ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCHAdrian WallworkEnglishfor AcademicResearch:A Guide for Teachers
English for Academic ResearchSeries editorAdrian WallworkPisaItaly
This series aims to help non-native, English-speaking researchers communicate inEnglish. The books in this series are designed like manuals or user guides to helpreaders find relevant information quickly, and assimilate it rapidly and effectively.The author has divided each book into short subsections of short paragraphs withmany bullet points.More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/13913
Adrian WallworkEnglish for AcademicResearch: A Guidefor Teachers
Adrian WallworkEnglish for AcademicsPisaItalyEnglish for Academic ResearchISBN 978-3-319-32685-6ISBN 978-3-319-32687-0DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32687-0(eBook)Library of Congress Control Number: 2016940196 Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part ofthe material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation,broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or informationstorage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodologynow known or hereafter developed.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publicationdoes not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevantprotective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this bookare believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or theeditors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errorsor omissions that may have been made.Printed on acid-free paperThis Springer imprint is published by Springer NatureThe registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland
IntroductionWho is this book for?This book was written for English language teachers who are experienced EFL teachers and wish to embark on a new challenge: teaching students doing a PhD or postgraduate course how to write their papers,present their research at international conferences, and communicate with theresearch community. This sector of teaching is a sub-sector of English forAcademic Purposes (EAP) wish to use the English for Academic Research series in their English language coursesThis book is intended for native speakers of English.What kind of teacher's book is this? Is it a step-by-step guideto using all the books in the series?The English for Academic Research series is not a series of student coursebooks.The books are self-study guides that can be used by students alone or in class witha teacher.So the book you are holding in your hands now is not a step-by-step guide to all thesections in the various books of the series.Instead the book provides a syllabus / lesson plans that you can use as a basis forholding scientific English courses.v
viBy reading this book you will also get a clear idea of the academic world in terms of publishing papers and presenting research suggestions on how to teach the concepts outlined in the two main books inthe series: English for Writing Research Papers and English for Presentationsat International ConferencesMy aim is to give you the confidence to teach academic / scientific English which,in my opinion as someone who has taught practically every kind of English, is themost exciting and rewarding area of teaching English.What is English for Academic Research? Is it the sameas English for Academic Purposes (EAP)? Who is the targetaudience?EAP refers to the English required by anyone (generally 18 years and over) studyingin higher education whose first language is not English but who needs English inorder to carry out their university studies or advance their career in English.The English for Academic Research series is aimed at a specific sector of the EAPmarket: those who need to publish their work in international journals and presenttheir research orally at international conferences. This type of English is oftenknown not just as 'academic' English but also as 'scientific' English.The target users of the series are thus: Master's students PhD students Postdoctoral students Researchers Academic staff of all levels (lecturers, assistant professors, full professors)Two of the books - English for Writing Research Papers and English Grammar Usageand Style are also aimed at scientific editors, proofreaders and English teachers whosupplement their income by revising / editing scientific papers written by theirstudents.
viiHowever, even undergraduates can benefit from this series as they too will be calledupon to write in 'scientific' English in their essays, theses, assignments and dissertations, and to present their work orally at seminars and workshops.What are the components of the English for AcademicResearch series?The two core books are:English for Writing Research PapersEnglish for Presentations at International ConferencesThese two books are the ones that are referred to most in this teacher's book. Twoother books, primarily for self-study are:English for Academic CorrespondenceEnglish for Interacting on CampusThe above four books have the same format and structure, and are written in thesame style.There is a reference grammar book which both you and your students can consult:English for Academic Research: Grammar, Usage and StyleThere are also three exercise books:English for Academic Research: Grammar ExercisesEnglish for Academic Research: Vocabulary ExercisesEnglish for Academic Research: Writing ExercisesThe exercise books are primarily designed to support the writing skills outlined inEnglish for Writing Research Papers. The exercises in these books can be integratedinto your course by being set for homework. This teacher's book does not tell youactually how to use each exercise, but rather which exercises to use to supplementthe core books.
viiiWhat key differences are there between this book and otherguides to teaching academic English?This book focuses on how to teach students to write reader-focused texts and giveaudience-focused oral presentations. This reader / audience focus is key to yourstudents' success in the world of academia. Thus this book differs from other EAPteacher's books / guides / manuals, which tend to see everything from the writer's(i.e. your student's) point of view and thus teach them how to sound impressive andsupposedly academic, rather than clear.The whole series of English for Academic Research is designed so that: you can cherry pick, i.e. you are not forced to do a whole load of exercises thatyou don't want to you can download the chapters you think are the most useful you can exploit a series of fun and stimulating introductory activities everything you teach has real practical value for your studentsWhat is the main focus of this book? Which skills are coveredthe most?Writing skills are given the most focus in this book. Writing and publishing apaper demands skills that are not normally taught in the world of EFL (though havesome overlap with Business English). You will need to get a handle on these skillsif your students are going to benefit from your courses.Presentation skills are fairly intuitive and are not difficult to learn (though aredifficult to put into practice). Presentations skills are also fun to teach, but it may notbe immediately clear how to teach them. Several chapters of this book are thereforededicated to helping you with this aspect.correspondence, interaction with professors, and social life Written correspondence (i.e. what is covered in English for Academic Correspondence) andsocial life on campus, including interactions with professors (i.e. what is covered inEnglish for Interacting on Campus), are areas that you yourself are likely to havepersonal experience of from your student days and should therefore be easier foryou to teach as skills. They are thus only covered marginally in this teacher's book.
ixGrammar skills are covered in English for Writing Research Papers and in Englishfor Academic Research: Grammar Exercises. In addition, English for AcademicResearch: Grammar Usage and Style covers all those aspects of grammar that students will need when writing papers. Thus not all grammar is covered, only thatrequired to write academic texts.Reading skills are not covered in English for Academic Research. You can drawon your knowledge of reading skills that you exploited when teaching generalEnglish - the same skills apply in academic English.Vocabulary skills are dealt with in terms of formal vs informal, and concrete vsabstract. Also, there is an entire exercise book (English for Academic Research:Vocabulary Exercises) dealing with discriminating between similar sets of wordscommonly used in academia. However, there are no vocabulary building exercisesas such. Your students may be studying highly varying disciplines so it would behard to teach them all the same vocabulary. However, if you are interested in genericacademic vocabulary (e.g. test, experiment, trial) then there are many free word listsavailable (e.g. g skills are covered only to the extent of strategies for understandingnative English speakers and understanding university lectures - see Chapters 6 and9 in English for Interacting on Campus. Again this is because listening skills inacademia are hardly different from the skills usually required in normal life and thuscovered in general English courses.My aim in this book is not to cover areas that you can easily find elsewhere. I justwant to concentrate on what your students really need to know, and what for youwould be difficult to find in any other teacher's book.How is this book organized?This book is divided into four parts.Part 1 Academic Written English: What it is and how to teach itThis part explains everything you need to know about the world of academia, thewriting of research papers, and the role of journal editors and reviewers. Part 1 thuscovers syntax and grammar issues, short vs long sentences, paragraphing, exploiting student's own materials, drawing comparisons between academic writing andother forms of writing, and injecting some fun into your lessons.
xPart 2 Academic Presentations: What they are and how to teach themThis part gives some very practical suggestions on how to help your studentsimprove their presentations skills.Part 3 Strategies for Teaching Writing and PresentingThe two chapters in this part show you how to teach academic skills but using nonacademic examples, as well as how to provide evidence to students of the importance of what you are teaching them. A few suggestions are given on how to dealwith multinational and multicultural groups.Part 4 Syllabus and lessons plansThis part suggests two main syllabuses - one for a writing course and the other fora presentations course. This is a step-by-step guide on what to cover in each lesson,and how to incorporate sections from the English for Academic Research series intoyour lessons.Does the series cover both science and humanities students?Yes, but the bias is towards scientific research. Historians, philosophers, and otherhumanists often tend to write in their native language and attend fewer internationalconferences. When they do write in English their English is particularly arcane (asis the English of the native speakers!) and thus difficult to decipher. It may surpriseyou but it is actually much easier to revise and edit papers written by scientists thanit is by humanists.Why should I want to teach EAP / scientific English?I've taught every type of English, and scientific English is without doubt the moststimulating and rewarding.You will learn a ton of interesting information about your students' research areasthus opening you up to a completely new world. In addition your students willprobably be more motivated to learn than any other students you have ever had improving their English relates directly to them being able to continue conducting their research
xi come from many different countries (even if you are teaching in a nonEnglish-speaking country) - PhD students travel the world in search of opportunities to study with particular professors in particular labs and in particularcourses. Having a multicultural class is fascinating show the fastest progress that you have ever witnessed - you will be teachingthem specific skills that they can apply immediately. The results can be veryrewarding for you as a teacher enjoy themselves more in your class than in most classes that they are obligedto attend. This is because you are teaching them skills (writing papers, presenting CVs, email, and communication in general) that are not only fundamental for their success at university, but which will also help them if theywork in industryI am a regular EFL teacher. Will I be able to use Englishfor Academic Research series?Yes.You certainly need to have had a few years' experience in teaching general Englishto adults. Even better if you have also taught Business English - Business Englishand Scientific English have much in common.If you have had no EFL experience but have a degree in science then this wouldpartially make up for your lack of teaching experience.I believe that a good academic English teacher, like a good EFL teacher, needs to be a good communicator with a curiosity about people of all types have a lively interest in English (and languages in general) and a willingnessto study its grammar - which in the case of 'scientific' English can be quitedifferent from the standard English grammar you would teach in a generalEnglish course teach what is necessary rather than what is sometimes prescribedIn addition to these three factors, you need to understand the life of PhD studentsand researchers, what the publication of research articles entails and how international conferences operate. You also need to become exposed to all the types ofemails and letters that such people write in their daily life.
xiiIf you have already taught Business English then this could be the next logical stepin your career. Like Business English teaching Scientific English is incredibly satisfying as you are really helping your students to progress in their careers through aseries of short-term goals (e.g. drafting a manuscript, preparing for a poster sessionat a conference, writing a CV, dealing with referees' comments on their paper).Given that there are far fewer teachers of Scientific English than Business Englishyou can command a much greater fee for your services and you can supplementyour income very nicely by editing the work of non-native researchers.What are the possible pitfalls to this book?On the market there are a few guides to teaching EAP but as far as I know there areno guides to teaching English specifically to PhD students and researchers. Nor doI know of any journals, SIGs (special interest groups), or conferences devoted tothis topic. So although there are plenty of us around the world teaching English inuniversities at very high levels, what you are reading now may well be the firstintroduction to teaching scientific English ever written (but please correct me if I amwrong ). As explained above this is not a guide to teaching scientific English, butrather an introduction to teaching scientific English and a guide to how to exploit thebooks in this English for Academic Research series.I contacted several teachers while preparing this book, but inevitably my personalexperience is likely to prevail and may not totally match yours.For this reason I would be very grateful if you could contact me ([email protected]) and let me know whether or not this book has fulfilled your expectations, and if it hasn't what changes and additions you would like to see in futureeditions. Thank you.The authorSince 1984 Adrian Wallwork has been editing and revising scientific papers, as well asteaching English as a foreign language. In 2000 he began specializing in training PhDstudents from all over the world in how to write and present their research in English.He is the author of over 30 textbooks for Springer Science Business Media, CambridgeUniversity Press, Oxford University Press, the BBC, and many other publishers.With his wife, Anna Southern, Adrian runs an editing agency for researchers whosenative language is not English - English for Academics (E4AC). They revise, proofread and edit over a million words a year - but find it much easier to find typos in theworks of others rather than in their own! So if you find any typos in this book pleasecontact Adrian: [email protected] Thanks.
ContentsPart I Academic Written English: What It Is and How to Teach It1What Is EAP / Scientific English? What Do I Needto Do to Prepare Myself to Teach Scientific English? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1 In this book, how are the terms Academic Englishand Scientific English used? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2 What is Academic English? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3 Are the rules of Academic English the same for all disciplines? . . . . . 41.4 Is the grammar of Academic English differentfrom that of General English? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.5 Does Academic / Scientific English share any similaritieswith Business English? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.6 So can I really teach 'scientific' English when I don'thave a scientific background? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.7 What kind of background reading will help meto understand science and how it is written up?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.8 How can papers and presentations written by scientists possiblybe easier to correct / edit than those written by humanists? . . . . . . 111.9 What do students typically think that their 'Englishproblems' are? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122The Research and Publication Process:Why Papers Get Rejected. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 What are the aims of PhD students and researchers? . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 How important is it for my students to write good papers? . . . . . . .2.3 What are the main steps in getting research published? . . . . . . . . .2.4 What about conferences - how do they affectthe publication process? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.5 What steps do the students themselves follow whenwriting their manuscript? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6 What do my students need to know about referees? . . . . . . . . . . . .15151616171819xiii
xiv2.7 How do referees do their job? Do native speakersalways get their papers accepted? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.8 How do I know what to focus on when teaching studentshow to write up their research for publication?What criteria do referees follow when reviewinga manuscript or abstract? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.9 How can I help my students write better English?When manuscripts are rejected for 'poor English'what exactly does 'poor' mean? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.10 Are there differences in the comments made by nativeand non-native reviewers? What do I need to tell mystudents in this regard?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.11 So what do referees say wh
Grammar skills are co vered in English for Writing Research Papers and in English for Academic Research: Grammar Exercises. In addition, English for Academic Research: Grammar Usage and Style covers all those aspects of grammar that stu-dents will need when writing papers. Thus not all grammar is covered, only that required to write academic .