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The ModernOlympic Games

The ModernOlympic GamesIntroductionCharacteristicsof the modernOlympic GamesOlympic sportsInitiative of FrenchmanPierre de CoubertinBorrowings and innovations.Sports, disciplines and eventsCeremonies and rituals.Olympic Games celebratedin a different country everyfour yearsMeeting place of sport,art and culture.The programme of the Summerand Winter Olympic GamesThe world’s greatest sportsevent for over a centuryCriteria for inclusion inthe programme of the GamesLeading sportsand demonstration sports.Games of the Olympiad(Summer Games)Olympic Winter Games.3Athletes at theGames5Victory9The Gamesand their eraAthletes’ lead-up to the GamesMedals at the Summerand Winter GamesLife in the Olympic VillageMedal award ceremonyA unique experience.Winners’ fame after the Games.Evolution in transport: a benefitfor the GamesDevelopment of the media:impact on Games broadcastingPolitical context: effecton the GamesThis is a PDF interactive file. The headings of each page contain hyperlinks,which allow to move from chapter to chapter.Geography of the Games.Click on this icon to download the image.Cover: OG London 2012, Opening Ceremony 2012 / International Olympic Committee (IOC) / HUET, John131618

The Modern Olympic Games3IntroductionIntroductionA sports event unlike any otherThe Olympic Games are unique. Athletes from the entire world take part.Their achievements are watched from both near and far by hundredsof millions of spectators.The five rings on the Olympic flag represent the international natureof the Games.The London 2012 OlympicGames were broadcastall over the world, via thetraditional media as well asonline and mobile platforms.They reached a record audienceestimated at 4.8 billion people.What makes the Olympic Games different from other sports events?The Games are held every four years. They are the largest sporting celebrationin the number of sports on the programme, the number of athletes presentand the number of people from different nations gathered together at the sametime in the same place.The Games are held at intervals, but are part of a broader framework whichis that of the Olympic Movement. The purpose of the Olympic Movementis to promote the practice of sport all over the world and disseminatethe Olympic values. It is in this spirit that the Olympic Games are heldand celebrated.The Summer Games and the Winter GamesThe Olympic Games include the Games of the Olympiad (i.e. the SummerGames) and the Olympic Winter Games. The first edition of the modernSummer Games was held in 1896 in Athens (Greece), and the first OlympicWinter Games in 1924 in Chamonix (France).The word Olympiad designates the four-year period that separates eachedition of the Summer Games.Until 1992, the Summer and Winter Games were held in the same year,but since then, the Winter Games were moved two years from the SummerGames. The Summer and Winter Games continue to be organised onceevery four years.In the Summer Games, athletes compete in a wide variety of competitionson the track, on the road, on grass, in the water, on the water, in the openair and indoors, in a total of 28 sports.The Winter Games feature 7 sports practised on snow and ice, both indoorsand outdoors. The Olympic Museum

The Modern Olympic Games4IntroductionHistoryIt was Pierre de Coubertin of France who dreamt up this ambitious project,although others before him had tried in vain to revive these Games. Drawinginspiration from the ancient Olympic Games, he decided to create the modernOlympic Games. With this purpose, he founded the International OlympicCommittee (IOC) in 1894 in Paris. The new committee set itself the objectiveof organising the first Olympic Games of modern times.1. OG Athenes 1896. Athletics.Discus Men – Robert GARRETT(USA) 1st. 1896 / International OlympicCommittee (IOC)The date of the first Games, 1896, marked the beginning of an extraordinaryadventure that has now lasted for over a century!1 The Olympic Museum

The Modern Olympic Games5The characteristicsof the modern Olympic GamesThe characteristicsof the modern OlympicGamesElements of the pastThe roots of the Olympic Games are to be found in Ancient Greece [see sheet“The Olympic Games in Antiquity”], and the first modern Games, in 1896, featuredmany references to this legacy of Greek Antiquity:› The Games were held in Athens, in Greece, the country where the ancient Gameswere held.› Most of the competitions were held in the ancient stadium (the PanathinaikoStadium), which had been restored for the occasion.› Most of the sports on the programme of the ancient Games were includedin the first modern Games.› The organisers invented a race inspired by an event in antiquity: the marathon.Generally speaking, the modern Games strive towards a more peaceful world.The Olympic Truce calling for a halt to all conflicts recalls the concept of the truceobserved during the Ancient Games.Sacred and respected throughout Ancient Greece, the Olympic Truce announcedby messengers before the Games allowed spectators, athletes and officialsto travel to and from Olympia in safety through the numerous battle zones.Today, the Olympic Truce is the subject of a United Nations resolution callingfor a halt to hostilities during the period of the Games and the search for meansof peaceful resolution in areas of tension. The athletes who support this initiativeare invited to sign a “Truce Wall” in the Olympic Village.In antiquity, the PanathinaikoStadium in Athens hosted thesports competitions known asthe Panathenaea.The marathonThis race commemorates theexploit of a soldier who, in 490BC, ran from Marathon to tellthe people of Athens of theirvictory in the battle against thePersians, a distance of roughly34.5 kilometres.InnovationsWhile the modern Games draw their inspiration from the past, they are alsoquite different.From the outset, Coubertin proposed:› Secular GamesThe modern Games are secular, unlike the ancient Games which were dedicatedto the gods. The Olympic Museum

The Modern Olympic Games6The characteristicsof the modern Olympic Games› Games around the globeIn contrast with the Olympic Games of Antiquity, each edition of the modernGames takes place in principle in a different city and country.1. OG Paris 1900. Tennis, singlesWomen – Hélène PREVOS 1900 / International OlympicCommittee (IOC)› Longer GamesIn ancient times, the Games were held first on one day, and finally over five days.Today the official duration is no more than 16 days.The Games are also evolving constantly:› Since 1896, athletes from all over the worldThe ancient Olympic Games were the preserve of free male Greek citizens,whereas the modern Games have always been open to athletes fromall over the world. The 245 participants in Athens in 1896 came from14 different countries.The 1912 Games in Stockholm (Sweden) were the first to boast the presenceof national delegations from the five continents. The universality of the modernOlympic Games was assured.Today, the Summer Games welcome athletes from every country of the world,without exception.› Since 1900, women join inAs in Ancient Greece, there were no female athletes at the first edition of the modernOlympic Games. In Athens in 1896, only men competed. At that time, female athletesfaced many prejudices. People worried that they would lose their femininity,over-develop their muscles or become sterile. They therefore had to overcomethis kind of attitude and gradually take their place at the Games. Women madetheir Olympic debut at the 1900 Games in Paris (France), in tennis and golf.Subsequently, over the course of the century, they gained access to more and moresports (e.g. swimming in 1912, athletics in 1928, volleyball in 1964, rowing in 1976,cycling in 1984 and football in 1996), but it was not until the 2012 Games in London,with the introduction of women’s boxing, that women could compete in all the sportson the programme. Since the 2004 Games in Athens, more than 40 per centof the athletes at the Games have been women.› Since 1924, Games for winter sportsWhen Coubertin revived the Olympic Games, only summer sports were included.In the 1920s, however, snow and ice sports began to enjoy soaring popularity.A number of IOC members decided to react to this, and, in 1924, it was decided1 The Olympic Museum

The Modern Olympic Games7The characteristicsof the modern Olympic Gamesto hold an International Winter Sports Week in Chamonix (France): 258 athletesfrom 16 countries (mainly in Europe and North America) attended.This proved a great success and, two years later, this “Week” was officially recognisedas the first Olympic Winter Games. The future of an Olympic event dedicatedexclusively to snow and ice sports was assured.At the 2010 Games in Vancouver (Canada), a total of 2,566 athletes cametogether from 82 countries as diverse as Ghana, Brazil, New Zealandand Pakistan.1. OG London 2012. OpeningCeremony. 2012 / International OlympicCommittee (IOC) / FURLONG,Christopher› Since 1984, professional athletes at the GamesThe modern Olympic Games were long open only to amateur athletes, in line withPierre de Coubertin’s wishes. The IOC abolished this rule in 1984 (for the Gamesin Los Angeles), and since then professional athletes have also been able to take part.The rituals of the Opening and Closing Ceremonies1The Olympic Games begin and end with big celebrations, important ceremoniesin which various rituals express the identity of the Games. Today, these rituals are partof the protocol of the Games. They include the following elements:Opening of the Games› the entry of the athletes into the stadiumwith their delegations (in alphabeticalorder, except for Greece which goesfirst, and the host country which bringsup the rear)› the declaration of the opening of theGames by the Head of State of the hostcountry› the address by the Games OrganisingCommittee President› the speech by the IOC President› the entry of the Olympic flag intothe stadium› the Olympic anthem› the symbolic release of doves (a symbolof peace)› the oath sworn by an athlete andan official from the host country (respectfor the rules)› the entrance of the flame and lightingof the cauldronMost of this protocol had beenestablished by the timeof the 1920 Games in Antwerp(Belgium). It has been addedto over the years as the Gameshave evolved.Closing of the Games› handing over of the Olympic flagto the next Olympic host city (continuityof the Games)› gathering of the athletes in the stadium(brotherhood)› the extinguishing of the flame› the declaration of the closingof the Games by the IOC President The Olympic Museum

Whether through sport, art or culture,everyone can take part in the greatcelebration of the Olympic Games,which offer an opportunity to openup to and better understandother people.The Modern Olympic Games8The characteristicsof the modern Olympic GamesThe protocol forms part of a much broader scenography and programme. The openingand closing ceremonies are an invitation to discover the culture of the country hostingthe Games, through music, song, dance, etc.Sport, art and cultureIn Ancient Greece, art and sport were seen as perfect partners. The ideal was to achieveharmony by exercising both the body and the mind.Pierre de Coubertin adopted this ideal for the modern Olympic Games and proposedincluding art and culture in the programme of the Games.On his initiative, architecture, sculpture, painting, literature and music competitionswere part of the Olympic Games from 1912 to 1948.Nowadays, the competitions have been replaced with cultural programmesthat are completely separate from the sports competitions. Plays, concerts, balletsand exhibitions are held in the city, region and even the country hosting the Games.Numerous artists, designers, architects, choreographers and musicians play an activepart in the success of the Games, be it through the construction of stadiums andother competition venues, the Look of the Games (logos, pictograms and mascots)or the opening and closing ceremonies. The Olympic Museum

The Modern Olympic Games9Olympic sportsOlympic sportsThe Olympic programme includes all the sports in the Olympic Games. The IOCsets the programme and decides which sports will be included. The IOC alsohas the right to add or remove any sport, discipline or event.1. OG Beijing 2008. Athletics,pole vault – final. ElenaISINBAEVA (RUS) 1st. 2008 / International OlympicCommittee (IOC) / KISHIMOTO,TsutomuSport For a sport to be made an Olympic sport it has to be governedby an International Federation recognised by the IOCExemples :Swimming at the Games is governed by the International Swimming Federation (FINA);Skating by the International Skating Union (ISU).Discipline An Olympic sport comprises one or several disciplines.Exemples :Water polo and diving are disciplines of swimming.Speed skating and figure skating are disciplines of skating.Event A discipline includes one or more events or competitions.An event gives rise to a result for which medals and diplomas are awarded.Exemples :The 10m platform for women is a diving event.The men’s 500m is a speed skating event.Criteria for being an Olympic sportIn order to be included in the Olympic programme, a sport must be governedby an International Federation which complies with the Olympic Charterand applies the World Anti-Doping Code.If it is widely practised around the world and satisfies a number of criteriaestablished by the IOC Session, a recognised sport may be added to the Olympicprogramme.Since 2000, there has been little change to the number of sports on the programmeof the Summer and Winter Games, but rather changes to events in order to limit the sizeof the Games.Summer Games sports1In Athens in 1896, nine sports were on the programme: athletics, cycling, fencing, The Olympic Museum

The Modern Olympic Games110Olympic sportsgymnastics, weightlifting, wrestling, swimming, tennis and shooting.The Olympic programme has come a long way since then: some sports have beendiscontinued (e.g. polo and baseball); others were dropped and then reintroduced(e.g. archery and tennis), while several new sports have been added (e.g. triathlonand taekwondo).At the 2004 Games in Athens, the programme included the nine original sportsplus a further 19: rowing, badminton, baseball, basketball, boxing, canoe/kayak,equestrian sports, football, handball, hockey, judo, modern pentathlon, softball,taekwondo, table tennis, archery, triathlon, sailing and volleyball. This representeda total of 301 events!The two major sports on the programme of the Summer Games are athleticsand swimming. These are the most widely followed Olympic sports in the world.They also have the largest number of events and greatest number of participantsfrom different countries.Athletics consists of a wide range of events: jumping, throwing, and sprint,middle-distance and long-distance races. Some of these were performedat the ancient Olympic Games: foot races (varying distances), the javelin throw,the discus throw and the long jump.The first swimming competitions at the Olympic Games took place in the sea orin a river. Today competitions take place in a 50m swimming pool, usually indoors.The current programme includes the following disciplines: swimming (freestyle,breaststroke, backstroke and butterfly), water polo, diving and synchronisedswimming.1. OG London 2012, Swimming– Michael PHELPS (USA), 2012 / International OlympicCommittee (IOC) / FURLONG,Christopher2. OG Vancouver 2010, Menice-hockey – Game for thebronze medal, Finland (FIN)3rd – Slovakia (SLO) 2010 / International OlympicCommittee (IOC) / EVANS,JasonWinter Games sportsWinter sports made their Olympic debut at the Summer Games in Londonin 1908! Figure skating competitions were organised for men, women and pairs.The experience was repeated at the Antwerp Games in 1920, along with an icehockey tournament.It was in Chamonix in 1924 that winter sports finally got their own OlympicGames. Six sports were on the programme: bobsleigh, curling, ice hockey, figureand speed skating, skiing (cross-country and ski jumping) and the military patrolrace.Some sports were missing from the official programme for several editionsof the Games before being reintroduced. One example is skeleton, which featuredat the 1928 and 1948 Games in St Moritz, before returning to the programmefor the 2002 Games in Salt Lake City.2The number of sports at the Winter Games has remained relatively stable overthe years. At the Vancouver Games in 2010, there were seven sports – biathlon,bobsleigh, curling, ice hockey, luge, skating and skiing. However, the number The Olympic Museum

The Modern Olympic Games11Olympic sportsof events has increased considerably: in 2010, there were 86 on the programme!Of the 15 disciplines in the 2014 Olympic Winter Games in Sochi, only Nordiccombined is not yet open to women.1. OG Chamonix 1924,Figure skating. 1924/ International OlympicCommittee (IOC)The three main sports on the Winter Games programme are skating, skiingand ice hockey.Skating has the longest Olympic history, having figured for the first timeon the programme of the London Games in 1908. Women made their debutin figure skating at the Olympic Winter Games, but speed skating was not opento them until 1960. Held in the open air until 1956, the skating events now takeplace indoors.Skiing is the sport with the largest number of disciplines. Cross-country skiingis the oldest discipline and snowboarding is the newest one (1998 Gamesin Nagano, Japan). Alpine skiing appeared relatively late: it was on theprogramme of the 1936 Games, but it was not until the 1948 Games inSt Moritz (Switzerland) that a more complete programme for men and womenwas organised. In 1952, giant slalom was added to the programme. Introducedin 1988, the super-G is the newest Olympic Alpine skiing event.Ice hockey, like skating and skiing, is one of the sports that helped launchingthe Olympic Winter Games. Hockey is very popular and attracts large audiences.It is a spectacular sport in which the puck travels at speeds up to 180km/h.Demonstration sportsThanks to their popularity, the Games have provided a showcase for a numberof sports. These were known as demonstration sports, which featured asan addition to the Olympic programme until 1992, when this concept wasabandoned.› At the 1956 Games in Melbourne, there was Australian football, one of the nationalsports;› At the 1988 Games in Seoul, it was bowling, a sport unknown in the host country,Korea.› At the 1992 Games in Barcelona, it was Basque pelota, roller hockey andtaekwondo.There have been many different sports at the Winter Games. Some have beenfeatured as demonstration sports (e.g. skijoring, bandy, winter pentathlon andfreestyle skiing).1For more information about the Olympic sports, go to the IOC website(www.olympic.org/sports). The Olympic Museum

121. OG Beijing 2008. Athletics,100m Men – semi final, start. 2008 / International OlympicCommittee (IOC) / KISHIMOTO,Tsutomu1 The Olympic Museum

The Modern Olympic Games13Athletes at the Olympic GamesAthletes at the OlympicGamesThe challenge of the GamesThe prospect of being selected for the Olympic Games is the dream of the majorityof athletes. Enormous reserves of willpower and many years of dedicated trainingare required to achieve such a goal. The athletes that qualify for the Gamescan consider themselves as being among the world’s best. They will becomeOlympians, whether or not they win a medal.1. OG London 2012, OpeningCeremony, Athletes Paradeof the Costa Rica delegation. 2012 / International OlympicCommittee (IOC) / EVANS,Jason2. Olympic Review, July 1908,p. 110. (Extract from a speechgiven at the Olympic Gamesin London in 1908).3. Comments made on herathletics team’s website,27 November 2000.Taking part in the Games is what matters to the majority of the competitors:having the honour of representing their country and marching behind their flagat

The roots of the Olympic Games are to be found in Ancient Greece [see sheet “The Olympic Games in Antiquity”], and the first modern Games, in 1896, featured many references to this legacy of Greek Antiquity: › The Games were held in Athens, in Greece, the country where the ancient Games were held.