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Glencoe ScienceChapter ResourcesAtomic Structure andChemical BondsIncludes:Reproducible Student PagesASSESSMENTTRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES Chapter Tests Section Focus Transparency Activities Chapter Review Teaching Transparency ActivityHANDS-ON ACTIVITIES Assessment Transparency Activity Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition ActivityTeacher Support and Planning Laboratory Activities Content Outline for Teaching Foldables–Reading and Study Skills activity sheet Spanish Resources Teacher Guide and AnswersMEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS Directed Reading for Content Mastery Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish Reinforcement Enrichment Note-taking Worksheets

Glencoe SciencePhoto CreditsSection Focus Transparency 1: (t) 2000 MTC Lighting/, (b) 2000 MTC Lighting/; Section Focus Transparency 2: Gail Meese/Meese Photo ResearchCopyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the conditionthat such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students,teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with theAtomic Structure and Chemical Bonds program. Any other reproduction, for useor sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher.Send all inquiries to:Glencoe/McGraw-Hill8787 Orion PlaceColumbus, OH 43240-4027ISBN 0-07-867151-5Printed in the United States of America.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 079 09 08 07 06 05 04

ReproducibleStudent PagesReproducible Student Pages Hands-On ActivitiesMiniLAB: Drawing Electron Dot Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3MiniLAB: Try at Home Constructing a Model of Methane . . . . . . . . . . 4Lab: Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Lab: Model and Invent Atomic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Laboratory Activity 1: Chemical Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Laboratory Activity 2: Chemical Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Foldables: Reading and Study Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Meeting Individual NeedsExtension and InterventionDirected Reading for Content Mastery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Note-taking Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 AssessmentChapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Transparency ActivitiesSection Focus Transparency Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Teaching Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Assessment Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds1

Hands-On ActivitiesHands-OnActivities2 Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

DateClassHands-On ActivitiesNameDrawing Electron Dot DiagramsProcedureCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.1. Draw a periodic table that includes the first 18 elements—the elementsfrom hydrogen through argon. Make each block a 3-cm square.2. Fill in each block with the electron dot diagram of the element.Analysis1. What do you observe about the electron dot diagrams of the elements in the same group?2. Describe any changes you observe in the electron dot diagrams across a period.Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds3

NameDateClassProcedure1. Using circles of colored paper to represent protons, neutrons, and electrons,build paper models of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.2. Use your models of atoms to construct a molecule of methane by formingcovalent bonds. The methane molecule has four hydrogen atoms chemicallybonded to one carbon atom.Analysis1. In the methane molecule, do the carbon and hydrogen atoms have the same arrangement ofelectrons as two noble gas elements? Explain your answer.2. Does the methane molecule have a charge?Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Hands-On ActivitiesConstructing a Model of Methane4 Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

NameDateClassHands-On ActivitiesIonic CompoundsLab PreviewDirections: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.1. Why do you use the tacks in this lab?2. How many electrons does a sulfur atom have in its outer energy level?Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Metals in Groups 1 and 2 often lose electrons and form positive ions.Nonmetals in Groups 16 and 17 often gain electrons and becomenegative ions. How can compounds form between these four groupsof elements?Real-World QuestionProcedureHow do different atoms combine with eachother to form compounds?1. Cut colored-paper disks 7 cm in diameterto represent the elements Li, S, Mg, O, Ca,Cl, Na, and I. Label each disk with onesymbol.2. Lay circles representing the atoms Li and Sside by side on cardboard.3. Choose colored thumbtacks to representthe outer electrons of each atom. Place thetacks evenly around the disks to representthe outer electron levels of the elements.4. Move electrons from the metal atom to thenonmetal atom so that both elementsachieve noble gas arrangements of eightouter electrons. If needed, cut additionalpaper disks to add more atoms of oneelement.5. In the Data and Observations section, writethe formula for each ion and the compound formed when you shift electrons.6. Repeat steps 2 through 6 to combine Mgand O, Ca and Cl, and Na and I.Materialspaper (8 different colors)scissorscorrugated cardboardtacks (2 different colors)Goals Construct models of electron gain and loss.Determine formulas for the ions and compounds that form when electrons are gainedor lost.Safety PrecautionsAtomic Structure and Chemical Bonds5

NameDateClass(continued)AtomsFormulas for Ions and Compounds Formed1. Li, S2. Mg, O3. Ca, Cl4. Na, IConclude and Apply1. Draw electron dot diagrams for all of the ions produced.2. Identify the noble gas elements having the same electron arrangements as the ions youmade in this lab.3. Analyze Results Why did you have to use more than one atom in some cases? Why couldn’tyou take more electrons from one metal atom or add extra ones to a nonmetal atom?Communicating Your DataCompare your compounds and dot diagrams with those of other students in your class. Formore help, refer to the Science Skill Handbook.6 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondsCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Hands-On ActivitiesData and Observations

NameDateClassModel and InventHands-On ActivitiesAtomic StructureLab PreviewDirections: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.1. Where are electrons located relative to the nucleus?2. Where are neutrons and protons located? How do they relate to an element’s atomic number?Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.As more information has become known about the structure of the atom,scientists have developed new models. Making your own model and studyingthe models of others will help you learn how protons, neutrons, and electronsare arranged in an atom. Can an element be identified based on a model thatshows the arrangement of the protons, neutrons, and electrons of an atom?Real-World QuestionPlan the ModelHow will your group construct a model of anelement that others will be able to identify?1. Choose an element from periods 2 or 3 ofthe periodic table. How can you determinethe number of protons, neutrons, andelectrons in an atom given the atom’s massnumber?2. How can you show the difference betweenprotons and neutrons? What materials willyou use to represent the electrons of theatom? How will you represent the nucleus?3. How will you model the arrangement ofelectrons in the atom? Will the atom have acharge? Is it possible to identify an atom bythe number of protons it has?4. Make sure your teacher approves your planbefore you proceed.Possible Materialsmagnetic boardrubber magnetic stripscandy-coated chocolatesscissorspapermarkercoinsGoals Design a model of a chosen element.Observe the models made by others inthe class and identify the elements theyrepresent.Safety PrecautionsWARNING: Never eat any food in thelaboratory. Wash hands thoroughly.Make the Model1. Construct your model. Then record yourobservations on a separate sheet of paperand include a sketch.2. Construct another model of a differentelement.3. Observe the models made by your classmates. Identify the elements they represent.Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds7

NameDateClass(continued)1. State what elements you identified using your classmates’ models.2. Identify which particles always are present in equal numbers in a neutral atom.3. Predict what would happen to the charge of an atom if one of the electrons were removed.4. Describe what happens to the charge of an atom if two electrons are added. What happens tothe charge of an atom if one proton and one electron are removed?5. Compare and contrast your model with the electron cloud model of the atom. How is yourmodel similar? How is it different?Conclude and Apply1. Define the minimum amount of information that you need to know in order to identify anatom of an element.2. Explain If you made models of the isotopes boron-10 and boron-11, how would these modelsbe different?Communicating Your DataCompare your models with those of other students. Discuss any differences you find amongthe models.8 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondsCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Hands-On ActivitiesAnalyze Your Data

Date1LaboratoryActivityClassChemical BondsAn ion is an atom that is no longer neutral because it has gained or lost electrons.One important property of ions is the ability to conduct electricity in solution.Ions can form in solution in several ways. Ionic compounds, which are often compounds createdfrom metals of Groups 1 and 2 and nonmetals in Groups 16 and 17, dissolve in water to form ions.Acids and bases also form ions in solution. Although acids and bases contain covalent bonds (bondsin which electrons are shared), acids form the hydronium ion (H3O ), while bases form the hydroxideion (OH-) in water.Other covalent compounds form solutions, too. These solutions, however, do not conduct anelectric current because they do not form ions in solution. A measure of how well a solution cancarry an electric current is called conductivity.StrategyProcedureYou will determine the conductivity of severalsolutions.You will classify the compounds that weredissolved in the solutions as ioniccompounds or covalent compounds.Part A—Constructing a Conductivity TesterCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Materials9-V battery and battery cliptapecardboard sheet, 10 cm 10 cmalligator clips (4)LED (light-emitting diode)resistor, 1,000-Ωcopper wire, insulated, 20-cm lengths (2)microplate, 24-wellpipettes, plastic (7)sulfuric acid solution, 0.1M H2SO4sodium chloride solution, 0.1M NaClsodium hydroxide solution, 0.1M NaOHsucrose solution, 0.1M sucroseglucose solution, 0.1M glucosesugar cubes (sucrose)sodium chloride (rock, crystalline)water, distilledpaper towelsWARNING: Sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide can cause burns. Avoid contacting them withyour skin or clothing. Do not taste, eat, or drinkany materials used in the lab.1. After putting your apron and goggles on,attach the 9-V battery clip to the 9-V battery.Use tape to attach the battery securely to thecardboard sheet, as shown in Figure 1.2. Attach an alligator clip to one of the leadwires of the 1,000-Ω resistor. Connect thealligator clip to the red lead wire of thebattery clip. Tape the resistor and alligatorclip to the cardboard sheet as shown inFigure 2. WARNING: Use care when handling sharp objects.3. Attach an alligator clip to the long lead wireof the LED. Connect this alligator clip tothe second wire of the 1,000-Ω resistor.Tape the alligator clip to the cardboardsheet.4. Attach an alligator clip to the short leadwire of the LED. Connect this clip to oneend of one of the insulated copper wires.Tape the clip to the cardboard sheet asshown in Figure 3.5. Attach the last alligator clip to one end ofthe second insulated copper wire. Connectthe alligator clip to the black lead wire ofthe battery clip. Tape the alligator clip tothe cardboard sheet as shown in Figure 4.6. Check to be certain that the alligator clips,resistor, and battery are securely taped tothe cardboard sheet and that the clips arenot touching one another.Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds9Hands-On ActivitiesName

NameDateClassLaboratory Activity 1 (continued)8. Touch the two ends of the two insulatedwires and observe that the LED glows.Figure 1Figure 3Red lead wireTapeCardboard sheetAlligator clipLong lead wireBattery clipShort lead wireBlack lead wireLED9-V batteryInsulated copper wireAlligator clipFigure 4Figure 21000-Ω resistorRed lead wireLong lead wireShort lead wireInsulatedcopper wireAlligator clipBlack lead wireAlligator clip10 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondsLEDCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Hands-On Activities7. Have your teacher check your conductivitytester.

NameDateClassHands-On ActivitiesLaboratory Activity 1 (continued)Figure 5Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Part B—Testing the Conductivity of a Solution1. Place the microplate on a flat surface. Havethe numbered columns of the microplateat the top and the lettered rows at the left.WARNING: Wash hands immediately aftercoming in contact with any of the preparedsolutions. Inform your teacher if you come incontact with any chemicals.2. Using a clean pipette, add a pipette of thesulfuric acid solution to well A1.3. Using another clean pipette, add a pipetteof the sodium chloride solution to well A2.4. Repeat step 3 for each remaining solution.Use a clean pipette for each solution. Addthe sodium hydroxide solution to well A3,the sucrose solution to well A4, the glucosesolution to well A5, a sugar cube to wellA6, and a piece of rock salt to well A7.5. Using a clean pipette, add a pipette ofdistilled water to well A8. For steps 1–5 seeFigure 5.6. Place the exposed ends of the two insulatedcopper wires into the solution in well A1,positioning the wires so they are atopposite sides of the well. Be sure that theexposed ends of the wire are completelysubmerged.7. Observe the LED. Use the brightness of theLED as an indication of the conductivity ofthe solution. Rate the conductivity of thesolution using the following symbols: (good conductivity); – (fair conductivity);or 0 (no conductivity). Record your ratingin the corresponding well of the microplateshown in Figure 6.8. Remove the wires and dry the ends of thewires with a paper towel.9. Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 for each remainingwell in the microplate.Data and ObservationsFigure 6Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds11

NameDateClassLaboratory Activity 1 (continued)1. What is the conductivity of distilled water?2. Why was the conductivity of the distilled water measured?3. After studying your results, infer which solutions contained ions. Which solutions did notcontain ions?4. Which solutions contained covalent compounds? Did any of these solutions conduct an electriccurrent?5. Did the crystal of table salt or the sugar cube conduct electricity?6. How did the conductivities of the crystal of table salt and the 0.1M NaCl solution compare?7. From your results, describe one property of ions in solution.Strategy CheckCan you test the conductivity of a solution?Can you distinguish between a solution that contains ions and one that does not?12 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondsCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Hands-On ActivitiesQuestions and Conclusions

Date2LaboratoryActivityClassChemical ActivityThe atoms of most chemical elements either gain or lose electrons during reactions.Elements whose atoms lose electrons during reactions are classified as metals. Metals are foundon the left side of the periodic table of elements. The tendency of an element to react chemicallyis called activity. The activity of a metal is a measure of how easily the metal’s atoms lose electrons.StrategyYou will observe chemical reactions between metals and solutions containing ions of metals.You will compare the activities of different metals.You will rank the metals in order of their activities.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Materialsmicroplate, 96-wellpaper, whitepipette, plastic microtipaluminum nitrate solution, 0.1M Al(NO3)3water, distilledcopper nitrate solution, 0.1M Cu(NO3)2iron nitrate solution, 0.1M Fe(NO3)2magnesium nitrate solution, 0.1M Mg(NO3)2nickel nitrate solution, 0.1M Ni(NO3)2zinc nitrate, 0.1M Zn(NO3)2paper towelsmetal strips (8 1-mm 10-mm strips of each: aluminum, Al; copper, Cu; iron, Fe;magnesium, Mg; nickel, Ni; and zinc, Zn)hand lens or magnifierWARNING: Many of these solutions are poisonous. Avoid inhaling any vapors from the solutions.These solutions can cause stains. Do not allow them to contact your skin or clothing.ProcedureFigure 11. Wear an apron and goggles during thisexperiment.2. Place the microplate on a piece of whitepaper on a flat surface. Have the numberedcolumns of the microplate at the top andlettered rows at the left.3. Using the microtip pipette, place 15 dropsof the aluminum nitrate solution in eachof wells A1–G1. Rinse the pipette withdistilled water.4. Place 15 drops of copper nitrate solution ineach of wells A2–G2 using the pipette.Rinse the pipette with distilled water.Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds13Hands-On ActivitiesName

NameDateClassLaboratory Activity 2 (continued)Data and ObservationsFigure 21234567ABCDEFGTable 1MetalNumberof reactionsAl1.Cu2.14 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondsFe3.Mg4.Ni5.Zn6.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Hands-On Activities13. If you see an indication of a reaction, drawa positive sign ( ) in the correspondingwell of the microplate shown in Figure 2in the Data and Observations section. Ifyou see no indication of a reaction, draw anegative sign (–) in the corresponding wellof Figure 2.14. Count the number of positive signs ineach row of wells in Figure 2. Record thevalue under the corresponding metal inTable 1.5. Repeat step 4 for each of the remainingsolutions. Add the iron nitrate solution towells A3–G3, the magnesium nitratesolution to wells A4–G4, the nickel nitratesolution to wells A5–G5, the zinc nitratesolution to wells A6–G6. Leave the wellsin column 7 empty.6. Carefully clean each metal strip with apaper towel.7. Place one strip of aluminum in each ofwells A1–A7.8. Place one strip of copper in each of wellsB1–B8.9. Repeat step 8 for the remaining metals.Add the iron strips to wells C1–C7, themagnesium strips to wells D1–D7, thenickel strips to wells E1–E7, and the zincstrips to wells F1–F7. Do not put strips inthe wells in row G.10. Figure 1 shows the metals and the solutions that are in each of wells A1–G7.11. Wait 10 min.12. Use a hand lens or magnifier to observethe contents of each well. Look for achange in the color of the solution in eachwell by comparing it with the color of thesolution in well G at the bottom of thecolumn. Look for a change in the textureor color of the metal strip in each well bycomparing it with the piece of metal inwell 7 at the end of that row. Look for theappearance of deposited materials in thebottom of the well. Each change orappearance of deposits is an indicationthat a chemical reaction is taking place.

NameDateClassHands-On ActivitiesLaboratory Activity 2 (continued)Questions and Conclusions1. Why were solutions but not strips of metal placed in wells G1–G6?2. Why were strips of metal but no solutions added to wells A7–F7?3. Why did you clean the metal strips with the paper towel?Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.4. Using the number of reactions for each metal in Table 1, rank the metals from the most activeto the least active.5. Solutions of dissolved metal compounds contain metal ions. An ion is an atom that has gainedor lost electrons. Ions of metals are positively charged because the metals lose electrons whenthey react. The activity of the ion of a metal is a measure of how easily an ion gains electrons.Use the results of this experiment to rank the activities of ions of metals in solutions.6. How does the activity of an ion of a metal compare with the activity of the metal?Strategy CheckCan you identify evidence that a chemical reaction has occurred between a metal and asolution containing metal ions?Can you interpret evidence of chemical reactions between metals and solutions of metalions and arrange the metals in order according to their activities?Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds15

NameDateClassHands-On ActivitiesChemical BondsDirections: Use this page to label your Foldable at the beginning of the chapter.The neutral particle that forms when atoms shareelectrons is called a molecule.These bonds form a compound, or pure substancecontaining two or more chemically bonded elements.These bonds form when a metal atom loses oneor more electrons and a nonmetal atom gains oneor more electrons.These bonds form when two or more nonmetalatoms share electrons.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.When the electrons in these bonds spend moretime nearer one atom than the other, they arecalled polar bonds.Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds17

Meeting Individual NeedsMeeting IndividualNeeds18 Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

NameDateDirected Reading forContent MasteryClassOverviewAtomic Structure and Chemical BondsDirections: Complete the concept map using the terms listed below.covalentelectron cloudmoleculenucleusgain or loss of electronsMeeting Individual NeedsElectrons are locatedin a(n)1.and are arranged inenergy levelswhere the ones farthest from theCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.2.can form bonds that are3.ionicformed byformed by4.sharing ofelectronscreating ancreating a5.ionAtomic Structure and Chemical Bonds19

NameDateDirected Reading forContent MasterySection 1 ClassWhy do atoms combine?Directions: Use the periodic table to complete the electron dot diagrams below.Meeting Individual Needs3.HP2.4.ClNeDirections: Answer the following questions about elements and the periodic table.5. Does neon combine easily with other elements? Explain your answer.6. Nitrogen has the same number of electrons in its outer energy level as whichelement above?7. What name is given to the family of elements that includes chlorine?8. Which elements have properties similar to calcium?20 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondsCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.1.

NameDateDirected Reading forContent MasterySection 2Class How Elements BondDirections: Use the following terms to complete the crossword puzzle.compoundelectron dot diagramionic bondmoleculecovalent bondformulapolar bondCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Meeting Individual Needschemical bondelectron cloudionAcross2. Shows the number of electrons in the outer energy level5. An atom that has gained or lost an electron8. All electrons in an atom are in the .9. A pure substance that contains two or more elements10. Bond formed when atoms share electronsDown1. An attraction that holds ions close together3. A force that holds two atoms together4. Neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons6. Type of bond in which electrons are shared unequally7. A combination of chemical symbolsAtomic Structure and Chemical Bonds21

NameDateDirected Reading forContent MasteryClassKey TermsAtomic Structure and Chemical BondsDirections: Use the following terms to complete the sentences below.polar bondionic bondmoleculecompoundchemical bondioncovalent bondpolar moleculeelectron cloudformulaelectron dot diagrammetallic bond1. Ions are held close together by a(n) .3. A force that holds two atoms together is a(n) .4. A pure substance that contains two or more elements isa(n) .5. A(n) forms between atoms when they share electrons.6. A(n) is formed when atoms form covalent bonds.7. NaCl is an example of a chemical .8. A(n) is a way to represent atoms and electrons in theirouter energy levels.9. Electrons are shared unequally in a(n) .10. A(n) has a slight positive charge on one end and aslight negative charge on the other end.11. The area of space around the nucleus in which an atom’s electrons travel iscalled the .12. When metal atoms share their pooled electrons, ais formed.22 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondsCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Meeting Individual Needs2. A charged atom particle is called a(n) .

NombreFechaLectura dirigida paraDominio del contenidoClaseSinopsisEstructura del átomo yenlaces químicosInstrucciones: Completa el mapa conceptual usando los siguientes términos.moléculanúcleoganancia o pérdida de electronesSatisface las necesidades individualescovalentesnube electrónicaLos electrones están ubicadosen un(a)1.arreglados enniveles energéticosCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.donde los que se encuentran más alejados de(l)2.pueden formar enlaces3.iónicosformados porformados por4.compartimientode electronesy que crean unque crean un(a)5.ionEstructura del átomo y enlaces químicos23

NombreFechaLectura dirigida paraSección 1Dominio del contenidoClase ¿Por qué se combinanlos átomos?Instrucciones: Usa la tabla periódica para completar los siguientes diagramas de puntos.3.HP2.4.ClNeInstrucciones: Contesta estas preguntas sobre los elementos de la parte anterior.5. ¿Se combina el neón fácilmente con otros elementos? Explica.6. ¿Cuál de estos elementos tiene el mismo número de electrones en su nivel deenergía externo que el nitrógeno?7. ¿Qué nombre se le da a la familia de elementos que incluye el cloro?8. ¿Cuáles elementos tienen propiedades similares a las del calcio?24 Estructura del átomo y enlaces químicosCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Satisface las necesidades individuales1.

NombreFechaLectura dirigida paraSección 2Dominio del contenidoClase Cómo se unen loselementosInstrucciones: Usa los siguientes términos para completar el crucigrama.covalentefórmulaenlace polarCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Satisface las necesidades individualesenlace químicocompuestonube electrónicadiagramas de puntosionenlace iónicomoléculaHorizontales2. Muestra el número de electrones en el nivel más externo4. Enlace que se forma cuando los átomos comparten electrones5. Tipo de enlace en el cual los electrones se comparten en forma desigual.8. Fuerza que mantiene unidos a los átomos10. Todos los electrones de un átomo están en su .Verticales1. Sustancia pura que contiene dos o más elementos3. Partícula neutra que se forma cuando los átomos comparten electrones6. Tipo de enlace que mantiene unidos los iones7. Combinación de símbolos químicos9. Átomo que ha ganado o perdido un electrónEstructura del átomo y enlaces químicos25

NombreFechaLectura dirigida paraDominio del contenidoClaseTérminos clavesEstructura del átomo y enlaces químicosInstrucciones: Usa los siguientes términos para completar las oraciones.enlace polarenlace iónicomoléculacompuestoenlace químicoenlace metálicoenlace covalentemolécula polarnube electrónicafórmuladiagrama de puntos de electronesion2. Una partícula atómica con carga se llama un(a) .3. La fuerza que mantiene a dos átomos unidos es un(a) .4. Una sustancia pura que contiene uno o más elementos es un(a).5. Cuando los átomos comparten electrones se forma un(a)entre ellos.6. Cuando los átomos forman enlaces covalentes se forma un(a).7. El NaCl es un ejemplo de un(a) químico(a).8. Un(a) es una forma de representar los átomos y electrones en los niveles de energía externos.9. En un(a) los electrones se comparten de maneradesigual.10. Un(a) tiene una pequeña carga positiva en un extremoy una pequeña carga negativa en el otro extremo.11. El espacio alrededor del núcleo en el cual viajan los electrones del átomo sellama .12. Cuando los átomos de los metales comparten sus electrones combinados, seforma un(a) .26 Estructura del átomo y enlaces químicosCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Satisface las necesidades individuales1. Los iones se mantienen unidos por medio de un(a) .

Name1DateReinforcementClassWhy do atoms combine?Directions: Complete the sentences below using the following terms. Some of the terms may not be used.atomic structureelectronelectron cloudelectron dot diagramelement familiesnucleusouter energy levelprotonperiod2. The clos

Make sure your teacher approves your plan before you proceed. Make the Model 1. Construct your model. Then record your observations on a separate sheet of paper and include a sketch. 2. Construct another model of a different element. 3. Observe the models made by your class-mate