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C O N T EN T SHOW TO OPERATERead Before UsingKey layout/Reset switch2Display patternDisplay format33Exponent display4Angular unit5Function and Key OperationO N /O FF, entry correction keys6Data entr y keys7Random key89Modify keyBasic arithmetic keys, parentheses10Percent11Inverse, square, cube, xth power of y,square root, cube root, xth root of y10 to the power of x, common logarithm1213e to the power of x, natural logarithm14Factorials15Permutations, combinations16T ime calculation17Fractional calculations18 Memory calculations19Last answer memor y20Trigonometric functions21Arc trigonometric functions22Hyperbolic functions23C oordinate conversionBinary, pental, octal, decimal, andhexadecimal operations (N -base)2425STATISTICS FUNCTIONData input and correction26“AN S” keys for 1-variable statistics27“AN S” keys for 2-variable statistics311

H ow to O pe ra te R ead B efore U sing T his operation guide has been written based on the EL-531W , EL-509W , and EL-531W Hmodels. Some functions described here are not featured on other models. In addition,key operations and symbols on the display may differ according to the model.1 . K E Y L AY O U T2nd function keyPressing this key will enable the functionswritten in orange above the calculatorbuttons.ON/C, OFF keyD irect function Power on 2nd function Power off W ritten in orange abovethe O N /C keyMode keyT his calculator can operate in three differentmodes as follows. Example 2. R E S E T S WIT C H[Normal mode] Mode 0; normal mode forperforming normal arithmeticand function calculations.[STAT-0 mode] Mode 1; STAT-0 mode forperforming 1-variable statistical calculations.[STAT-1–6 mode] Mode 1; STAT-1–6 modefor performing 2-variablestatistical calculations.W hen changing to the statistical sub-mode,press the corresponding number key afterperforming the operation to select the statisticsmode (press).(LIN E): Linear regression calculationRESETIf the calculator fails to operate normally,press the reset switch on the back toreinitialise the unit. T he display formatand calculation mode will return to theirinitial settings.(Q UAD): Q uadratic regression calculationN OT E:Pressing the reset switchwill erase any data storedin memory.Reset switch(EX P):Exponential regression calculation(LO G):Logarithmic regression calculation(PW R):Power regression calculation(IN V):Inverse regression calculationRESET2

3 . D I S P L AY P AT T E R NThe actual display does not appear like this.This illustration is for explanatory purposes only.4 . D I S P L A Y F O R M AT A N DDE C I MA L S E T T I N G F U N C T I ONFor convenient and easy operation, this model can be used in one of four display modes.T he selected display status is shown in the upper part of the display (Format Indicator).N ote: If more 0’s (zeros) than needed are displayed when the O N /C key is pressed, checkwhether or not the calculator is set to a Special Display Format. Floating decimal point format (no symbol is displayed)Valid values beyond the maximum range are displayed in the form of a [10-digit(mantissa) 2-digit (exponent)] Fixed decimal point format (FIX is displayed)Displays the fractional part of the calculation result according to the specifiednumber of decimal places. Scientific notation (SC I is displayed)Frequently used in science to handle extremely small or large numbers. Engineering scientific notation (EN G is displayed)C onvenient for converting between different units. Example Let’s compare the display result of[10000 8. 1 ] in each display format.Initial display(specifies normal mode)N ote: T he calculator has two settings for displaying afloating point number: N O RM1 (default setting) andN O RM2. In each display setting, a number isautomatically displayed in scientific notation outside apreset range: N O RM1: 0.000000001 x 9999999999 N O RM2: 0.01 x 999999999910000DEGDEG8.1(normal mode)FIX3DEG(FIX mode TAB 3)

SCIDEGX10(SC I mode)ENGDEGX10(EN G mode)DEG(normal mode)5 . E X P O N E N T DI S P L AYT he distance from the earth to the sun is approx. 150,000,000 (1.5 x 108) km. Valuessuch as this with many zeros are often used in scientific calculations, but entering thezeros one by one is a great deal of work and it’s easy to make mistakes.In such a case, the numerical values are divided into mantissa and exponent portions,displayed and calculated. Example W hat is the number of electronics flowing in a conductor whenthe electrical charge across a given cross-section is 0.32 coulombs. (T he charge on a single electron 1.6 x 10-19 coulombs).DEG0.321.6DEG19X10DEGX104

6. ANGUL AR UNITAngular values are converted from DEG to RAD to GRAD with each push of the DRGkey. T his function is used when doing calculations related to trigonometric functions orcoordinate geometry conversions.D egrees ( D E G is shown at the top of the display)A commonly used unit of measure for angles. T he angular measure of a circleis expressed as 360 .R adians ( R A D is shown at the top of the display)Radians are different than degrees and express angles based on the circumference of a circle. 180 is equivalent to π radians. T herefore, the angular measure of a circle is 2π radians.G r ads ( G R A D is shown at the top of the display)Grads are a unit of angular measure used in Europe, particularly in France. Anangle of 90 degrees is equivalent to 100 grads.T he relationships between the three typesof angular units can be expressed as right:90 (DEG) π/2 (RAD) 100 (GRAD) π2 Example C heck to confirm 90 degrees equaling π/2 radiansequaling 100 grads. (π 3.14159.)Angular indicatorO per ationD isplayDEG (in DEG mode)RAD90( π/2)GRADDEG5

F unction and K ey Operation ON/OFF, EntryCorrection KeysTurns the calculator on or clears the data. It also clears the contents of thecalculator display and voids any calculator command; however, coefficients in 3-variable linear equations and statistics, as well as values storedin the independent memor y in normal mode, are not erased.Turns the calculator off.C lears all internal values, including coefficients in 3-variable linear equations andstatistics.Values stored in memory in normal mode are not erased.T hese arrow keys are useful for Multi-Line playback, which lets youscroll through calculation steps one by one. (refer to page 8)T hese keys are useful for editing equations. T hekey moves thecursor to the left, and thekey moves the cursor to the right. T hekey deletes the symbol/number at the cursor.key inserts the symbol/number at the cursor.6

Data Entry Keys0 to 9N umeric keys for entering data values.D ecimal point key. Enters a decimal point.Enters minus symbol or sign change key.C hanges positive numbers to negative and negative numbers to positive.Pressing π automatically enters the value for π (3.14159.).T he constant π, used frequently in function calculations, is the ratio of thecircumference of a circle to its diameter.Pressing this key switches to scientific notation data entry. Example Provided the earth is moving around the sun in a circular orbit,how many kilometers will it travel in a year?* T he average distance between the earth and the sun being1.496 x 108 km.C ircumference equals diameter x π; therefore,1.496 x 108 x 2 x πO per ation4961D isplay8DEGX10DEG27

RandomGenerates random numbers.Random numbers are three-decimal-place values between 0.000 and 0.999. Using thisfunction enables the user to obtain unbiased sampling data derived from randomvalues generated by the calculator. Example 0. * * *(A random number has been generated. )[ R andom D ice]T o simulate a die-rolling, a random integer between 1 and 6 can be generated bypressing. T o generate the next random dice number, press.[ R andom C oin]T o simulate a coin flip, 0 (heads) or 1 (tails) can be randomly generated by pressing. T o generate the next random coin number, press.[ R andom Integer ]An integer between 0 and 99 can be generated randomly by pressingT o generate the next random integer, press.A P P L IC AT IO N S :Building sample sets for statistics or research.8.

ModifyFunction to round calculation results.Even after setting the number of decimal places on the display, the calculator performs calculations using a larger number of decimal places than that which appearson the display. By using this function, internal calculations will be performed usingonly the displayed value. Example FIX mode TAB 1 (normal calculation)590.695.0(internally, 0 . 5 5 5 5 . . . )Rounded calculation (MDF)590.6(internally, 0 . 5 5 5 5 . . . )(internally, 0 . 6 )95.4A P P L IC AT IO N S :Frequently used in scientific and technical fields, as well as business,when performing chained calculations.9

Basic ArithmeticKeys, ParenthesesT he four basic operators. Each is used in the same way as a standardcalculator: (addition), – (subtraction), x (multiplication), and (division).Finds the result in the same way as a standar d calculator.Used to specify calculations in which certain operations have precedence.You can make addition and subtraction operations have precedence overmultiplication and division by enclosing them in parentheses.10

PercentFor calculating percentages. Four methods of calculating percentagesare presented as follows.1) 125 increased by 10% 137.5125DEG102) 125 reduced by 20% 100125DEG203) 15% of 125 18.75125DEG154) W hen 125 equals 5% of X , X equals 2500125DEG511

Inverse, Square, Cube,xth Power of y, Square Root,Cube Root, xth Root of yC alculates the inverse of the value on the display.Squares the value on the display.C ubes the value on the display.C alculates exponential values.C alculates the square root of the value on the display.C alculates the cube root of the value on the display.C alculates the xth root of y. Example O per ation22224D isplay241612DEGDEGDEG

10 to the Power of x,Common LogarithmC alculates the value of 10 raised to the xth power.C alculates logarithm, the exponent of the power to which 10 must beraised to equal the given value. Example D isplayO per ationDEG3DEG100013

e to the Power of x,Natural LogarithmC alculates powers based on the constant e (2.718281828).C omputes the value of the natural logarithm, the exponent of the powerto which e must be raised to equal the given value. Example O per ationD isplay5DEGDEG1014

FactorialsT he product of a given positive integer n multiplied by all the lesser positiveintegers from 1 to n-1 is indicated by n! and called the factorial of n. Example O per ationD isplayDEG7c.fn! 1 x 2 x 3 x xnA P P L IC AT IO N S :Used in statistics and mathematics. In statistics, this function is usedin calculations involving combinations and permutations.15

Permutations, CombinationsT his function finds the number of different possible orderings in selectingr objects from a set of n objects. For example, there are six differentways of ordering the letters ABC in groups of three letters—ABC , AC B,BAC , BC A, C AB, and C BA.T he calculation equation is 3P3 3 x 2 x 1 6 (ways).T his function finds the number of ways of selecting r objects from a set ofn objects. For example, from the three letters ABC , there are three wayswe can extract groups of two different letters—AB, AC , and C B.T he calculation equation is 3C 2. Example 66O per ationD isplayDEG4DEG4A P P L IC AT IO N S:Used in statistics (probability calculations) and in simulation hypotheses in fields such as medicine, phar maceutics, and physics. Also,can be used to determine the chances of winning in lotteries.16

Time CalculationC onver ts a sexagesimal value displayed in degrees, minutes, seconds todecimal notation. Also, conver ts a decimal value to sexagesimalnotataion (degrees, minutes, seconds).Inputs values in sexagesimal notation (degrees, minutes, seconds). Example C onver t 24 28’ 35” (24 degr ees, 28 minutes, 35 seconds) to decimal notation. T hen conver t 24.476 tosexagesimal notation.O per ation2428D isplay35DEGDEGC onvert to decimal notationDEGRepeat last key operation to return to the previous display.A P P L IC AT IO N S:Used in calculations of angles and angular velocity in physics, andlatitude and longitude in geography.17

Fractional CalculationsInputs fractions and converts mutually between fractions and decimals.C onverts between mixed numbers and improper fractions.15 Example Add 3 2 and 7 , and convert to decimal notation.O per ation3D isplay1257DEGDEGC onvert to decimal notationPress once to return to the previous displayDEGC onvert to an improper fractionPress once to return to the previous displayDEGA P P L IC AT IO N S :T here is a wide variety of applications for this function becausefractions are such a basic par t of mathematics. T his function is usefulfor calculations involving electrical circuit resistance.18

Memory Calculations Stores displayed values in memories A F, X ,Y, M.Recalls values stored in A F, X , Y, M.Adds the displayed value to the value in the independent memor y M.Subtracts the displayed value from the value in the independent memory M.Temporary memories Independent memory Example 1 O per ationD isplayDEG0(Enter 0 for M)2527DEGM73DEGMDEG Example 2 C alculates / at the designated exchange rate. 1 110 26,510 ? 2,750 ?O per ationD isplay110110 Y2651026510 ÖY 27502750 xY 19DEGDEGDEGM

Last Answer MemoryAutomatically recalls the last answer calculated by pressing Example Solve for x first and then solve for y using x.x 2 3O per ation2andy 4 xD isplayDEG3DEG420

Trigonometric FunctionsT rigonometric functions determine the ratio of three sidesof a right triangle. T he combinations of the three sides aresin, cos, and tan. T heir relations are:abθC alculates the sine of an angle.bsin θ aC alculates the cosine of an angle.ccos θ aC alculates the tangent of an angle.btan θ cc Example T he angle from a point 15 meters froma building to the highest floor of thebuilding is 45 . How tall is the building?[DEG mode]O per ationD isplay451515DEGView pointA P P L IC AT IO N S :Trigonometric functions are useful in mathematics and various engineeringcalculations. T hey are often used in astronomical obser vations, civil engineering and in calculations involving electrical circuits, as well as in calculations for physics such as parabolic motion and wave motion.21

Arc Trigonometric FunctionsArc trigonometric functions, the inverse of trigonometric functions, are used to determine an angle from ratiosof a right triangle. T he combinations of the three sidesare sin-1, cos-1, and tan-1. T heir relations are;abθcb(arc sine) D etermines an angle based on the ratiob/a of two sides of a right triangle.θ sin -1 a(arc cosine) D etermines an angle based on the ratioc/a for two sides of a right triangle.θ cos-1 a(arc tangent) D etermines an angle based on theratio a/b for two sides of a right triangle.θ tan-1 ccb Example At what angle should an airplane climb in orderto climb 80 meters in 100 meters?[DEG mode]O per ationD isplayDEG8010022

Hyperbolic FunctionsT he hyperbolic function is defined by using natural exponents in trigonometric functions.Arc hyperbolic functions are defined by using natural logarithms in trigonometric functions.A P P L IC AT IO N S :Hyperbolic and arc hyperbolic functions are ver y useful in electricalengineer ing and physics.23

Coordinate ConversionC onverts rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates (x, y r, θ)C onverts polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates (r, θ x, y)Splits data used for dual-variable data input. y or r θ)Displays r, θ and x, y. (Cx yyRectangular coordinatesP (r,θ)P (x,y)yorxxPolar coordinatesoθx Example Determine the polar coordinates (r, θ) when the rectangular coordinates of Point P are (x 7, y 3).[ D E G m ode]O per ation7D isplayDEG3DEG23.27.6DEGDEGA P P L IC AT IO N S :C oordinate conversion is often used in mathematics and engineering, especially for impedance calculations in electronics and electrical engineering.24

Binary, Pental, Octal,Decimal, and HexadecimalOperations (N-Base)T his calculator can perform conversions between numbers expressed in binary, pental,octal, decimal, and hexadecimal systems. It can also perform the four basic arithmeticoperations, calculations with parentheses and memory calculations using binary, pental,octal, decimal, and hexadecimal numbers. In addition, the calculator can carry out thelogical operations AN D, O R, N O T , N EG, X O R, and X N O R on binary, pental, octal, andhexadecimal numbers.C onverts to the binary system. "b" appears.C onverts to the pental system. "P" appears.C onverts to the octal system. "o" appears.C onverts to the hexadecimal system. "H" appears.C onverts to the decimal system. "b", "P", "o", and "H" disappear from the display.C onversion is performed on the displayed value when these keys are pressed. Example 1 HEX(1AC) BIN PEN OCT DECO per ationD isplayDEG1AC1AC BINDEGDEG110101100 PE3203 OCT654 DEC Example 2 DEGDEG1011 AND 101 (BIN) DECO per ationD isplay10111011ANDDEGDEG1011AND101 1011 DEC25DEG

Statistics FunctionT he statistics function is excellent for analyzing qualities of an event. T hough primarilyused for engineering and mathematics, the function is also applied to nearly all otherfields including economics and medicine.D AT A I N P U T A N D C O R R E C T I O NEnters data for statistical calculations.C lears data input.Splits data used for dual-variable data input.(Used for dual-variable statistical calculations.) Example 1 Here is a table of examination results. Input this datafor analysis.D ata table 1N o.S coreN o. of pupils13022404350546075701268010O per ation790881002D isplayStat 0DEGSTATDEGSTATDEGSTATSelect single-variable statistics mode30DATA SET 2.1002ScoreN umber of pupilsDATA SET 26

“ A N S ” K E Y S F O R 1 -V A R I A B L E S T AT I S T I C SC alculates the average value of the data (sample data x).C alculates the standard deviation for the data (sample data x).C alculates the standard deviation of a data population (sample data x).Displays the number of input data (sample data x).C alculates the sum of the data (sample data x).C alculates the sum of the data (sample data x) raised to the second power.N OT E :1. Sample data refers to data selected randomly from the population.2. Standard deviation of samples is determined by the sample datashift from an average value.3. Standard deviation for the population is standard deviation whenthe sample data is deemed a population (full data).Let’s check the results based on the previous data.69 (average value)17.75686128 (standard deviation)17.57839583 (standard deviation of the population)50 (total count of data)3450 (total)27

DA T A C OR R E C T I ONC orrection prior to pressingimmediately after a data entry: Delete incorrectdata with, then enter the correct data.C orrection after pressing:Useto display the data previously entered.Pressto display data items in ascending (oldest first) order. T oreverse the display order to descending (latest first), press thekey.Each item is displayed with 'X n ', 'Yn ', or 'N n ' (n is the sequentialnumber of the data set).Display the data item to modify, input the correct value, then press.Using , you can correct the values of the data set all at once. W hen or appears, more data items can be browsed by pressingor. T o delete a data set, display an item of the data set to delete, thenpress. T he data set will be deleted. T o add a new data set, pressand input the values, then press. Example 2 D ata table 2X: 30, 40, 40, 50X: 30, 45, 45, 45, 60O per ationD isplayStat 0DEGSTATDEGSTATDEGSTATDEGSTATSelect single-variable statistics mode3040DATA SET 2DATA SET 50DATA SET 28

O per ationD isplayX2 453X2 N2 60X3 DEGSTATDEGSTATDEGSTATDEGSTATA P P L IC A T IO N S :Single-variable statistical calculations are used in a broad range of fields,including engineering, business, and economics. T hey a

Turns the calculator on or clears the data. It also clears the contents of the calculator display and voids any calculator command; however, coeffi-cients in 3-variable linear equations and statistics, as well as values stored in the independent memory in normal mode, are not erased. Turns the calculator off.