.16Goal B:Reduced amount and impact of sea-based sources of marine debris including solidwaste, lost cargo, ALDFG, and abandoned vessels introduced into the sea .18Strategy B1. Conduct ocean-user education and outreach on marine debris impacts,prevention, and management .19Strategy B2. Develop incentives and markets to strengthen implementation of wasteminimization and proper waste storage at sea, and of disposal at port receptionfacilities, in order to minimize incidents of ocean dumping.20Strategy B3. Develop and strengthen implementation of industry best management practices(BMP) designed to minimize abandonment of vessels and accidental loss ofcargo, solid waste, and gear at sea.20Strategy B4. Develop and promote use of fishing gear modifications or alternativetechnologies . 20i

Strategy B5. Develop and strengthen implementation of legislation and policies to preventand manage marine debris from at-sea sources, and implement therequirements of MARPOL Annex V, as well as other relevant internationalinstruments and agreements .21Strategy B6. Build capacity to monitor and enforce (1) national and local legislation, and (2)compliance with requirements of MARPOL Annex V and other relevantinternational instruments and agreements .21Goal C.Reduced amount and impact of accumulated marine debris on shorelines, in benthichabitats, and in pelagic waters.23Strategy C1. Conduct education and outreach on marine debris impacts and removal .24Strategy C2. Develop and promote use of technologies and methods to effectively locate andremove marine debris accumulations.24Strategy C3. Build capacity to co-manage marine debris removal response.24Strategy C4. Develop or strengthen implementation of incentives for removal of ALDFG andother large accumulations of marine debris encountered at sea.24Strategy C5. Establish appropriate regional, national, and local mechanisms to facilitateremoval of marine debris .25Strategy C6. Remove marine debris from shorelines, benthic habitats, and pelagic water .25References. 26Annex 1 – Potential Actions by Strategy for the Prevention and Management of MarineDebris. 31Annex 2 – Conceptual Models and Results Chains on the Prevention and Management ofMarine Debris. 42ii

AcronymsALDFGabandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gearBMPbest management nternational Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ShipsIUCNInternational Union for Conservation of NaturePCBpolychlorinated biphenylUKUnited Kingdomiii

1.0IntroductionMarine debris is defined to include any anthropogenic, manufactured, or processed solid material(regardless of size) discarded, disposed of, or abandoned in the environment, including allmaterials discarded into the sea, on the shore, or brought indirectly to the sea by rivers, sewage,stormwater, waves, or winds. 1 Marine debris may result from activities on land or at sea.The marine debris problem is global in scale and intergenerational in impact. On the one hand, it isa comparatively simple problem: marine debris is tangible and results principally from humanbehavior. On the other hand, it is extraordinarily complex, with multiple causes and factorscombining to affect the nature, quantity, and distribution of debris around the world. As with othercomplex environmental problems, no single solution is possible. Indeed, marine debris involvesmany societal and economic dimensions. Because of this complexity, addressing marine debrisrequires collective and collaborative efforts of a wide cross-section of civil society (localcommunities, nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, and individual citizens),governments, and the private sector to implement a broad suite of sustained, strategic, andcoordinated initiatives.Many countries and international organizations have been tackling the marine debris problem fordecades, with significant signs of progress. The Honolulu Strategy: A Global Framework for thePrevention and Management of Marine Debris (Honolulu Strategy) was developed to support andstrengthen these efforts and catalyze new efforts around the world. The Honolulu Strategy serves asa template for global efforts addressing the problem of marine debris. This framework is notdesigned for direct implementation by any one country, organization or group, but as a means tosupport and connect actions implemented by various stakeholders in various geographic contextsand at different levels of governance. The Honolulu Strategy is a globally applicable tool that servestwo main purposes: To describe and catalyze the multi-pronged and holistic response required to solve theproblem of marine debrisTo guide monitoring and evaluation of global progress on specific strategies at differentlevels of implementation—including local, national, regional, and international efforts andachievementsThe Fifth International Marine Debris Conference, held in the US State of Hawaii in March 2011,served as a catalyst for development of the Honolulu Strategy. Prior to the conference,recommendations from the four previous international marine debris conferences were compiledand analyzed to identify recurring themes. An expert working group was formed to develop thestructure and draft content of the Honolulu Strategy. Working group members reached out to1This is the definition of “marine debris” used in this document. “Marine litter” is considered synonymouswith the term “marine debris.”1

colleagues throughout the world to identify ongoing initiatives and future plans. The draft elementsof the Honolulu Strategy were developed and distributed to conference attendees prior to theconference. A number of mechanisms were used before, during and after the conference to develop,review, and incorporate comments (as appropriate) into the Honolulu Strategy.1.1What’s in the Honolulu StrategyThe Honolulu Strategy is a framework for a comprehensive and global collaborative effort to reducethe ecological, human health, and economic impacts of marine debris worldwide. This frameworkis organized by a set of goals and strategies applicable all over the world, regardless of specificconditions or challenges. The Honolulu Strategy specifies three overarching goals focused onreducing threats of marine debris:Goal A:Goal B:Goal C.Reduced amount and impact of land-based litter and solid waste introduced into themarine environmentReduced amount and impact of sea-based sources of marine debris including solidwaste, lost cargo, ALDFG, and abandoned vessels introduced into the seaReduced amount and impact of accumulated marine debris

Integrated Solid Waste Management is an extremely important and complex issue which is being encouraged by and addressed through other international organizations, which acknowledge marine debris as a related issue. The ISWM is acknowledged within the