English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, Grammar And Punctuation

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English - Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuationEnglish Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar andpunctuationThe grammar of our first language is learnt naturally and implicitly through interactions withother speakers and from reading. Explicit knowledge of grammar is, however, veryimportant, as it gives us more conscious control and choice in our language. Building thisknowledge is best achieved through a focus on grammar within the teaching of reading,writing and speaking. Once pupils are familiar with a grammatical concept [for example‘modal verb’], they should be encouraged to apply and explore this concept in thegrammar of their own speech and writing and to note where it is used by others. Youngpupils, in particular, use more complex language in speech than in writing, and teachersshould build on this, aiming for a smooth transition to sophisticated writing.The table below focuses on Standard English and should be read in conjunction with theprogrammes of study as it sets out the statutory requirements. The table shows whenconcepts should be introduced first, not necessarily when they should be completelyunderstood. It is very important, therefore, that the content in earlier years be revisited insubsequent years to consolidate knowledge and build on pupils’ understanding. Teachersshould also go beyond the content set out here if they feel it is appropriate.The grammatical terms that pupils should learn are labelled as 'terminology for pupils'. Theyshould learn to recognise and use the terminology through discussion and practice. All termsin bold should be understood with the meanings set out in the Glossary.1

English - Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuationVocabulary, grammar and punctuation – Years 1 to 6Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement)WordRegular plural noun suffixes –s or –es [for example, dog, dogs; wish,wishes], including the effects of these suffixes on the meaning of thenounSuffixes that can be added to verbs where no change is needed in thespelling of root words (e.g. helping, helped, helper)How the prefix un– changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives[negation, for example, unkind, or undoing: untie the boat]SentenceHow words can combine to make sentencesJoining words and joining clauses using andTextSequencing sentences to form short narrativesPunctuationSeparation of words with spacesIntroduction to capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamationmarks to demarcate sentencesCapital letters for names and for the personal pronoun ITerminologyfor pupilsletter, capital letterword, singular, pluralsentencepunctuation, full stop, question mark, exclamation markYear 2: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement)WordFormation of nouns using suffixes such as –ness, –er and bycompounding [for example, whiteboard, superman]Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as –ful, –less(A fuller list of suffixes can be found in the year 2 spelling section inEnglish Appendix 1)Use of the suffixes –er, –est in adjectives and the use of –ly inStandard English to turn adjectives into adverbsSentenceSubordination (using when, if, that, because) and co-ordination (usingor, and, but)Expanded noun phrases for description and specification [for example,the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moon]How the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function asa statement, question, exclamation or command2

English - Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuationYear 2: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement)TextCorrect choice and consistent use of present tense and past tensethroughout writingUse of the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense tomark actions in progress [for example, she is drumming, he wasshouting]PunctuationUse of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marksto demarcate sentencesCommas to separate items in a listApostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to marksingular possession in nouns [for example, the girl’s name]Terminologyfor pupilsnoun, noun phrasestatement, question, exclamation, commandcompound, suffixadjective, adverb, verbtense (past, present)apostrophe, commaYear 3: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement)WordFormation of nouns using a range of prefixes [for example super–,anti–, auto–]Use of the forms a or an according to whether the next word beginswith a consonant or a vowel [for example, a rock, an open box]Word families based on common words, showing how words arerelated in form and meaning [for example, solve, solution, solver,dissolve, insoluble]SentenceExpressing time, place and cause using conjunctions [for example,when, before, after, while, so, because], adverbs [for example, then,next, soon, therefore], or prepositions [for example, before, after,during, in, because of]TextIntroduction to paragraphs as a way to group related materialHeadings and sub-headings to aid presentationUse of the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past [forexample, He has gone out to play contrasted with He went out to play]PunctuationIntroduction to inverted commas to punctuate direct speech3

English - Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuationYear 3: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement)Terminologyfor pupilspreposition, conjunctionword family, prefixclause, subordinate clausedirect speechconsonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letterinverted commas (or ‘speech marks’)Year 4: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement)WordThe grammatical difference between plural and possessive –sStandard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spokenforms [for example, we were instead of we was, or I did instead of Idone]SentenceNoun phrases expanded by the addition of modifying adjectives, nounsand preposition phrases (e.g. the teacher expanded to: the strict mathsteacher with curly hair)Fronted adverbials [for example, Later that day, I heard the bad news.]TextUse of paragraphs to organise ideas around a themeAppropriate choice of pronoun or noun within and across sentences toaid cohesion and avoid repetitionPunctuationUse of inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate directspeech [for example, a comma after the reporting clause; endpunctuation within inverted commas: The conductor shouted, “Sitdown!”]Apostrophes to mark plural possession [for example, the girl’s name,the girls’ names]Use of commas after fronted adverbialsTerminologyfor pupilsdeterminerpronoun, possessive pronounadverbial4

English - Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuationYear 5: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement)WordConverting nouns or adjectives into verbs using suffixes [for example,–ate; –ise; –ify]Verb prefixes [for example, dis–, de–, mis–, over– and re–]SentenceRelative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that,or an omitted relative pronounIndicating degrees of possibility using adverbs [for example, perhaps,surely] or modal verbs [for example, might, should, will, must]TextDevices to build cohesion within a paragraph [for example, then, afterthat, this, firstly]Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time [for example,later], place [for example, nearby] and number [for example, secondly]or tense choices [for example, he had seen her before]PunctuationBrackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesisUse of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguityTerminologyfor pupilsmodal verb, relative pronounrelative clauseparenthesis, bracket, dashcohesion, ambiguityYear 6: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement)WordThe difference between vocabulary typical of informal speech andvocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing [for example, findout – discover; ask for – request; go in – enter]How words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms [forexample, big, large, little].SentenceUse of the passive to affect the presentation of information in asentence [for example, I broke the window in the greenhouse versusThe window in the greenhouse was broken (by me)].The difference between structures typical of informal speech andstructures appropriate for formal speech and writing [for example, theuse of question tags: He’s your friend, isn’t he?, or the use ofsubjunctive forms such as If I were or Were they to come in some veryformal writing and speech]5

English - Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuationYear 6: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement)TextLinking ideas across paragraphs using a wider range of cohesivedevices: repetition of a word or phrase, grammatical connections [forexample, the use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast,or as a consequence], and ellipsisLayout devices [for example, headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets,or tables, to structure text]PunctuationUse of the semi-colon, colon and dash to mark the boundary betweenindependent clauses [for example, It’s raining; I’m fed up]Use of the colon to introduce a list and use of semi-colons within listsPunctuation of bullet points to list informationHow hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity [for example, man eatingshark versus man-eating shark, or recover versus re-cover]Terminologyfor pupilssubject, objectactive, passivesynonym, antonymellipsis, hyphen, colon, semi-colon, bullet points Crown copyright 2013You may re-use this information (excluding logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms ofthe Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit ence/ or email: [email protected]

English - Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation 1 English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation . The grammar of our first language is learnt naturally and implicitly through interactions with other speakers and from reading. Explicit knowledge of grammar is, however, very