Identification And Dating Of Japanese Glass Beverage Bottles

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Identification and Dating of Japanese Glass Beverage BottlesDouglas E. RossABSTRACTJapanese overseas migrants imported a variety of consumergoods from home, goods which have been recovered fromJapanese, Chinese, and other archaeological sites. Oneclass of imports granted only limited attention in thearchaeological literature is glass beverage bottles, whichare easily confused with their North American counterparts. Historical and archaeological data on identificationand chronology of Japanese beer, soda, and sake bottlesenhance their usefulness in dating sites and interpretingmigrant lifeways.IntroductionAccompanying the arrival of Chinese and Japanese migrants to North America and elsewhere, beginning in thelate 19th century, was a diverse range of imported consumer goods that appears in abundance on archaeologicalsites. Ceramic table- and storage wares typically dominatethe Asian components of these assemblages, but they alsoinclude beverage containers, smoking paraphernalia,pharmaceutical bottles, gaming pieces, coins, and articlesassociated with grooming and personal hygiene, amongothers. Existing archaeological literature addresses manyof these artifact classes in depth, but one class receivingonly limited attention is Japanese glass beverage bottles. Inpart, this may be a product of difficulties in distinguishingthese vessels from bottles produced in Europe and NorthAmerica, with which they share common morphology andmanufacturing technology. In fact, in mixed assemblagesor on sites without obvious Asian components, bottles ofAsian origin may easily be confounded with their non-Asiancounterparts. Nevertheless, in many cases it is possible toidentify and date Asian specimens based on morphologyand makers’ marks, and to determine the bottles’ probablecontents. The following discussion outlines the manufacturing history and distinguishing characteristics of thesevessels in an effort to enhance identification and interpre-tive potential for archaeologists working on overseas Asianand non-Asian sites.Although the archaeological literature on Japanesemigrants and their descendants is still very modest, archaeologists have reported Japanese beer, soda, and sake bottlesfrom sites in British Columbia, the western United States,and the Pacific Islands (Armstrong 1979; King and Parker1984; Copp 1987; Costello and Maniery 1988; Tamir et al.1993; Burton 1996; Greenwood 1996; Schaefer andMcCawley 1999; Muckle 2001; Dixon 2004; Slaughter2006; Ross 2009). This diverse range of sites is associatedwith Chinese and Japanese domestic and commercial deposits in urban and rural contexts, an urban neighborhoodlandfill, and World War II military fortifications and internment camps. In fact, most Asian-made beverage bottlesfound on Chinese sites are Japanese in origin. China did notindustrialize as early as Japan and continued to ship mostindigenous beverages in ceramic containers, manufacturingfew Western-style beverage bottles until well into the 20thcentury (Godley 1986;Yang 2007).Research for this report was conducted in conjunctionwith a study of Chinese and Japanese labor camps associated with an industrial salmon cannery (1885–1930) onDon and Lion islands along the Fraser River in BritishColumbia (Ross 2009). Before describing these bottles indetail, however, it is important to understand the historyof alcohol and soft-drink production and consumption inJapan.Alcoholic and Carbonated Beverages in JapanPrior to the Meiji period (1868–1912), the dominantalcoholic beverage in Japan was sake, fermented from rice(14–16% alcohol). A stronger alcoholic beverage (25%or greater), known as shochu, distilled from a variety ofmaterials including rice, barley, and sweet potatoes, wasalso common (Laker 1975:48; Perez 2002:195). DespiteTechnical Briefs In historical archaeology, 2009, 4: 7–17

Identification and Dating of Japanese Glass Beverage Bottlesthe rise of large urban sake-brewing firms in the Tokugawaand Meiji periods, small-scale rural production for localconsumption, including home brewing, remained widespread (Tanimoto 2006). Both before and during the Meijiperiod, brewers shipped sake in large wooden casks tourban shops, and customers purchased it in ceramic bottles, often bearing the name and address of the merchant(Kanzaki 1989:68–69; Kondo 1996:50; Gauntner 2002,2004). The first glass sake bottles did not appear on themarket until 1879, but the common 1 sho (1.8 L) bottles,usually sealed with lightning-type ceramic closures, beganreplacing wooden casks by the turn of the 20th century. Bythe end of the Taisho period (1912–1926) however, only asmall proportion of sake was sold in glass bottles, and aslate as 1940 only about 40% was bottled (Laker 1975:v;Gauntner 2004; Izumi 2005:27).Production and consumption of beer and soda in Japanare a product of Meiji industrialization and Westernization.They are closely related to the broader processes throughwhich Western foods were introduced and accepted intothe Japanese diet in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Laker’s (1975, 1980) study of the role of entrepreneurs inthe development of individual brewing companies betweenthe 1870s and 1930s offers an abundance of valuable data.Unless otherwise noted, the following discussion reliesexclusively on Laker’s work, including Table 1, whichprovides a chronology of the major companies and brandsof Japanese beer.The first commercial brewers in Japan were anAmerican and a German operating out of the Yokohamaforeign settlement at the beginning of the 1870s. Theseand other foreigners were responsible for teaching localmerchants how to brew beer and helped them open theirown breweries. Brewers imported virtually all machinery,barley malt, yeast, and hops from Germany and the UnitedStates in these early years and for a long time afterwards;they even used empty beer bottles and wine barrels fromimported beverages, along with cork stoppers strappedto the bottle with wire. Beer companies also purchasedlocally produced porcelain and glass bottles from a rangeof factories. In fact, development of glass manufacturing inJapan is closely tied to the rise of the beer industry. In theearly years, the market for Japanese beer increased slowlyand the product was largely a luxury item enjoyed by therich (Laker 1975:30–40, 50–92, 246–247).8By 1906, the market for beer had increased significantly in Japan, due to a higher quality, standardized productsold at a lower cost and backed by extensive marketing.The earliest beers in Japan were English-style ales whichwere easier to brew, but joint stock companies increasingly turned to German-style lagers, which had a longershelf life. Longevity was an asset for a developing industrythat produced more than it could immediately sell. Anattempt to monopolize the industry led to a merger ofthe three largest companies in 1906, which became theDai Nippon Beer Company, later expanded by furthermergers. By 1913, there were only four major firmsleft: Dai Nippon, the Kirin Beer Company, Kabuto Beer,and the Teikoku Beer Company. Dai Nippon dominatedthe Japanese beer industry until 1949, when Americanoccupation authorities forced it to split into two companies, Asahi and Nippon. It was after 1906 that beergained widespread popularity in Japan and companiesapproached self-sufficiency. They achieved this by sendingtechnicians abroad and gaining increased control over theproduction of machines, bottles, and raw materials (Laker1975:42–45, 156–177).Two key problems associated with bottle manufacturewere finding a low-cost means of mass production anda more efficient closure to replace the labor-intensivecork-and-wire method. Over the years breweries reliedon a combination of imports and a series of local glasscompanies to supply their needs. Dai Nippon was a leaderin expanding and reorganizing the bottle industry throughpurchase and consolidation. Starting in 1911, the companyalso introduced semi-automatic and automatic bottle-making machines from Europe and America. In that same year,it became the first Japanese company to introduce crownclosures on its bottles, and others soon followed. In 1920,Dai Nippon purchased Nippon Glass Kogyo Company,founded in 1916, whose owner was the first to acquire machines and patent rights from the Owens Bottle MachineCompany of Toledo, Ohio. By the 1920s, Dai Nippon wasusing either Graham or Owens machines in all its plants.Bottle sizes were not standardized until 1944, but beerwas typically marketed in two sizes, with the larger sizemodeled after the London Bass Beer Company’s 630.8 mlbottle, and the smaller size of half that volume. Lakernotes that Dai Nippon often used different sizes of bottleat different breweries. By the 1930s, companies were evenTechnical Briefs in historical archaeology

Douglas E. RossTable 1. Major Japanese Beer Companies and Brands.CompanyYears Active Brands (First Year) TrademarksPrevious/Later IncarnationsMitsuuroko Beer1874–1901Mitsuuroko (1874)Hakkosha FermentationCompany1875–1893Sakurada (1879)Renamed Sakurada in 1890; became Tokyo BeerCompany in 1893Kaitakushi1876–1886Kaitakushi (1876)Sapporo (1886)Sold to Okura in 1886, then to Sapporo in 1887F. M. Beer Company1881–1888Tegata (1881)Asada Beer1885–1910Asada (1885)Japan Brewing Company 1885–1907Kirin (ca. 1885)KirinSold to Kirin in 1907Marusan Beer1887–1906Marusan (ca. 1887)Kabuto (ca. 1900)HelmetRenamed Nihon Daiichi, then KabutoSapporo Beer Company1887–1906Sapporo (1886)Hinode Beer1890–1913Hinode (1893)Osaka Beer Company1887–1906Asahi (1892)Nippon BrewingCompany1887–1906Yebisu (1889)Tokyo Beer Company1893–1907Tokyo (ca. 1893)Tsingtao (China)1903–1916Tsingtao (ca. 1903)Dai Nippon BeerCompany1906–1949Sapporo (1886)Asahi (1892)Yebisu (1889)Kabuto (ca. 1900)Tsingtao (ca. 1903)UnionSeasonVitaminMunchenSun (circle and dot) Merger of Sapporo, Osaka, and Nippon in 1906;divided into Asahi and Nippon in 1949Kirin Beer Company1907–Kirin (ca. 1885)Kirin;KB monogramFormerly Japan Brewery CompanyKabuto Beer1907–1921Kabuto (ca. 1900)HelmetFormerly Marusan, then Nihon Daiichi; merged intoNihon Beer Kosen in 1921Teikoku Beer Company1912–1929Merged into Dai Nippon in 1906Sold to Dai Nippon in 1913Sun rising from seaAsahi name purchased from another brewer whohad used it from ca. 1884; merged into Dai Nipponin 1906Merged into Dai Nippon in 1906CockscombSold to Dai Nippon in 1907Anglo-German brewery, sold to Dai Nippon in 1916Sakura (1913)Company renamed Sakura in 1929Takasago Beer Company 1919–1939(Taiwan)Takasago (1920)Sold to Dai Nippon, Kirin, and Sakura in 1939Nichi-Ei1920–1923,1929–1934Cascade (1920)ChiyodaOraga (1930)Sold to Dai Nippon in 1934Nihon (Nippon) BeerKosen Company1921–1933Kabuto (ca. 1900)Merger of Nihon Seibin, Kabuto, and Teikoku Kosenin 1921; merged with Dai Nippon in 1933Sakura Beer Company1929–1943Sakura (1913)Merged with Dai Nippon in 1943Source: Laker 1975.Technical Briefs in historical archaeology9

Identification and Dating of Japanese Glass Beverage Bottlesgrinding competitors’ names off empty bottles and reusingthem (Laker 1975:88, 247–262).In addition to dominating the Japanese market, DaiNippon created subsidiary companies in Korea and partsof China, occupied as a result of Japanese military expansion. As a result, export booms occurred during WorldWar I and through the 1930s in Southeast Asia and thePacific Islands. In 1916, following Japanese occupationof the German enclave in China, the company purchasedthe Tsingtao (Qingdao) brewery. This Anglo-Germanbrewery had been operating since 1903 in the city of thesame name. Dai Nippon and other beer companies alsoexpanded into production of soft drinks and other nonalcoholic Western beverages, which began appearing inJapan in the 1870s. In 1907, the Teikoku Kosen Companyestablished itself in Osaka with equipment purchasedfrom the Apollinaris Soft Drink Company in England.It produced two soft drinks in dark green bottles withcrown closures, Mitsuya (Three Arrows) and Kujaku(Peacock). Mitsuya cider became Japan’s most popularsoft drink. In 1921, the company merged with KabutoBeer and the Nihon Bottle Manufacturing Company tobecome the Nihon Beer Kosen Company. It later mergedwith Dai Nippon in 1933 and became the largest softdrink producer in the country. Dai Nippon had alreadyintroduced its own soft drinks: Ribbon Citron (1909),Ribbon Tansan (soda water) and Ribbon Raspberry(1914), and the orange-nectarine flavored Napolin(1923). In 1928 to 1929, Kirin brought out Kirin Lemon,Kirin Citron, Kirin Cider, and Kirin Tansan, although onlythe lemon sold well. The Teikoku Beer Company (laterSakura) produced Miyoshino Lemon and Miyoshino Ciderfrom 1920 (Laker 1975:179–204).Japanese Bottle MorphologyBy combining archaeological and historical evidence, itis possible to provide a basic description of some of themost common Japanese beverage bottles. Morphologicalterms used here generally conform to those used on theHistoric Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website(Society for Historical Archaeology 2009). In terms ofsize, the large and small Japanese beer bottles correspondto the range for quart-sized (22–30 oz., 650–887 ml) andpint-sized (11–16 oz., 325–473 ml) beer bottles in North10America. For sake it is the smaller size (4 go, 720 ml) thatcorresponds to the North American quart bottle, andwhich is common on archaeological sites.Sake BottlesMany glass sake bottles found on North American sites aredeep aqua blue in color, and have a champagne body style,with a ring finish and dimple holes for a porcelain lightning-type stopper, or a club sauce-like finish (Figures 1, 2).Some sake bottles also contain vertical embossed lines andmakers’ marks on the body and shoulder. A bottle recovered from a Japanese logging camp in the Seymour Valleyin British Columbia displays the name of the Hakutsuru(White Crane) sake brewery founded in Osaka in 1743(Muckle 2001; Hakutsuru Sake Brewing Co., Ltd. 2008).A lightning-type stopper from the Japanese fishing campon Don Island, British Columbia is marked Otsuka Seijou(Otsuka Vintage) in blue transfer-printed characters, asake brewery about which further details are needed (Ross2009) (Figure 3). Slaughter (2006) identified remains ofat least 20 glass sake jugs from Hawaiian breweries duringa surface survey of Camp Amache, a Japanese internmentcamp in Colorado.They were typically clear, aqua, or greengallon jugs with small round handles on the shoulder andmakers’ marks embossed on the bases.Merchants also shipped sake in cylindrical stonewarebottles, known as saka-bin, similar in shape to non-Asianchampagne-style glass bottles with a bluish white or bluishgrey exterior glaze (Stoltie 1995; Schaefer and McCawley1999) (Figure 4). Such vessels are commonly associatedwith commercial establishments, and often have calligraphic, printed, or stamped marks of the sake brewer or retailer(Cort 1979:212; Jahn 2004:302). Some examples recovered from Mugu Fish Camp in California had remains oflead seals similar to those found on wine bottles (Schaeferand McCawley 1999). Remains of at least 152 saka-bin, inboth large and small sizes, were recovered during salvageexcavations in Walnut Grove, California (Costello andManiery 1988:25). Japanese-style vessels known as tokkuri were also used, and consist of cylindrical or bulbousbottles of stoneware or porcelain with slender necks and aflaring rim, some with faceted or fluted sides (Stoltie 1995;Schaefer and McCawley 1999). Porcelain specimens generally function as domestic serving vessels.Technical Briefs in historical archaeology

Douglas E. RossFigure 1. Japanese beverage bottles from North American sites (left to right): Mitsuya Cider (turn mold,height 23.8 cm); Teikoku Beer (three-piece mold, height 29.9 cm); Dai Nippon Beer (Owens machine,height 28.7 cm); Hakutsuru Sake (three-piece mold, height 30.6 cm). (Photo by author, 2008.)Figure 2. Machine-made Japanese sake bottle from Don Islandwith club sauce-like finish. (Photo by author, 2008.)Figure 3. Porcelain lightning-type stopper from Don Island,marked “Otsuka Vintage.” (Photo by author, 2008.)Technical Briefs in historical archaeology11

Identification and Dating of Japanese Glass Beverage BottlesBeer BottlesMany Japanese beer bottles were mold blown in champagneor export body styles with mineral finishes, but after 1911were also machine-made with crown finishes. Data from archaeological specimens suggest other manufacturing trends.Walnut Grove, California (Costello and Maniery 1988),Lovelock, Nevada (Armstrong 1979), and Don Island,British Columbia (Ross 2009) are pre-World War II Chineseand/or Japanese sites, and in all cases most beer bottlesappear to be of the large size and amber in color. A Sakurabottle recovered from Walnut Grove has a champagne-stylebody, as does a complete mold-blown Dai Nippon bottlefrom the Asian American Comparative Collection (AACC)at the University of Idaho, and a similar Teikoku bottlein the reference collection at Simon Fraser University.One Dai Nippon specimen dating to the 1920s from theSeymour Valley logging camp, is machine made with anFigure 4. Stoneware saka-bin in the Asian American ComparativeCollection at the University of Idaho, in one-liter (left) andhalf-liter (right) sizes (heights 28.5 cm and 21.7 cm). (Photo byauthor, 2006.)12export body style (the Teikoku and Dai Nippon examplesappear in Figure 1). Many bottles have embossed marks inJapanese or English on the shoulder and/or the body nearthe base, although marks on some fragmentary Dai Nipponbottles from Walnut Grove and Lion Island are acid etched(Costello and Maniery 1988; Ross 2009) (Figure 5,Table 2).Japanese bottle marks typically follow the pre-World War IIconvention of reading right to left, and characters presentedin Table 2 conform to that practice.The bottles from Chuuk (Truk) described by King andParker (1984) are primarily machine-made with crownfinishes, the majority coming from a Japanese World War IIfeature dating from 1941 to 1945. These bottles occur inboth large and small sizes and in various shades of greenand amber. Because the sample from earlier sites is sosmall, it is likely that pre-World War II bottles also varyin size and color. The two most common bottle types inthe Chuuk assemblage are from Dai Nippon and Kirin, theFigure 5. Embossed (top) and acid-etched (bottom) registeredtrademark for the Dai Nippon Beer Company. (Photos by author,2008.)Technical Briefs in historical archaeology

Douglas E. Rossformer with an export body style and the latter a champagne body. Dai Nippon bottles are embossed in English orJapanese with a logo of the sun (a circle with a dot in thecenter), a monogram of the letters DNB, and a five-pointedstar on the base, whereas Kirin bottles are embossed inJapanese and have the monogram KB (Figure 6a–c). Bothstyles are similar to specimens from the earlier SeymourValley site. The Sakura bottle from Walnut Grove has thename embossed in English and Japanese, accompanied bya cherry blossom logo.Soda BottlesJapanese soft-drink bottles appear to occur only in thesmaller size. Mitsuya (Three Arrows) cider bottles arecommonly green and turn molded with a crown finish andan embossed ring around the neck. They have the name“Mitsuya” embossed in Japanese on the base, and a logocomprised of the fletching from three arrows (Figure 6d).One example from the Chinese bunkhouse on Lion Islandalso has the letter B inside a circle in the middle of thebase, while another is machine made with the logo locatedon the body near the base (Ross 2009). Another greensoft-drink bottle from Lion Island, blown in a three-piececup-bottom mold and without a neck ring, has the name“Hirone Mineral Springs Company” embossed on the base.It bears a cherry blossom and wave crest above the shoulder (Figures 6e, 7a).In addition to the well-known stoneware liquor bottles, Chinese medicinal liquor was sold in green or amber,Table 2. Japanese Bottle Marks from the Chinese Bunkhouse on Lion Island.Vessel Color1AmberManufacture DescriptionIndeterminate Shoulderfragment23Emerald IndeterminateAmber Turn mold4AmberTurn mold5AmberMold blown67OliveOliveTurn moldIndeterminate8OliveIndeterminate9Emerald Mold blown1011OliveIndeterminateEmerald Turn mold12OliveTurn ルービ録登 (Toroku)Base fragment 会式株 (part of Kabushiki Kaisha)Base fragment 造醸社会式 (part of Kabushiki KaishaJouzou)Base and partial 造醸社会式株酒麦本日大(Dai NipponbodyBakushu Kabushiki Kaisha Jouzou)標商録登 sun (dot-in-circle) trademarkBase and partial ——KOKU BEER (Teikoku Beer)bodyPartial basePart of Three Arrows trademarkBody fragment 式株泉鉱(?) (part of Kosen KabushikiKaisha)Shoulder内宮 (Miyauchi)fragmentPartial baseThree Arrows trademark, backwards “5” onbaseBody fragment Dot-in-circle trademarkBase and partial 矢ツ三 (Mitsuya) Three Arrowsbodytrademark BBase矢ツ三(Mitsuya) Three ne KosencompleteKabushiki Kaisha) waves and cherryblossom crestPartial base and 本日大 (Dai Nippon) sun (dot-in-circle)bodytrademark標商録(part of Toroku Shyohyo)TranslationBeerRegisteredCompanyBrewing CompanyGreat Japan Beer BrewingCompanyRegistered TrademarkImperial Beer(Mitsuya cider)Mineral Springs Stock(Company)Company name?(Mitsuya cider)(Dai Nippon Beer Company)Three Arrows (cider)Three Arrows (cider)Hirone Mineral SpringsCompanyGreat Japan (Beer Company)Registered TrademarkTechnical Briefs in historical archaeology13

Identification and Dating of Japanese Glass Beverage BottlesFigure 6. Logos on Japanese beverage bottles: (a) and (b) Dai Nippon Beer; (c) Kirin Beer; (d) Mitsuya Cider; (e) Hirone MineralSprings Company. (Drawing by author, 2008.)abcFigure 7. (a) Hirone Mineral Springs Company bottle from Lion Island (height 23.4 cm). (Photo by author, 2008.); (b) Machine-madeChinese glass liquor bottle from the Asian American Comparative Collection, embossed with the name “Wing Lee Wai.” (Photo byauthor, 2006.); (c) Deep aqua blue Asian bottle from Lion Island (turn mold, height 23.2 cm). (Photo by author, 2008.)14Technical Briefs in historical archaeology

Douglas E. Rosspint-sized glass bottles with or without embossed neckrings, similar to those used for Japanese soda (Figure 7b).Ritchie (1986:195–198) argues that these bottles mayhave been an early-20th-century alternative or successor to their ceramic counterparts. This may be why theyare not reported from sites dating between the mid- andlate 19th century, although further work is required toconfirm the date of introduction. Some are embossedor have paper labels with “Wing Lee Wai,” the name of aChinese liquor producer. Unmarked bottles are difficultto distinguish from their Japanese counterparts, however,and specimens without neck rings could be Chinese,Japanese, or non-Asian. For example, six fragmentarybottles recovered from Lion Island comprising intactcrown finishes and neck rings, three olive colored andthree a deep aqua blue, could be either Chinese liquor orJapanese soda (Ross 2009) (Figure 7c). Base fragmentswith embossed marks suggest the olive bottles may allbe from Mitsuya Cider, but the aqua blue specimensare more ambiguous. A common feature of many moldblown Asian bottles, however, is an abundance of airbubbles in the glass and a tendency for them to be slightlyasymmetrical.ConclusionsHistorical and archaeological data are providing important details on the functions and manufacturing historiesof Japanese glass beverage bottles, which until now havereceived little attention in the archaeological literature.Further research in museums and archives in Japan willrefine the interpretive potential of these Asian imports,especially the histories of individual companies and theirmanufacturing technology. Nevertheless, this brief overview offers a strong foundation for enhancing our understanding of the daily lives of Asian migrants in overseascontexts.Dana Lepofsky, Trelle Morrow, Bob Muckle, TakashiSakaguchi, and Priscilla Wegars, all of whom shared valuable research data and expertise, or aided in shaping theideas found herein. This research was funded in part bya Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council ofCanada Doctoral Fellowship.ReferencesArmstrong, Jane1979 The Lovelock Bottles. In Archaeological and Historical Studies at Ninth and Amherst, Lovelock, Nevada, EugeneM. Hattori, Mary K. Rusco, and Donald R. Tuohy, editors, pp. 199–250. Nevada State Museum ArchaeologicalServices, Carson City.Burton, Jeffery F. (editor)1996 Three Farewells to Manzanar:The Archaeology of Manzanar National Historic Site, California. Western Archaeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service,U.S. Department of the Interior, Publications in Anthropology 67, Tucson, AZ.Copp, Stanley A.1987 Excavation of the Marpole-Eburne Site(DhRs 25): An Urban Garbage Dump in an Early Vancouver Suburb. Report to the Heritage Conservation Branch,Victoria, BC, from Vancouver Community College,Langara Campus, Vancouver, BC.Cort, Louise Allison1979 Shigaraki, Potters’ Valley. Kodansha International,Tokyo, Japan.AcknowledgmentsCostello, Julia. G., and Mary L. Maniery1988 Rice Bowls in the Delta: Artifacts Recovered from the1915 Asian Community ofWalnut Grove, California. Instituteof Archaeology, University of California, OccasionalPaper 16, Los Angeles.A complete set of acknowledgments associated with thisresearch accompanies my Ph.D. dissertation, but hereI would like to highlight the individuals who made significant contributions to this particular component of mystudy. They are Scott Baxter, Leland Bibb, Ross Jamieson,Dixon, Boyd2004 The Archaeology of Rural Settlement and Classin a Pre-WWII Japanese Plantation on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. InternationalJournal of Historical Archaeology 8(4):281–299.Technical Briefs in historical archaeology15

Identification and Dating of Japanese Glass Beverage BottlesGauntner, John2002 The Sake Handbook. Tuttle Publishing, Boston, MA.2004 Sake in Glass Bottles. Sake World Sake e-Newsletter 53, John Gauntner’s sake-world.com, Kamakura,Japan http://www.sake-world.com/html/sw-2004 2.html . Accessed 11 April 2008.Godley, Michael R.1986 Bacchus in the East: The Chinese Grape WineIndustry, 1892–1938. Business History Review 60(3):383–409.Greenwood, Roberta S.1996 Down By the Station: Los Angeles Chinatown,1880–1933. Monumenta Archaeologica 18. Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.Hakutsuru Sake Brewing Co., Ltd.2008 Hakutsuru Sake. www.hakutsuru-sake.com .Accessed 22 May 2008.Izumi, Sensuke2005 The Izumi Family: Seven Generations of Sake Making.YS Publishing, East Setauket, NY.Jahn, Gisela2004 Meiji Ceramics:The Art of Japanese Export Porcelainand SatsumaWare 1868–1912. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart,Germany.Kanzaki, Noritake1989 Japanese Food: Customs and Traditions. Understanding Japan No. 56, International Society for EducationalInformation, Tokyo, Japan.King, Thomas F., and Patricia L. Parker1984 Pisekin Nóómw Nóón Tonaachaw: Archaeology in theTonaachaw Historic District, Moen Island. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University,Occasional Paper No. 3, Carbondale.Kondo, Hiroshi1996 The Book of Sake. Kodansha International, Tokyo,Japan.16Laker, Joseph Alphonse1975 Entrepreneurship and the Development of the JapaneseBeer Industry, 1872–1937. Doctoral dissertation, Department of History, Indiana University, Bloomington. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI.1980 Oligopoly at Home and Expansion Abroad: TheDevelopment of the Japanese Beer Industry, 1907–1937.Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on AsianStudies, 1980, pp. 313–324. Asian Research Service,Hong Kong.Muckle, Bob2001 The Seymour Valley Archaeological Project.The Midden 33(2):2–6.Perez, Louis G.2002 Daily Life in Early Modern Japan. Greenwood Press,Westport, CT.Ritchie, Neville A.1986 Archaeology and History of the Chinese inSouthern New Zealand During the Nineteenth Century:A Study of Acculturation, Adaptation, and Change. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.Ross, Douglas E.2009 Material Life and Socio-Cultural Transformationamong Asian Transmigrants at a Fraser River Salmon Cannery. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Archaeology,Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.Schaefer, Jerry, and William McCawley1999 A Pier Into the Past at Point Mugu: The Historyand Archaeology of a Japanese-American SportfishingResort. Report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, LosAngeles District, from ASM Affiliates, Encinitas, CA.Slaughter, Michelle Ann2006 An Archaeological and Ethnographic Examinationof the Presence, Acquisition, and Consumption of Sakeat Camp Amache, a World War II Japanese InternmentCamp. Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology,University of Colorado, Denver.Technical Briefs in historical archaeology

Douglas E. RossSociety for Historical Archaeology2009 Historic Glass Bottle Identification & InformationWebsite. Society for Historical Archaeology, Universityof Montana, Missoula http://www.sha.org/bottle/index.htm . Accessed 28 April 2009.Tanimoto, Masayuki2006 Capital Accumulation and the Local Economy:Brewers and Local Notables. In The Role of Traditionin Japan’s Industrialization, Masayuki Tanimoto, editor,pp. 301–322. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Stoltie, Bernard P.1995 Tokkuri and Friends: A Salutation to the JapaneseSake Bottle. Arts of Asia 25(1):101–112.Yang, Zhiguo2007 This Beer Tastes Really Good: Nationalism, Consumer Culture and Development of the Beer Industryin Qingdao, 1903–1993. The Chinese Historical Review14(1):29–58.Tamir, Orit, Scott C. Russell, Karolyn Jackman Jensen,and Shereen Lerner1993 Return to Butte Camp: A Japanese-AmericanWorld War II Relocation Center. Report to Bureau ofReclamation, Arizona Projects Office, from Archaeological Consulting Services, Ltd., Cultural Resources ReportNo. 82, Tempe, AZ.Douglas E. RossDepartment of ArchaeologySimon Fraser University8888 University Dr

May 22, 2008 · and makers’ marks, and to determine the bottles’ probable contents. The following discussion outlines the manufac- . locally produced porcelain and glass bottles from a range of factories. in fact, development of glass manufacturing in . ingly turned to german-style lagers, which