8. History of Computers: FromAbacus to Smart-phonesAim: In this lesson, you will learn:Various devices that have been used for computations in the past.Major milestones in development of modern day computersDevelopment of Internet, browser and other Internet based applications, games and Linux.Jyoti and Tejas have brought things like abacus,some pictures of old computers, a handmadeslide rule, a cloth with nice designs, somenotes written on sheets of paper. Others arelooking on and wondering, how these articlesare related to history of computers.Jyoti: We have gathered history of computersright from 3rd century B.C. It is very interestingto find, what they did when there were nocomputers.i. Information gatheringMoz: We have been using the computers forthe past 40 years. But the origin of the concepts, algorithms and the developments in computationsdate back to the very early cultures.Tejas: In very early days that is in B.C, when there were no computational devices, people usedpebbles, bones and the fingers of hands to count and calculate.Jyoti: They even used ropes and shapes for some measurements. For example: For assuring a rightangle, people used 3-4-5 right triangle shape or a rope with 12 evenly spaced knots, which couldbe formed into a 3-4-5 right triangle.Use of counters to aid calculations: 3rd - 6th century B.CRequirement of simple calculations were done in innovative ways with stones, pebbles and theyeven used bones. These were called counters. We can find many versions of the abacus now withmore complicated calculation abilities.Abacus – 6th century B. CCalculation using fingersSieve of Eratosthenes: Finding primenumbers in 3rd century B.CComputing Squares and sums by arranging counters90i. The first step for gathering information is to list what you know, what you do not know. Next, gather, consolidate, analyse and organisethe gathered information.
Tejas: Many such algorithms were developed around the world by early mathematicians like Panini,Euclid, Leibniz and others.Jyoti: Yes. By the middle of 16th century explorations of various continents and trading brought inthe requirements of precise calculations of sea routes, accounting, etc. Some mechanical deviceswere also developed to assist in tedious and repetitive calculations like generating calendars of ayear, taxing, trading.Tejas: The first computers were people. This was a job title given to people who did repetitivecalculations for navigational tables, planetary positions and other such requirements.Jyoti: Mostly women with mathematical proficiency were employed for the job.Simple devices to aid human calculations- 16th centuryExplorations of various continents and trading brought in the requirements of precise calculationsof sea routes, accounting, planetary positions, and navigational tables- 16th century.Napier bones- Numbers 0 to 9 were markedon a set of ivory sticks in such a way thatthe product of any number can be foundby placing the sticks side by side.The Slide rule was used for landing man onthe Moon. This was used by NASA engineersin 1960s for Apollo mission also.Devices with gears and flutes for calculations- 16th-17th centurySchikard’s calculatingclock with gearsPascaline built by Pascal for hisfather who was a tax collector.Stepped reckoner byLeibniz using flutes.Tejas: I am sure they must have needed a lot of calculations, to build pyramids and Taj Mahal,to weave the designs for the beautiful old tapesty that we see in many places and also when theywanted to travel from one place to another.Moz: Good observations. So they started inventing devices for precise calculations and automationof certain tasks. One of the important automation which is the Jaquard loom is important in thecomputer history.91
Automation with punched cards 18th-19th centuryTrade, travel, and increase in population (which demanded increase in requirements like clothing,food etc.), led to automation of machinery in 18th-19th century.Jyoti: The Jacquard loom invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard usedpunched cards to control a sequence of operations. A pattern ofthe loom’s weave could be changed by changing the punchedcard.Moz: Why do you think Jacquard looms are important?Tejas: In Scratch programming, the computer takes the blocksone by one and executes them. The loom too weaves line by linein a sequence the design on the punched card.Jyoti: In computers we use some input device like keyboard toinput data. The punched card is like an input to the loom.Moz: Yes. You are right. Babbage used the punched card idea, tostore data in his analytical machine.Tejas: Boolean algebra which is extensively used in computerswas also developed in 19th century by the mathematician GeorgeBoole.Moz: Yes. This is one of the most important concepts in computers. You will be learning aboutthese constructs of programming soon. Note that the 19th century contributions of automatingand the development of algorithm are of immense value to the development of electroniccomputers in the next century.Mechanical computation machines- 19th centuryDevelopments in logic and need for more complicated calculations led to mechanical computationdevices which were designed and implemented for varied degree of computations. But,accuracy, speed and precision could not be ensured due to the wear and tear of the mechanicalcomponents.Mechanical computation machines- Earlier 19th centuryInfoBabbage- The Analytical MachineThe anlaytical machine was designed but not built. The main parts of hismachine were called the “store” and “mill”. Punched card store data, whichis equivalent to the memory unit in computers. Mill weaves or processesthe data to give a result, which is equivalent to the central processing unitin computers. He used conditional processing of data. Example: If block inScratch.ADA lovelace- The first programmerADA lovelace, a friend of Babbage wrote the first sequence of instructionsfor various tasks for the analytical engine. Used programming concept oflooping for repetitive actions. Example: repeat block in Scratch. She usedsubroutines in her programs.Hollerith deskIt consisted of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards, a gear driven mechanismwhich could count and a large wall of dial indicators to display the results of the count.For example: a car speedometer is a dial indicator. This was used for U.S census 1890.Tejas: Early 20th century saw many analog computers which were mechanical or electrical orelectro mechanical devices.92
Jyoti: These were for limited purpose like solving some mathematical equations, decoding messages,or for tables of firing artillery in world war II.Moz: Yes. These computers were based on binary representation of data and boolean algebra.Analog computers- First general purpose computers- first half of 1900-1940The war time requirements for artillery firing, communication of strategies using complicatedcodes led to electromechanical computers where magnetic storage and vacuum tubes were firstused. Babbage’s punched card was used to input data.Mechanical computation machines - 19th century1936- Alan Turing regarded to be the father of modern Computer Science provided aformalisation for the concept of algorithm and computations.1941- Konrad Zuse inventor of the program-controlled computer, built the first workingcomputer. This computer was based on magnetic storage.Info1942- Atanasoff-Berry computer which used vacuum tube, binary numbers, was nonprogrammable.1943- Colossus a secret British computer with limited programmability built using vaccumtubes, was built to break the German wartime codes. It was the first computer to read anddecipher the codes using cryptography.1944- Harvard Mark I an electromechanical computer built out of switches, relays,rotating shafts, and clutches had limited programmability. It used punched paper tapeinstead of the punched cards. It worked for almost 15 years. Grace Hopper was theprimary programmer. She invented the first high level language called Flow-Matic whichlater developed into COBOL. She also constructed the first compiler. She found the firstcomputer “bug”: a dead moth that got into the Mark I and whose wings were blocking thereading of the holes in the paper tape. The word “bug” had been used to describe a defectsince at least 1889 but Hopper is credited with coining the word “debugging” to describethe work to eliminate program faults.Jyoti: Next there was something called the “Stored program architecture” of Von Neumann in1945. With this architecture rewiring was not required to change a program.Moz: Yes. The program and data was stored in memory and instructions were processed one afterthe other.Tejas: The input was typed on a terminal which looks like a monitor with keyboard in the front oron cards. Each instruction was typed on one card and the deck of cards was read by a card readerand stored in memory.Moz: Yes. And those who submitted the program had to wait till their program was processed andoutput printed and given to them.Jyoti: If they had to change the program, they have to type in another card and insert in the deckof cards.Digital computers- 1940 to 1970Census, elections, research in various fields and many more such advances in every field requiredincreased speed, precision, immediate results. Stored program digital computer architecture wasdesigned with CPU, memory to hold instructions and data around 1946.93
These computers were built using vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated circuits which are classifiedinto the first three generations of computers. The classification of generations has been donebased on technology, speed, storage, reliability and cost.Computation machines- Second half of 19th centuryInfoFirst generation computersThese computers were named Eniac, Edvac, and Univac. These computers were made ofvaccum tubes way back in 1945-55. They were huge in size and very costly to maintain.Second generation computersThese computers developed after 1955, had transistors in the place of vaccum tubes.Trasistors were more reliable, much cheaper and smaller. This generation had morecomputing power, were smaller in size, easier to maintain and were more affordable thanthe previous generation.Third generation computersThese computers developed in the 1960’s, used integrated circuits. The trasistors wereminiaturised and kept on silicon chips called the semiconductors which drastically increasedthe speed and efficiency of computers.Jyoti: Microprocessor revolution brought in the explosion of usage of computers in every field.Tejas: The size of computers started decreasing and the speed started increasing.Jyoti: The storage space also started increasing.Tejas: Most importantly the reliability of computers increased and the cost started decreasing.Moz: Yes. Invention of microprocessors revolutionised the computer development and due to thereduction of cost, by 1990 students could own a personal computer.Computers with Microprocessors- 1970 onwardsUse of microprocessors in computers increased reliability, precision and reduced size and cost.This led to uses of computers in offices, colleges, personal use and exploration of computer usagein every field.Computation machines- After 1970’sInfoFourth generation computersThese were developed in the 1970’s and used microprocessors or chips. Themicroprocessors were smaller than a postage stamp and had tremendous computingcapabilities.Fifth generation computersThese were developed in 1980’s and used the concept of Artificial intelligence. Thedifferent types of fifth generation computers are Desktop, notebook or laptop, palmtop,server, Mainframe and Super Computer. 94Desktop computers are based on IC’s.Notebook or laptop computer is same as desktop but can be carried around.Palmtop is a miniature version of notebook with limited capabilities.Server is a powerful version of desktop capable of catering to various applications ina network environment.Mainframe is a powerful version of server and is capable of handling huge applicationsand data processing.Super computer has multiprocessors to perform typical scientific applications that needtrillions of information per second while processing.
Jyoti: Computer are also being used in many devices like the phones, household machines likewashing machines.Tejas: These are very small computers which cannot be programmed but are meant to help in theoperation of these devices.Moz: These are called embedded devices.Late 20th century - Networking, Smart phones and FOSSTejas: We have also collected some information about the history of networking and relatedtechnologies that revolutionized many aspects of our daily life like communication, buying tickets,banking, information and much more.NetworkingNetworkingInfoInternetOn the evening of October 29, 1969 the first data travelled between twonodes of the ARPANET, a key ancestor of the Internet. The men whosymbolically turned the key on the connected world we know today weretwo young programmers, Charley Kline at UCLA and Bill Duvall at SRI inNorthern California, using special equipment made by BBN in Cambridge,Massachusetts.In 1977 Cerf and Kahn successfully linked three networks in a dramaticround-the-world transmission from a cruising van. The Internet was born.Inventing the 1.At the world’s biggest physics laboratory, CERN in Switzerland, EnglishWeb2 major programmer and physicist Tim Berners-Lee created “WorldWideWeb” onmilestonesan advanced NeXT computer in 1990. It featured a server, HTML, URLs,and the first browser. This browser also functioned as an editor, like a wordprocessor connected to the Internet – which reflected his original visionthat the Web also incorporate authoring and personal organization tools.2.The world’s first popular browser one of the first graphical web browsersAndreesen’s Mosaic (later Netscape)– led to an explosion in web use in1993, made the World Wide Web system easy to use and more accessibleto the average person and sparked the internet boom of the 1990s.Web1994 – Netscape navigatorbrowsers1995 Microsoft released it’s Internet Explorer1996 Opera focused on mobile phone web browsers and was preinstalledon over 40 million phones. It is also available on embedded systems andNintendo’s In WII games console.1998 Netscape launched Mozilla foundation to provide a competitive opensource web browser which has led to the current firefox.2003 Apple’s safari was released2009 Google’s ChromeSearchEarly search engines: 1990 Archie, 1991 Veronica and Jughead 1992 Vlibengines(Berners and Lee), 1993 Excite (Stanford undergrads), Aliweb (MartijnKorster).Some of the popular search engines: 1994 Altavista, Yahoo, webcrawler;1996 Google, Hotbot, Ask jeeves; 1998 MSN.Many more came in later. Some of the latest additions are as follows:2009-2010 Cuil (Managed by previous google employees), Bing (Msn’slive search).95
Services on 72 Ray Tomlinson who worked as an ARPANET contractor is creditedwith inventing email in 1972. He picked the @ symbol from the computerkeyboard to denote sending messages from one computer to another([email protected]). Current count of emailusers internationationally is more than 600 million.1990 Ericsson company initiated video conferencing services whichwas adopted initially by business firms all over the world.1988 Internet Relay Chat was introduced and it did not take long tobecome popular. Soon, other varieties of chat like voice and video chatevolved.1960 E-commerce services (buying and selling of products) evolvedfrom the development of EDI or Electronic Data Exchange technology.Jyoti: The other most important part of the computer technology is Open source. It is interesting tonote that professionals and hobbyists improve on the Open source operating systems, applicationsand information. We too can contribute content on internet.InfoLinux (Open source operating system):Torvald released his Linux operating system in 1994. A global community of professionalsand hobbyists has continually improved it. Academicians, corporations, businesses,governments and many more users have adopted it.Later on many flavors of linux evolved a few of which are Suse, Fedora, Ubuntu, android formobiles.Tejas: Games on computers also has interesting history.GamesInfo1952: Tic-Tac-ToeDonald Davies a computer researcher designed a machine toplay Naughts and crosses or Tic-Tac-Toe. Davies later becamean important pioneer in artificial intelligence (AI) which is usedin designing games.1958: Tennis for Two William Higinbotham created the first video game called “Tennisfor Two,” which was created and played on a BrookhavenNational Laboratory oscilloscope.1962: SpaceWarSteve Russell invented the first computer game SpaceWar on aMIT PDP-1 Mainframe computer. Interactive personal computingstarted after this invention as it ignited interest in programmingon college campuses, pushed the limits of technologyTejas: Currently (2011) we have very advanced smart phones which have many features availableon a computer. For example we can browse internet, check email, play games. Smart phones oftoday date back to 1992.96
InfoSmart phones1992: The first smartphone IBM Simon was designed in 1992 and released in 1993. It alsocontained a calendar, address book, world clock, calculator, note pad, e-mail client, theability to send and receive faxes and games. It had no physical buttons, instead customersused a touchscreen to select telephone numbers with a finger or create facsimiles andmemos with an optional stylus. Text was entered with a unique on-screen “predictive” (asone types the words are predicted an d select the word) keyboard.Moz: Good. You have covered the history of computers from Abacus to Smartphones.Jyoti: We enjoyed reading about the history of computers and collecting important informationfor the presentation.Moz: History teaches you not only how things were made but also how you can innovate andinvent. Chin Chinaki.InternetLearning OutcomeAt the end of the lesson, you will beable to: List major milestones in thedevelopment of modern daycomputers and Internet. List names of person responsiblefor development of computer andrelated technologies97
Level VIIWORKSHEETSLesson 81. Given are some of the devices used for calculation. Can you arrange them in sequence ofwhich appeared first?PalmtopAbacusEniacPebblesNapier bonesPunched card readerDesktopLaptopPascTejasne2. Explain the factors which resulted in the inventions of devices like Napier bones, slide rulein the 16th century.3. Pick the right options.I. Which one is not true about the fifth generation computers?a. These are cheaper.b. They are compact.c. They are reliable.d. They use transistors.II. Which are the features of embedded devices?i. They are used in phones and washing machines.ii. They can control multiple devices.iii. They are small.iv. User can do programming with them.a. Both i & iib. Both i & iiic. Both ii & ivd. Both iii & iv4. List some advantages of fifth generation computers compared to the other generationcomputers.98
Level VIIWORKSHEETSLesson 85. Here is a picture which tells about the history of computers from mid twentieth century.Study the picture and answer the following questions.1945-55fromEDVAC,ENIAC,UNIVACHuge rs from themid 20th centuryusedfromFifthgenerationare categorised intofollowed byfollowed bySecondgenerationsucceedeVacuum eesucusedIncreased speedand efficiencyused1970usedConcept of ArtificialIntelligenceexampleshadDesktop, Palmtop,Laptop, Mainframe,SupercomputerHigh uitsa. From the figure can you tell which was the technology used in the first, second, third, fourth andfifth generation computers?b. Name two first generation computers.c. Which invention resulted in
Computers with Microprocessors- 1970 onwards Use of microprocessors in computers increased reliability, precision and reduced size and cost. This led to uses of computers in offices, colleges, personal use and exploration of computer usage in every field. First generation computers These computers were named Eniac, Edvac, and Univac.