Timeline Of Events - SSN Model United Nations

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ARAB – ISRAELI WAR OF 1973SSN – MODEL UNITED NATIONS1

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Introduction and BackgroundNovember 29, 1947, Resolution 181 (II), the General Assembly recommended to theUnited Kingdom, as the mandatory Power for Palestine, and to all other Members ofthe United Nations, the adoption and implementation, with regard to the futuregovernment of Palestine which marked the sowing of seeds discontent between theArabs and the Jews and a pathway to the first Arab – Israel war. This plan was madeto replace British Mandate with "Independent Arab and Jewish States" and a"Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem‖ administered by the UnitedNations until further discretion.One of the most iconic images of the birth of the State of IsraelMay 14, 1948 marked the end of the British Mandate over Palestine and as the lastBritish forces left through Haifa, the Jewish People's Council gathered at the Tel AvivMuseum and approved a proclamation declaring the establishment of a Jewish state,to be known as the State of Israel under the leadership of David Ben-Gurion.War of IndependenceThe mark of the beginning of the War of Independence didn‘t take long and thecelebrations of the Israelis lasted as short as one day, as there was an immediateattack by Syria, Egypt and Jordan.3

On 15 May 1948 the ongoing civil war transformed into an inter-state conflict betweenIsrael and the Arab states. A combined invasion by Egypt, Jordan and Syria,together with expeditionary forces from Iraq, entered Palestine - Jordan havingdeclared privately to Yishuv emissaries on May 2 it would abide by a decision not toattack the Jewish state. The invading forces took control of the Arab areas andimmediately attacked Israeli forces and several Jewish settlements. The 10 monthsof fighting, interrupted by several truce periods, took place mostly on the formerterritory of the British Mandate and for a short time also in the SinaiPeninsula and southern LebanonAs a result of the war the State of Israel retained the area that the UN GeneralAssembly Resolution 181 had recommended for the proposed Jewish state andalso took control of almost 60% of the area allocated for the proposed Arabstate including the Jaffa,Lydda and Ramle area, Galilee, some parts of the Negev, awide strip along the Tel-Aviv-Jerusalem road, West Jerusalem, and some territoriesin the West Bank. Transjordan took control of the remainder of the West Bank,including East Jerusalem, and the Egyptian military took control of the Gaza Strip.No Arab Palestinian state was created. In 1949 all the belligerents - except the Iraqisand the Palestinians - signed the 1949 Armistice Agreements.The Law of Return & Population GrowthOn July 5, 1950, the state of Israel passed the Law of Return. Its opening line read:"Every Jew has the right to immigrate to the country." The law created an influx ofJewish immigration to Israel. The large numbers of Holocaust survivors (almost 1 outof 3 Israeli citizens by 1949) had difficulty settling into the new country; tensionswere high between members of the Yishuv (pre-state inhabitants) and the survivors.It was no easier for Jews from Arab lands. The population of the State of Israel morethan doubled in its first five years. Half of the national budget went towardsimmigrant resettlement, with military spending coming in a close second.Sinai CampaignIn the 1950s, the Arab world attempted to pressure Israel through economicsanctions; Israeli ships could not use Arab ports, and Israeli airplanes could not useArab air space. In 1955, Egypt purchased large amounts of weapons from the Soviet4

Union and Czechoslovakia. The next year it announced the nationalization of theSuez Canal.These actions, combined with increased terrorist attacks across the border andEgypt's massive military build-up, prompted Israel to join Great Britain and France inattacking Egypt on October 29, 1956. The British, French, and Israeli combinedmilitary action was successful, but the United Nations set up forces in the Sinai toensure that it would not be repeated.Six Day WarIn May 1967, Egypt expelled the United Nations Emergency Force from the SinaiPeninsula and amassed 100,000 soldiers at the border with Israel. The Six-Day Warbegan on June 5, 1967, when the Israeli Defence Forces, led by Chief of StaffYitzhak Rabin, pre-emptively attacked Egypt's air force and Jordan attacked Israel.By the end of the war, Israel had gained control of the Old City of Jerusalem and theWest Bank, the Gaza Strip, the strategic Golan Heights from Syria, and the SinaiPeninsula. The war was a disaster for the Arab world and temporarily weakened theman who was seen as the leader of the Arabs – Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt. Thewar was a military disaster for the Arabs but it was also a massive blow to the Arabsmorale. Here were four of the strongest Arab nations systematically defeated by justone nation.The success of the campaign must have surprised the Israelis. However, it also gavethem a major problem that was to prove a major problem for the Israeli governmentfor decades. By capturing the Sinai, the Golan Heights and the West Bank of theJordan River, the Israelis had captured for themselves areas of great strategic value.However, the West Bank also contained over 600,000 Arabs who now came underIsraeli administration.5

The Yom Kippur War of 1973The Yom Kippur War of 1973, one of the most decisive conventional wars in MiddleEast history, is so-called because it began on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur),the holiest day of prayer and fasting in the Jewish calendar. The Yom Kippur War isalso known as the October War or the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought bythe coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel from October 6 to25, 1973. At the time of Yom Kippur, Israel was led by Golda Meir, Syria by Hafez-alAssad and Egypt by Anwar Sadat.The Yom Kippur War started with a surprise Arab attack on Israel on Saturday 6thOctober 1973. On this day, Egyptian and Syrian military forces launched an attackknowing that the military of Israel would be participating in the religious celebrationsassociated with Yom Kippur. Therefore, their guard would temporarily be dropped.The combined forces of Egypt and Syria totalled the same number of men as NATOhad in Western Europe. On the Golan Heights alone, 150 Israeli tanks faced 1,4006

Syria tanks and in the Suez region just 500 Israeli soldiers faced 80,000 Egyptiansoldiers.The war had far-reaching implications. The Arab World, which had been humiliatedby the lopsided rout of the Egyptian–Syrian–Jordanian alliance in the Six-Day War,felt psychologically vindicated by early successes in the conflict. In Israel, despiteimpressive operational and tactical achievements on the battlefield, the war led torecognition that there was no guarantee it would always dominate the Arab statesmilitarily. These changes paved the way for the subsequent peace process. The1978 Camp David Accords that followed led to the return of the Sinai to Egypt andnormalized relations—the first peaceful recognition of Israel by an Arab country.Egypt continued its drift away from the Soviet Union and left the Soviet sphere ofinfluence entirely.Egypt and Syria both desired a return of the land lost in the Six-Day War. InSeptember 1967, the Khartoum Arab Summit issued the "three no's", resolvingthat there would be "no peace, no recognition and no negotiation with Israel". In theyears following the war, Israel erected lines of fortification in both the Sinai and theGolan Heights. In 1971, Israel spent 500 million fortifying its positions on the SuezCanal, a chain of fortifications and gigantic earthworks known as the Bar Lev Line,named after Israeli General Chaim Bar-Lev.The Bar-Lev Line with barbed-wire fencing to make it difficult for Egyptian troops to climb them.7

BackgroundPresident Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt died in September 1970 and wassucceeded by Anwar Sadat. In 1971, Sadat, in response to an initiative by UNintermediary Gunnar Jarring, declared that if Israel committed itself to "withdrawal ofits armed forces from Sinai and the Gaza Strip", to "achievement of a just settlementfor the refugee problem", to "the withdrawal of the Israeli armed forces from all theterritories occupied since June 5, 1967", and to implementation of other provisionsof UN Security Council Resolution 242 as requested by Jarring, Egypt would then"be ready to enter into a peace agreement with Israel". Israel responded that it wouldnot withdraw to the pre-June 5, 1967 lines.Sadat hoped that by inflicting even a limited defeat on the Israelis, the status quocould be altered. Hafez al-Assad, the leader of Syria, had a different view. He hadlittle interest in negotiation and felt the retaking of the Golan Heights would be apurely military option. After the Six-Day War, Assad had launched a massive militarybuild-up and hoped to make Syria the dominant military power of the Arab states.With the aid of Egypt, Assad felt that his new army could win convincingly againstIsrael and thus secure Syria's role in the region. Assad only saw negotiationsbeginning once the Golan Heights had been retaken by force, which would induceIsrael to give up the West Bank and Gaza, and make other concessions.Sadat also had important domestic concerns in wanting war. "The three years sinceSadat had taken office . were the most demoralized in Egyptian history. Adesiccated economy added to the nation's despondency. War was a desperateoption." In his biography of Sadat, Raphael Israeli argued that Sadat felt the root ofthe problem was in the great shame over the Six-Day War, and before any reformscould be introduced he felt that shame had to be overcome. Egypt's economy was inshambles, but Sadat knew that the deep reforms that he felt were needed would bedeeply unpopular among parts of the population. A military victory would give him thepopularity he needed to make changes. A portion of the Egyptian population, mostprominently university students who launched wide protests, strongly desired a warto reclaim the Sinai and was highly upset that Sadat had not launched one in his firstthree years in office.8

Egyptian President Anwar Sadat meeting with U.S Secretary of State Henry Kissinger at the White House,before the war.The other Arab states showed much more reluctance to fully commit to a newwar. King Hussein of Jordan feared another major loss of territory as had occurred inthe Six-Day War, in which Jordan lost all of the West Bank, territory it had conqueredand annexed in 1948–49, which had doubled its population. Sadat was also backingthe claim of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) to the West Bank andGaza and in the event of a victory promised Yasser Arafat that he would be givencontrol of them. Hussein still saw the West Bank as part of Jordan and wanted itrestored to his kingdom. Moreover, during the Black September crisis of 1970, anear civil war had broken out between the PLO and the Jordanian government. Inthat war, Syria had intervened militarily on the side of the PLO, estranging Hussein.Iraq and Syria also had strained relations, and the Iraqis refused to join the initialoffensive. Lebanon, which shared a border with Israel, was not expected to join theArab war effort because of its small army and already evident instability. The monthsbefore the war saw Sadat engage in a diplomatic offensive to try to win support forthe war. By the fall of 1973, he claimed the backing of more than a hundred states.These were most of the countries of the Arab League, Non-Aligned Movement,and Organization of African Unity. Sadat had also worked to curry favour inEurope and had some success before the war. Britain and France for the first timesided with the Arab powers against Israel on the United Nations Security Council.9

Events leading up to the warAn Egyptian Soviet-built T-62 tank with a powerful 115 mm main gunTwo Egyptian Air Force Soviet-built MIG-21 interceptors10

Following Israel's rejection of Sadat's peace initiative, which had proposed a fullIsraeli withdrawal to the pre-67 borders in exchange for a non-belligerencypact, Sadat declared that Egypt was prepared to "sacrifice a million Egyptiansoldiers" to recover its lost territory. From the end of 1972, Egypt began aconcentrated effort to build up its forces, receiving MiG-21 jet fighters, SA-2, SA3, SA-6 and SA-7 antiaircraftmissiles, T-55 and T-62 tanks, RPG-7 antitankweapons, and the AT-3 Sagger anti-tank guided missile from the Soviet Union andimproving its military tactics, based on Soviet battlefield doctrines. Political generals,who had in large part been responsible for the rout in 1967, were replaced withcompetent ones.The role of the superpowers, too, was a major factor in the outcome of the two wars.The policy of the Soviet Union was one of the causes of Egypt's military weakness.President Nasser was only able to obtain the materiel for an anti-aircraftmissile defence wall after visiting Moscow and pleading with Kremlin leaders. Hesaid that if supplies were not given, he would have to return to Egypt and tell theEgyptian people Moscow had abandoned them, and then relinquish power to one ofhis peers who would be able to deal with the Americans. The Americans would thenhave the upper hand in the region, which Moscow could not permit.President Anwar Sadat & Mubarak go over war plans11

In an interview published in Newsweek (April 9, 1973), President Sadat againthreatened war with Israel. Several times during 1973, Arab forces conducted largescale exercises that put the Israeli military on the highest level of alert, only to berecalled a few days later. The Israeli leadership already believed that if an attacktook place, the Israeli Air Force (IAF) could repel it.Almost a full year before the war, in an October 24, 1972, meeting with his SupremeCouncil of the Armed Forces, Sadat declared his intention to go to war with Israeleven without proper Soviet support Planning had begun in 1971 and was conductedin absolute secrecy—even the upper-echelon commanders were not told of warplans until less than a week prior to the attack, and the soldiers were not told until afew hours beforehand. The plan to attack Israel in concert with Syria was codenamed Operation Badr (Arabic for "full moon"), after the Battle of Badr, in whichMuslims under Muhammad defeated the Quraish tribe of Mecca.12

Please note that several events in this timeline differ significantly from theactual events of the time. For all practical purposes, this council shall befollowing the events as mentioned here. Wherever any event or incident ordata mentioned here is found to contradict with the actual events at the time,you will ignore the others and follow this timeline. Anything that’s notmentioned in the Timeline, but has happened in the real world remainsunaffected. You are strongly encouraged to do more research on thebackground and your country.Timeline of Events 14th March 1972: The total strength of Indian Air Force ―instructors‖ in Iraq has nowreached 260. Following the successes of the Indian Air Force against PAF F-104Starfighter, Shenyang F-6 and F-86 Sabre‘s in the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971, theIraqi government approached India and signed an agreement to train its Air Forcepilots flying the MIG-21s. IAF pilots were attached to every major Iraqi Air Force(IrAF) base and are also rumoured to be assisting their counterparts in IrAF indrafting operational doctrine and tactics. The reverses suffered by IrAF at the handsof the Israeli Air Force during the Arab-Israeli war of 1967 to American madeaircrafts were studied in detail by the Indians, who in turn trained their Iraqicounterparts to counter them. It is also believed that there are more Indianinstructors in Iraq than Soviet instructors. 1st July, 1972: Following the footsteps of Iraq, the Syrian Air Force signs anagreement with the Indian Air Force (IAF) to help train its pilots in handling the MIG21. Syrian, which is a close ally of the Soviet Union already has hundreds of Sovietinstructors training various branches of the Syrian armed forces. IAF is believed tosend a team of 100 instructors experienced in flying the MIG-21 in the 1971 IndoPakistan war.An Indian Air Force MIG-21 taking off from an unidentified Indian Air Base.13

20th July, 1972: In a surprise announcement, President Richard Nixon says that hewill visit Beijing, China, before May 1972. The news, issued simultaneously in Beijingand the United States, stunned the world. Nixon reported that he was visiting in order"to seek normalization of relations between the two countries and to exchange viewson questions of concern to both sides." 21st – 28th May, 1972: Nixon‘s visit was a profound success. The President touredthe country and met with China‘s top officials, including leader Mao Zedong. Soonafter the visit the two countries established formal diplomatic ties and began tonegotiate trade agreements. The two nations had not had official diplomatic relationssince Communist forces took control of China in 1948. In April, 1971 China invitedthe United States table tennis team to visit. After this event the Nixon trip wasplanned. 7th October, 1972: The first of the many shipments of Soviet made Surface-to-Airmissile (SAM) systems begin arriving in Egypt. These include the advanced SA-2,SA-3, SA-6 and SA-7 batteries, command vehicles and radars. A large number ofSoviet ―technical‖ personnel have already arrived in Egypt earlier to help train theEgyptian forces in using these newly arriving SAM systems and to develop tactics tofool the enemy.14

A 2K12 "Kub" or SA-6 Anti-Aircraft missile system, with its missiles elevated. It has a range of 75 kms. 11th November, 1972: The first of the over 850 T-62 tanks ordered by the Egyptianarmy arrive along with associated spare parts and equipments. News reportssuggest that available Soviet trainers would train the Egyptians on the new tanks. 21st December, 1972: The first batch of the 600 T-62 tanks ordered by Syriabegins arriving in Syria. A new gunnery range is setup in Syria to train Syrian tankcrews on the new tank. 23rd December, 1972: The number of Soviet ―instructors‖ in Egypt touches animpressive 20,000 personnel. The Soviets, news reports say, are involved in trainingall branches of the Egyptian army and are involved in developing new tactics for theEgyptian army. This has caused significant unrest in Israel and in the U.S. TopPentagon officials are openly expressing their disgruntlement at Egypt‘s ―clear‖ tilttowards the Soviets.An artistic impression of the expanding Soviet influence across the world with Uncle 'Sam' watching onhelplessly at the bottom.15

13th March, 1973: US State Department officials are quoted off-record by a NewYork Times report that says, that in addition to 50 F-4E Phantoms alreadysupplied, Washington would sell Israel four squadrons of fighter-bombers, a mix ofA-4 Skyhawks and improved F- 4Es with leading-edge manoeuvring slats, TISEO(target identification system, electro-optical), to be delivered by October November. TISEO was a Northrop-built long-range television in a cylindricalextension from the Phantom's port wing, and was untested in air-to-air battle,although the principle-use of a zoom lens to guide ordnance visually-had plantedbombs squarely in the centre of Hanoi's Paul Doumer Bridge in Vietnam underheavy fire.An Israeli Air Force F-4 Phantom II taxing on a runway. 26th March, 1973: President Anwar Sadat of Egypt today assumed the additionaltitle of Prime Minister, State Radio reports. Sadat is believed to have formed a newgovernment with a ―permanent War committee‖ to assist in a possible confrontationwith Israel. 9th April, 1973: In an interview to Newsweek, Egyptian President Anwar Sadatwarned that he ― would renew a war with Israel” to ―take back from them what wasunjustly stolen in 1967.” The President also made it clear that Israel must honour theclauses of United Nations Resolution 242 or ―face consequences.” 13th May, 1973: Egyptian forces initiate a massive, surprise military exercise nearthe Suez Canal. Nearly 300 tanks and armoured personnel carriers and 10,000soldiers backed by artillery support in the rear practised ‗simulated‘ crossings of theSuez Canal, while nearly a hundred Egyptian Air force aircrafts provided overhead16

cover. The Egyptian infantry used dynamites to blow through a replica of the Bar-Levline built on their side of the canal. Israeli forces immediately begin mobilising to apossible threat of Egyptian invasion by calling up reserves. 14th May, 1973: Israel‘s military intelligence Agency – Aman has issued an internalwarning that the Egyptian forces are ―highly likely‖ to launch an attack against Israelto recapture the Suez Canal. Historically, the NATO & Warsaw both believe that theother side might launch a surprise attack under the pretext of an exercise. Thereforethe IAF & IDF move to full alert watching the surprise Egyptian practise canalcrossings with great ‗interest.‘ Aman‘s warning predicts that an attack can occur in24 hours or less.The Headquarters of the Israeli Ministry of Defense under whom the 'Aman' works 2nd July, 1973: President Anwar Sadat of Egypt meets with King Faisal binAbdulaziz Al Saud of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the latter‘s capital Riyadh in ahistoric visit. According to local newspapers the leaders discussed improving tiesand strengthening economic & military co-operation amongst the Middle East‘s mostpowerful countries. In an unprecedented move that caught many western observersunawares, both nations sign a ‗Treaty of Mutual Friendship and Protection‘ thatallows either of the two nations to come to the others‘ aid – if requested- when underarmed attack by another state. Under the terms of this new treaty, two of the mostpowerful Arab states are now united under a military defence pact that‘s valid for 10years. 4th August, 1973: Egyptian forces begin a new set of ―live-Fire‖ exercise ostensiblydesigned to cross the Suez Canal and attack Israeli forces fortified along the Bar-LevLine. As before, this was a combined arms exercise featuring tanks, armouredpersonnel carriers and infantry backed by overhead Air support lunching simulatedattacks against mock targets. For the first time, the Egyptian navy vessels were also17

involved in the exercise, conducting simulated shore bombardment in support of theground troops.A group of Soviet made Su-100M "Tank Destroyers" involved in the exercise 7th September, 1973: Despite intelligence warnings of an upcoming attack by Egyptand Syria, General Eli Zeira, pictured on the right, the head of Israel‘s militaryintelligence, Aman, remains convinced that there is nothing to worry about.General Al Zeira (Right), head of Israel's Military Intelligence – Aman18

20th September, 1973: The first consignment of Soviet made ―Scud‖ missiles arrivein Egypt through ships at Port Alexandria. Called the ―R-77‖ in the USSR and ―Scud‖by the NATO, they‘re tactical ballistic missiles that can be fired from hundreds ofkilometres away. Egypt has received the ―Scud-B‖ variant that has a range of 300kms with payload capacity of 985 kgs. This first consignment, news reports say, isalready several months late than expected and the full delivery may not becompleted by mid-next year. 23rd September, 1973: King Hussein Bin Talal of Jordan makes a surprise visit toboth Cairo and Damascus late in the evening. The visit remained unannounced evenafter it was over. The state Jordanian State Radio nor Television made any mentionof the visit either. Israel‘s intelligence agencies are believed to be trying to gatherinformation about the motive behind the visit. 24th September, 1973: A group of prominent Lebanese politicians visiting Moscowon a well-publicized goodwill visit were reportedly told by the Soviet Foreign MinisterAndrei Gromyko that the Soviets ― would whole heartedly help the Arabs, but thatdoesn’t mean we’ll fight in their place” the New York Times says. 25th September, 1973: King Hussein of Jordan secretly flies to Tel Aviv and meetswith Israeli PM Golda Meir. He warns her that the Egyptians and Syrians arepreparing to attack Israel ―soon.‖ The meeting is kept secret and no Press agencywill learn of it for a long time. What exactly transpired between the two leadersremains unknown. 27th September, 1973: Two batches of Egyptian reservists – numbering round20,000 men are called up to participate in a new exercise, slated in begin in day ortwo. The exercise - the third this year - is expected to be on similar lines as those ofthe past, with Egyptian forces trying to storm replicas of the Bar-Lev line usingdynamites and backed by artillery and sir support. 29th September, 1973: The first consignment of Scud – B and C variants arrive inthe Syrian port of Tartus. Syria ordered improved versions of the Scud‘s to have theability to hit distant ―enemy‖ targets and cities without exposing its own Air Forceaircrafts to enemy fighters and ground fire. The ―Scud-C‖ variant is rumoured to havean estimated range of 550 kilometres – which is nearly double that of the EgyptianScud-B‘s. But this extra range comes at the cost of reduced payload and reducedaccuracy.19

A Scud missile on mobile transporter readying its missile for launch 30th September, 1973: Egypt begins yet another planned military exercise involvingall three branches of its army. The exercise, the largest of its kind in recent yearswould involve atleast 70,000 ground troops backed by thousands of personnel fromthe other 2 branches. Recently, Egypt mobilised about 20,000 of its reservists toparticipate in this exercise. However, there have been reports that several soldiersand officers were upset about the timing of the exercises, which coincides with theirannual pilgrimage to Mecca. As was the case in all previous exercises, Soviettechnicians and Staff officers are assisting and monitoring the Egyptian exercises toprovide feedback. 1st October, 1973: The Minister of Defense of the Soviet Union, Andrei Greckhovisits the Syrian port of Tartus, where a large flotilla of Soviet naval ships under theBlack Sea fleet are based. The minister interacted with Soviet personnel at the baseand is expected to then leave for a visit to Chad and Angola. The Soviet Black seafleet also has subsidiary berthing facilities at Port Said and Port Alexandria in Egyptand at Annaba in Algeria. The Black Sea fleet at present contains a total of 15-20surface combatants and about 20 submarines, along with naval aircrafts for defence.The bases however, have the capacity to surge its capacity to about 60 surfacecombatants and 35 submarines, in times of conflict. This will be an overwhelmingforce versus the US 6th Fleet‘s modest and usual complement of 40 ships thatincludes 2 aircraft carriers, submarines and amphibious landing ships.20

A map depicting the location of the main Soviet base in the Mediterranean at Tartus, which is the home ofthe Black Sea fleet 2nd October, 1973: A senior White House spokesperson announces that PresidentNixon will be visiting South Vietnam shortly to oversee the withdrawal of the last ofthe American troops. The visit is expected to finalise deals on the provision of―substantial‖ economic & military aid to South Vietnam to deal with the insurgencypost withdrawal. 3rd October, 1973: U.S Vice President Spiro Theodore Agnew his announced hisresignation after being charged with having accepted bribes totalling more than 100,000 while holding office as Baltimore County Executive, Governor of Maryland,and Vice President of the United States. Agnew was earlier investigated bythe United States Attorney's office for the District of Maryland, on chargesof extortion, tax fraud, bribery, and conspiracy. Same Day: A spokesperson for the White House has announced President Nixonhas accepted Vice President Agnew‘s resignation from office. He added that thePresident will be signing the order appointing current House Minority Leader GeraldFord to the office of Vice President shortly. Later, the same Day: The Soviets reportedly launch a Zenit-2M reconnaissancesatellite on board a Voskhod 11A57 Rocket. The Zenit-2M is an improved versionof the legacy Zenit series of ―spy satellites‖ and is rumoured to have a high resolutionimaging camera to photograph sensitive military installations and units. 4th October, 1973: President Richard M. Nixon made his ninth visit to South Vietnambut his second as president. His earlier visit was in July 1969. Nixon met in Saigonwith South Vietnam‘s President Nguyen Van Thieu to discuss the completion of U.S.21

troop withdrawals. He also met with senior U.S. military commanders to review thewithdrawal schedules, emphasizing his continuing Vietnamization policies, which hewanted the press to label ―The Nixon Doctrine.‖ During the visit, Nixon is expected tovisit several former bases and monuments located at the site of fierce battles.President Nixon interacting with members of the US Army 4th October, 1973: Egyptian Television and Radio reports that the 20,000 reservistswho were earlier mobilised for a live-fire exercise have now been demobilized. Thenews report also mentions that several officers and soldiers, who have applied forleave but are not part of the ongoing training exercises, would be allowed toperform the Umrah (pilgrimage) to Mecca. Officer trainee cadets in Military collegestoo, would be given leave to join their family for pilgrimage or prayers and have beenasked to report for training only after October 9th. Same Day: Radio Damascus has announced that President Assad would begin a9-day tour of the country‘s eastern provinces starting October 10th. 5th October, 1973: Reuters News agency reports that massive suicide bomb blast inthe heart of Saigon city by a South Vietnamese army sentry – suspected to be amember of the National Liberation Front or VietCong has killed

build-up and hoped to make Syria the dominant military power of the Arab states. With the aid of Egypt, Assad felt that his new army could win convincingly against Israel and thus secure Syria's role in the region. Assad only saw negotiations beginning once the Golan Heights had been retaken by force, which