Fire Detection And Alarm System Basics

1y ago
68 Views
3 Downloads
7.32 MB
86 Pages
Last View : 7d ago
Last Download : 3m ago
Upload by : Isobel Thacker
Transcription

Fire Detection and AlarmSystem BasicsHochiki America Corporation7051 Village Drive, Suite 100Buena Park, California 90621www.hochiki.com

Fire Alarm Circuit Classes2007 NFPA 72, 6.4.2.1 Class. Initiating device circuits, notification appliancecircuits, and signaling line circuits shall be permitted to be designated as eitherClass A or Class B, depending on their performance during nonsimultaneoussingle circuit fault conditions as specified by the following:(1) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that transmit an alarm orsupervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that allow all connecteddevices to operate during a single open or a nonsimultaneous single groundfault on any circuit conductor, shall be designated as Class A(2) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that do not transmit analarm or supervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that do not allowall connected devices to operate beyond the location of a single open on anycircuit conductor, shall be designated as Class B2007 NFPA 72, 6.4.2.2. An open or ground fault condition shall result in theannunciation of a trouble signal at the protected premise within 200 seconds asrequired in 4.4.7

Class B CircuitsClass B Initiating Device Circuit4.7KEOLRClass B Notification Appliance Circuit4.7KEOLREnd of line supervision resistorsare required to supervise theintegrity of the loop.

Class B CircuitsClass B Initiating Device Circuit4.7KEOLR4.7KEOLRClass B Notification Appliance CircuitSingle open circuit condition causes atrouble on the panel and renders alldevices beyond the fault inoperative.

Class A CircuitsClass A Initiating Device CircuitClass A Notification Appliance CircuitEnd of line supervision resistors are notnecessary as the loop returns to thepanel and is driven from both ends.

Class A CircuitsClass A Initiating Device CircuitClass A Notification Appliance CircuitSingle open circuit condition causes atrouble on the panel. All devices on theloop remain operative.

Additional Fire Alarm TerminologyAddressable Device - A fire alarm system component with discreet identification that canhave its status individually identified or that is used to individually control other functions.Analog Addressable Sensor - An initiating device that transmits a signal indicating varyingdegrees of condition as contrasted with a conventional or addressable initiating device, whichcan only indicate an off/on condition.Signaling Line Circuit (SLC) - A circuit or path between any combination of circuit interfaces,control units, or transmitters over which multiple system input signals or out put signals orboth are carried.SLC Interface - A system component that connects a signaling line circuit to anycombination of initiating devices, initiating device circuits, notification appliances,notification appliance circuits, system control outputs and other signaling linecircuits.Protocol - A language for communicating between control panels and their proprietary devices.

Comparing System TypesTo better understand today’s newer technology, a firm understanding of the types of systemsavailable is necessary. The three most popular types of systems installed today are: Conventional Addressable Analog AddressableConventional Systems Conventional control panels range in size from 1 zoneto over 100 zones.Zones typically consist of some or all of the initiatingdevices in an area or floor of a building.Some control panels zone capacity is expandablewhile others are not, limiting its usefulness if a facilityadds additional buildings or rooms.

Conventional SystemsZone 14.7KEOLRZone T KNIGHTNAC 1SILENT KNIGHTSILENT KNIGHTSILENT KNIGHTSILENT KNIGHT4.7KEOLRMultiple devices are combinedinto a single zone. Zones cancontain 30 or more devices.

Conventional SystemsZone 14.7KEOLRZone 2FIREFIRESILENT KNIGHTNAC 14.7KEOLRCare must be taken when layingout zones to comply with coderequirements.

Zone Considerations 2007 NFPA 72 6.8.5.5.2 Limits the number of waterflowswitches in a single zone to 5. 2007 NFPA 72 6.8.5.6.2 Limits the number ofsupervisory devices in a single zone to 20. 2007 NFPA 72 Annex A.4.4.6.6 Suggests that themaximum number of square feet in a single zone belimited to no more than 22,500.

Conventional SystemsZone #14.7KEOLRZone #2NAC #14.7KEOLRWiring must be installed in asupervised manner either Class A,or Class B with an EOLR.

Conventional SystemsZone #14.7KEOLRZone #2FIRE!NAC #14.7KEOLRAlarm conditions are annunciatedby zone only. Inspection isrequired to determine the device.

Conventional SystemsZone #14.7KEOLRZone #2NAC #14.7K4.7KEOLREOLRTrouble conditions are annunciatedby zone only. Inspection is requiredto determine the cause.

Conventional SystemsZone #14.7KEOLRZone #2RJRJNAC #14.7KEOLRInformation transmitted to the centralstation is by zone at best. Manypanels send Alarm, Supv, Trbl only.

Addressable Systems FACP An addressable systems point capacity isdetermined by the amount of SLC “SignalingLine Circuits” it contains.Each SLC circuit provides power,communication, & supervision for all of thedevices connected to it.Each SLC can accommodate over 100addressable devices, depending upon themanufacturer.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIREAddressableSmoke DetectorFIRESILENT KNIGHTFACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)NAC #14.7KEOLREach SLC loop can contain a variety ofaddressable devices. Non-addressable devicesare connected via addressable module.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLREach point on the SLC loop is givena unique address when installed.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLR ReplaySupervision is accomplished fromthe panel by polling the devices onthe SLC loop.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003FIRE!NAC #14.7KEOLRALARMPOINT 006LOBBY SMOKE DETECTORAlarm conditions are annunciatedby point allowing respondingpersonnel to quickly find the fire.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRTRBL POINT 006DISCONNECTEDLOBBY SMOKE DETECTORTrouble conditions can be locatedmore quickly by analyzing theaffected points.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPRJAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003RJNAC #14.7KEOLRMore detailed information can besent to the central station aiding ina quick resolution to the problem.

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003NAC #14.7KEOLRSince supervision is accomplishedthrough polling, t-tapped wiring ispermitted. (Class B wiring)

Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat DetectorAddressableSmoke DetectorAddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull StationFIRE001FACPAddressableRelay Module(Fan Shutdown)002AddressableSmoke DetectorFIRE004SILENT KNIGHT006005003FIRE!NAC #14.7KEOLRMany systems support flexibleinput/output programming to linkinitiating devices to outputs.

Comparison Conventional Lower initialequipment costs.Wide range ofcompatible devices.Can be easier toprogram.Limited expansioncapability. Addressable Easier to install.More system statusinformation at thepanel and centralstation.Input/Outputprogramming muchmore flexible.Usually much moreroom available toexpand.

Analog Addressable Systems Detectors in an analog addressable systemsbecome “sensors” relaying information to thecontrol panel corresponding to how muchsmoke or heat that detector is sensing.The control panel makes the decisions basedon this information when to alarm etc.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1HEAT DETECTORMECHANICAL ROOMPOINT 001A 062NORMALF 19010KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Detector006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1SMOKE DETECTORLOBBY NORTHPOINT 002A 060NORMALF 18810KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1RELAY MODULEFAN SHUTDOWNPOINT 003A N/ANORMALF N/A10KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1INPUT MODULEWATERFLOWPOINT 004A N/ANORMALF N/A10KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1INPUT MODULEMANUAL PULLPOINT 005A N/ANORMALF N/A10KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1SMOKE DETECTORFRONT DESKPOINT 006A 061NORMALF 18910KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1HEAT DETECTORMECHANICAL ROOMPOINT 001A 062NORMALF 19010KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1SMOKE DETECTORLOBBY NORTHPOINT 002A 060NORMALF 18810KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1RELAY MODULEFAN SHUTDOWNPOINT 003A N/ANORMALF N/A10KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1INPUT MODULEWATERFLOWPOINT 004A N/ANORMALF N/A10KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1INPUT MODULEMANUAL PULLPOINT 005A N/ANORMALF N/A10KEOLRSupervision is still checked bypolling. In addition an analogvalue is transmitted to thepanel for processing.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1SMOKE DETECTORFRONT DESKPOINT 006A 061NORMALF 18910KEOLR Replay

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1HEAT DETECTORMECHANICAL ROOMPOINT 001A 062NORMALF 19010KEOLRThis analog value correspondsto the amount of heat orsmoke in that detectors areaof coverage. Higher more.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1HEAT DETECTORMECHANICAL ROOMPOINT 001A 062NORMALF 19010KEOLRIf the analog value exceedsthe alarm threshold, an alarmoccurs. This alarm threshold iscalculated by the panel.

Analog Addressable SystemsAddressableHeat SensorAddressableSmoke Sensor001002AddressableInput Module(Waterflow)AddressablePull Station004AddressableSmoke Sensor006005AddressableRelay Module 003(Fan Shutdown)NAC #1INPUT MODULEWATERFLOWPOINT 004A N/ANORMALF N/A10KEOLRInput/output modules do notrelay analog values to thepanel as they are monitoringor controlling on/off devices.

Analog AddressableFeatures An analog addressable control panel is capable ofseveral enhanced features not available on conventional,and some addressable systems. Drift Compensation / Maintenance Alert Adjustable Detector Sensitivity Day/Night Detector Sensitivity Adjustment U.L. Calibrated Sensitivity Test Instrument

Drift Compensation Drift compensation is the process by which an analogaddressable control panel automatically adjusts ananalog detectors alarm threshold to compensate forcontaminants such as dust.This ensures the detector maintains a consistentsensitivity level, helping to avoid false alarms due todirty detectors.

Maintenance Alert Drift compensation occurs until it is nearing a pointwhere it can no longer compensate and remain withinU.L. requirements. This point is called “MaintenanceAlert”Some systems handle a maintenance alert condition asa trouble while others flag the condition only, andcontinue to operate normally.

Calibration Trouble A detector in a maintenance alert condition willeventually go into calibration trouble if not serviced.A detector in calibration trouble is not functioningcorrectly and requires service immediately.

Adjustable (Day/Night)Sensitivity In order to allow for varying environmental conditions orto provide quicker detection, analog systems typicallyallow you to change the sensitivity of a detector within arange of U.L. tolerances. This is typically made user friendly by giving the installerchoices such as high-medium-low.

Adjustable (Day/Night)Sensitivity By changing a detectors sensitivity you are instructingthe panel to adjust its ala

Addressable Device - A fire alarm system component with discreet identification that can have its status individually identified or that is used to individually control other functions. Analog Addressable Sensor - An initiating device that transmits a signal indicating varying degrees of condition as contrasted with a conventional or addressable initiating device, which can only indicate an .