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12-Jandt Text.qxd6/21/03 5:18 PMPage 285CHAPTER 12ContactBetween CulturesWhat You Can Learn From This ChapterHow discursive imperialism contributed to colonialismDiffusion and convergence processesCommunication strategy of adapting to the receiver in the diffusion processMarketing of U.S. cultural iconsFears underlying cultural hegemonyIn this chapter, you’ll examine what happens when people from diversecultures interact with one another. First, you’ll focus on diffusion, or thespread of practices from one culture to another. You’ll identify the roles inthe diffusion process and the characteristics of those most likely to use newpractices first. You’ll see through examples that key to successful diffusion isadapting the new practice to the receiving culture.Then, in contrast, you’ll look at the most successful of U.S. marketingabroad: the marketing of U.S. cultural icons such as Coca-Cola andMcDonald’s. In contrast to other products, icons are minimally changed forthe receiving culture. Finally, you’ll look at cultural hegemony, or the fear ofthe influence one culture can develop over another.285

12-Jandt Text.qxd2866/21/03 5:18 PMPage 286Chapter 12COLONIALISMCultures of humans have been coming into contact with one another for untoldcenturies. The nature of that contact probably varied widely. However, for thepurpose of better understanding the relations among peoples and countriestoday, an examination of contact between cultures must begin with colonialism.HawaiiIn chants, legends, and mele (“vocal music”), Hawaiians trace the originsof the culture to daring seafarers who discovered and colonized the islands.Sometime around 1000 A.D., isolated from further outside influence, a uniqueculture emerged. Hawaii’s society was hereditary and composed of the ali’i(“ruling class”), kahuna (“priests” or “experts”), maka’âinana (“commoners”), and kauwâ (“slaves”). The society operated under a strict kapu (“restriction,” “consequence,” “separation,” or “forbidden”) system that dictated dailyactivity between the classes and between the people and nature and the gods.A culture of about 1 million people had developed a harmony with its isolated,island environment (Young, 1980).Captain James Cook arrived in 1778. Edward Said (1978, 1981) describesthe contact and subsequent linguistic construction of non-Western cultures as“Orientalism,” a process of labeling the peoples of “underdeveloped” culturesas insignificant “others.” Captain Cook and his men, for example, wrote of theHawaiians as “savage or animal-like or heathen.” While the Hawaiians werelabeled as savages, the Europeans interpreted the Hawaiians’ actions as deifying Captain Cook. The ship’s journals state that “they [the Hawaiians] venerated [Cook] almost to adoration,” looked upon Cook as “a kind of superiorbeing,” honored him “like a god,” and “as far as related to the person ofCaptain Cook, they seemed close to adoration” (Obeyesekere, 1992). TheEuropeans labeled the Hawaiians not by any uniqueness but on the basis ofwhat the Hawaiians were not (i.e., not civilized by European standards).Shome (1996) calls this discursive imperialism (also see Tanno & Jandt, 1994).The dehumanization of the Hawaiians into “others” contributed to near destruction of the Hawaiian culture. A similar dehumanization occurred in Australia.AustraliaIn a similar way, all that is known of the European contact with Australia’sAboriginals is from the written journals and history of the Europeans.

12-Jandt Text.qxd6/21/03 5:18 PMPage 287Contact Between Cultures287Eighteen years after Captain Cook first arrived off the eastern coast ofAustralia, Captain Arthur Phillip arrived with 11 ships and their cargo of prisoners who established the British settlement on the shores of Sydney Harbor inJanuary 1788.Captain Phillip’s view of the colonists as “guests” of the indigenousinhabitants and edict prohibiting molesting or killing Aboriginals wasnot long lasting. The Europeans occupied coastal hunting grounds and disturbed sacred sites of local Aboriginals, not having learned of their existence,much less importance. There were no large-scale wars like those withAmerican Indians and New Zealand Maori. The Aboriginals resisted withspears and stone weapons in encounters that would later be called “guerrillawarfare.”In the book Ancient Society published in 1877, the Australian Aboriginalwas described as “the living representatives of that worldwide primeval culturefrom which all other cultures had evolved.” The Aboriginal was labeled as notevolved, an oddity, or semi-human.As the Europeans moved further into the continent with farming and cattleraising, the Aboriginal population was decimated. Arsenic was mixed with theflour or inserted into the carcasses of sheep given to the Aboriginals for food.Numerous instances of large-scale slaughter have been documented, includingthe entire Aboriginal population of Tasmania (Isaacs, 1980).DIFFUSION MODELOne result of contact between cultures is that through interaction one culturemay learn and adopt certain practices of the other culture. Perhaps the mostsignificant example of adopting new practices resulted from Columbus’s sailings linking two separate worlds into one. The Old World brought horses,cows, sheep, chickens, honeybees, coffee, wheat, cabbage, lettuce, bananas,olives, tulips, and daisies. The New World provided turkeys, sugarcane, corn,sweet potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins, pineapples, petunias, poinsettias, and thepractice of daily baths—a practice abhorred by Europeans.This is the process of diffusion. Everett Rogers (Rogers & Shoemarker,1971) has studied the communication process by which innovations arespread to members of a social system. Since the early 1960s, communicationresearchers have investigated the agricultural, health, educational, and familyplanning innovations in developing nations. The communication model presented in Chapter 2 has been particularly robust in analyzing and planninginnovation diffusion.

12-Jandt Text.qxd2886/21/03 5:18 PMPage 288Chapter 12RolesOpinion Leadership and Change AgentsImportant roles in the diffusion process are opinion leadership and changeagents. Opinion leadership is accomplished by individuals who are able toinfluence informally other individuals’ attitudes or overt behavior in a desiredway with relative frequency. A change agent is a person who influences innovation decisions in a direction deemed desirable by a change agency.AdoptersThe rate of adoption is the relative speed with which an innovation isadopted by members of a social system. Important to understanding the diffusion process are adoption categories or classifications of the members of asocial system on the basis of innovativeness. In order of their adoption of achange they are innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, andlaggards.Box 12.1WHAT IS TRULY AMERICAN?The service of diffusion in enriching the content of individual cultures has been ofthe utmost importance. There is probably no culture extant today which owes morethan 10 per cent of its total elements to inventions made by members of its ownsociety. Because we live in a period of rapid invention we are apt to think of our ownculture as largely self-created, but the role which diffusion has played in its growthmay be brought home to us if we consider the beginning of the average man’s day.The locations listed in the following paragraphs refer only to the origin points ofvarious culture elements, not to regions from which we now obtain materials orobjects through trade.Our solid American citizen awakens in a bed built on a pattern which originatedin the Near East but which was modified in Northern Europe before it was transmitted to America. He throws back covers made from cotton, domesticated in India,or linen, domesticated in the Near East, or wool from sheep, also domesticated inthe Near East, or silk, the use of which was discovered in China. All of these materials have been spun and woven by processes invented by the Indians of the Eastern

12-Jandt Text.qxd6/21/03 5:18 PMPage 289Contact Between Cultures289woodlands, and goes to the bathroom, whose fixtures are a mixture of Europeanand American inventions, both of recent date. He takes off his pajamas, a garmentinvented in India, and washes with soap invented by the ancient Gauls. He thenshaves, a masochistic rite which seems to have been derived from either Sumer orancient Egypt.Returning to the bedroom, he removes his clothes from a chair of southernEuropean type and proceeds to dress. He puts on garments whose form originallyderived from the skin clothing of the nomads of the Asiatic steppes, puts on shoesmade from skins tanned by a process invented in ancient Egypt and cut to a patternderived from the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, and ties around hisneck a strip of bright-colored cloth which is a vestigial survival of the shouldershawls worn by the seventeenth-century Croatians. Before going out for breakfast heglances through the window, made of glass invented in Egypt, and if it is raining putson overshoes made of rubber discovered by the Central American Indians and takesan umbrella, invented in southeastern Asia. Upon his head he puts a hat made of felt,a material invented in the Asiatic steppes.On his way to breakfast he stops to buy a paper, paying for it with coins,an ancient Lydian invention. At the restaurant a whole new series of borrowedelements confronts him. His plate is made of a form of pottery invented in China.His knife is of steel, an alloy first made in southern India, his fork a medieval Italianinvention, and his spoon a derivative of a Roman original. He begins breakfast withan orange from the eastern Mediterranean, a canteloupe from Persia, or perhaps apiece of African watermelon. With this he has coffee, an Abyssinian plant, withcream and sugar. Both the domestication of cows and the idea of milking them originated in the Near East, while sugar was first made in India. After his fruit and firstcoffee he goes on to waffles, cakes made by a Scandinavian technique from wheatdomesticated in Asia Minor. Over these he pours maple syrup, invented by theIndians of the Eastern woodlands. As a side dish he may have the egg of a speciesof bird domesticated in Indo-China, or thin strips of the flesh of an animal domesticated in Eastern Asia which have been salted and smoked by a process developedin northern Europe.When our friend has finished eating he settles back to smoke, an American Indianhabit, consuming a plant domesticated in Brazil in either a pipe, derived from theIndians of Virginia, or a cigarette, derived from Mexico. If he is hardy enough he mayeven attempt a cigar, transmitted to us from the Antilles by way of Spain. Whilesmoking he reads the news of the day, imprinted in characters invented by the ancientSemites upon a material invented in China by a process invented in Germany. As heabsorbs the accounts of foreign troubles he will, if he is a good conservative citizen,(Continued)

12-Jandt Text.qxd2906/21/03 5:18 PMPage 290Chapter 12Box 12.1, Continuedthank a Hebrew deity in an Indo-European language that he is 100 per centAmerican.The foregoing is merely a bit of antiquarian virtuosity made possible by theexistence of unusually complete historic records for the Eurasiatic area. There aremany other regions for which no such records exist, yet the cultures in these areasbear similar witness to the importance of diffusion in establishing their content. Fairlyadequate techniques have been developed for tracing the spread of individual traitsand even for establishing their origin points, and there can be no doubt that diffusionhas occurred wherever two societies and cultures have been brought into contact.SOURCE: Ralph Linton, The Study of Man, circa 1936, reprinted 1964, pp. 326-327. Reprinted bypermission of Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.The diffusion process can also be observed within a culture as it adopts newtechnologies. Everett Rogers (1986), in his book Communication Technology,recounts the introduction and adoption of bank automated teller machines—ATMs.For banks, ATM technology has many advantages: The machines seldommake mistakes, and they save on labor costs. Each ATM transaction costsbanks 21 cents, whereas each transaction completed face-to-face with a humanteller costs banks more than twice as much. With these advantages, it is notsurprising that banks across the country installed some 70,000 ATMs in thelate 1970s and early 1980s at a cost of some 1 billion.By 1985, only about one in three customers used them. The innovators,early adopters, and some of the early majority were users. As this 33% useseemed to be fairly stable, bankers began to speak of “smashing the wall”; thatis, bankers began to try incentives to increase the percentage of customersusing the ATM—or converting the late majority and laggards.Who are the innovators? Studies of adaptation potential, or an individual’spossible success in adapting to a new culture, give us hints of likely innovators.Age and educational background are good predictors as innovators tend tobe younger and better educated. Another characteristic of innovators is familiarity with the new technology or belief through previous contact, interpersonal contacts, and mass media. Personality factors, such as gregariousness,tolerance for ambiguity, risk taking, and open-mindedness, and other relatedfactors are also good predictors of cultural adaptation and likely characteristics of innovators.

12-Jandt Text.qxd6/21/03 5:18 PMPage 291Contact Between CulturesChange Agent EthicsOne final aspect of the diffusion process is change agent ethics. You mightask yourself the “pill question.” If you had a pill that could cure cancer, wouldyou give it to a society? It would cure cancer, but the result would be the lossof jobs in health care. It might also cause people to live longer, thus putting astrain on the resources of that society. In response to that strain, that societymay move to mandatory deaths of its citizens at age 70. Would you want thatto happen?What are the consequences of providing birth control information and technology to a developing country? What might be the consequences on familysize? The role of women? Support for the elderly? It is this fear of the consequences of culture contact that is the reason why products are rejected.Case Study: Quality CirclesIn the following case study, you will see an example of the diffusion ofmanagement concepts from the United States to Japan and then from Japanback to the United States.Post-World War II Japan had its industry destroyed. Japanese products of thetime were popularly known as “junk”—they might last a day or two. “Made inJapan” meant the same thing as cheap and shoddy merchandise. GeneralDouglas MacArthur asked Washington to send someone to help conduct anational census and assess Japan’s ability to rebuild. Dr. W. Edward Deming(1900-1993), a relatively unknown statistician for the U.S. government,was sent.Beginning in 1948, he gave lectures for the Union of Japanese Scientists andEngineers (JUSE), eventually lecturing to representatives of virtually everymajor Japanese corporation. Deming’s message was that quality is the result ofconsistency, efficiency, and continual improvement. Deming believed thatworkers are intrinsically motivated to do well but that efforts are thwarted byincompetent, narrow-minded management. Deming stressed achieving uniformresults during production rather than through inspection at the end of the production line. Deming’s message was empowering workers with quality controldecisions, monitoring the results statistically, and systematic cooperation withsuppliers and buyers. In 1951, the JUSE honored his services by establishingthe Deming Award for Quality. His portrait in Toyota headquarters is largerthan that of the company’s founder.Later, Dr. Joseph Juran lectured in Japan on extending quality from justmanufacturing to the entire process from product design to product delivery to291

12-Jandt Text.qxd2926/21/03 5:18 PMPage 292Chapter 12the customer. By 1956, there was a weekly radio series on quality, and in 1960,the government declared November “National Quality Month.”From Deming’s and Juran’s work, Japan developed by 1962 the concept ofthe quality circle—a group of from 3 to 10 employees who meet on the job todiscuss and solve quality problems (Ingle, 1982). This and other efforts had bythe 1970s resulted in top-quality cameras, electronics, motorcycles, televisionsets, and radios.Why did the quality circle as a concept succeed so well in Japan? The mostimportant reason, as you’ve seen, is that the concept of working together ingroups to benefit organization matched with the Japanese cultural value placedon group affiliation or homogeneity.But the story is not over. In the 1960s, the United States was beginning tolose its lead in manufacturing. In the late 1960s, Dr. Juran published storiesdescribing Japanese quality circles. Companies such as Lockheed andHoneywell started similar pilot programs. By 1973, Lockheed’s programs werereceiving wide publicity and wide imitation. Although many Fortune 500 companies began using quality circles, the programs did not have the same impactthey had in Japan. Quality circles did not fit in well with the dominant U.S.value of individualism.In the first part of this example, General MacArthur provided the opinionleadership and Dr. Deming was the change agent. In the second part of theexample, Dr. Juran provided the opinion leadership for the United States. Inthe second part, quality circles coming to the United States, the innovator wasa corporation: Lockheed was the innovator in using Japanese quality circles inthe United States.CONVERGENCE MODELThere has been much criticism of the diffusion model, including its heavy identification with mass media channels. The model has been modified to treatcommunication as a process of convergence among members of interpersonalnetworks (Rogers & Kincaid, 1981).In the convergence model, communication is defined as a process in whichinformation is shared by two or more individuals who converge over timetoward a greater degree of mutual agreement. Whereas the diffusion modelfocuses on what one individual does to another, the convergence model focuseson the relationship between those who share information. Thus, the level ofanalysis shifts from the individual to the dyad or on the macrolevel to groupsand cultures.

12-Jandt Text.qxd6/21/03 5:18 PMPage 293Contact Between Cultures293Democracy in Bolivia and BotswanaIn many ways, democracy can be considered an innovation. Democracy canbe presented as it exists in the West. But one of the strengths of democracy hasbeen its adaptability to local situations: Two millennia ago, democracyempowered only educated, upper-class White males; by the 20th century,diverse societies had adapted democracy. As such, the spread of democracy isan example of the convergence model.Bolivia had a sophisticated culture that flourished 6 centuries B.C.E.However, in a 162-year period in the 19th and 20th centuries, Bolivia had189 regimes. Today, the population is 65% indigenous.The developing democracy in Bolivia is a blend of traditional ways withWestern practices. Centuries ago, Bolivia’s Aymara Indians elected a chiefauthority to oversee agriculture, religious rites, and clan coordination in clanbased groups called ayllus. Today, the ayllus elect local governments to runeverything from schools to development projects. Other Indian groups do thesame thing through family- or community-based groups.In Botswana, Africa’s most stable country, tribal traditions have blendedwith Western democratic practices. The traditional village councils, or kgotla,permitted everyone to speak as issues were discussed and consensus evolved.The village chiefs then pronounced decisions as made by the kgotla.Botswana’s parliament preserves this tradition.Its House of Chiefs has an advisory role on all legislation and resemblesGreat Britain’s House of Lords. The government ignores the chiefs’ advice “atits peril.”In both Bolivia and Botswana, the innovation of democracy merged or converged with local tradition. Its acceptance and success are more likely.ADAPTING THE MESSAGEAs you’ve seen, key to the diffusion and convergence processes across culturesis adaptation of the message to the receiving culture. The key is to adapt to thelocal culture, localize thinking, localize the product, and localize the marketingstrategy.De Mooij (1998) has reviewed research and been able to relate advertisingstyles to Hofstede’s dimensions: Japanese advertising reflects Confucian andcollectivistic values. Concepts of face and harmony relate to an indirect communication style. It is said that the goal of Japanese advertising is to win thetrust and respect of the consumer. Advertising is serene, mood creating, and

12-Jandt Text.qxd2946/21/03 5:18 PMPage 294Chapter 12subtle with much symbolism. Dependency, nature, and respect for elders canbe seen.Taiwan advertising generally links the product to the consumer’s traditionalChinese values, such as family relations and respect for authority. The advertising is indirect and promises an ideal that may be reached through the use ofthe product. Spanish advertising is less direct than the advertising style ofnorthern European countries because Spain’s culture is more collectivistic.People are depicted in family and other groups. Feminine aspects of the cultureare seen in the softer approaches and relatively low use of celebrity endorsements. The use of art, color, and beauty are related to a strong uncertaintyavoidance.U.S. advertising reflects assertiveness, the direct approach, and competitiveness, which de Mooij relates to a configuration of masculinity and individualism. Overstatement and hyperbole are typical, as are direct comparisons.Two examples of message adaptation are the marketing of baby foodworldwide and missionary work in New Guinea.Marketing Gerber Baby Foods WorldwideGerber Products first entered Australia in 1959, Japan in 1960, and thePhilippines in 1972 under the assumption that the world would like and buywhat was popularly used in the United States. The company discovered thateach country not only likes different foods but also has different baby-feedingpractices. Gerber then established advisory committees in those countries todetermine what products would be acceptable. Out of that came “lamb stockstew” for Australia, “rice with young sardines” for Japan, and “strainedmango” for the Philippines.In Japan and South Korea, there are pressures on mothers to make meals forthe family from scratch. Here Gerber positions itself by marketing its productsas part of a “scientifically based” feeding plan. The food containers are labeledas “lessons” to demonstrate that Gerber provides something that the motherscannot make for babies.Religious Missionary Work in New GuineaBefore reading how missionaries took Christianity to the peoples of NewGuinea, understand that missionaries look for what is called a redemptiveanalogy, or something in the culture that can be compared to the gospel andhence makes the unknown knowable to the culture (Richardson, 1974).

12-Jandt Text.qxd6/21/03 5:18 PMPage 295Contact Between Cultures295One missionary came upon the practice of peace making between twovillages. A man from each village handed over to the other village one of eachvillage’s babies to live among the other people. The people in New Guineacalled these children tarop tim, or “peace child.” According to the tradition,everyone in the village must then touch the peace child as a symbol of accepting the peace. As long as the children were alive, no fighting was allowed tooccur between the villages.The missionary built his message around the concept of the peace child. Heexplained how God gave his “peace child” to the world. In the local culture,fighting could begin again if the children died, but God’s peace child is eternalbecause he rose from the dead and is still alive.CULTURAL IMPERIALISMThe cultural imperialist approach to communication recognizes that massmedia is not value free—the media also carry important cultural values(Nordenstreng & Schiller, 1979; Schiller, 1976). Countries with media able tocapture and dominate international markets in this theory serve the originating country’s intentions. The single largest export industry for the UnitedStates is not aircraft. It is entertainment. Hollywood films grossed more than 30 billion worldwide in 1997. Hollywood gets 50% of its revenues overseas(United Nations Development Programme, 1999). Schiller (1976) points to theunrestricted flow of media from the United States having the effect of surreptitiously affecting other people’s goals and aspirations. It was just that concernthat led Canada to require that radio stations devote at least 30% of their programming to Canadian music.One country in particular is symbolic in its concerns over cultural invasion.By 1757, the British had control over parts of India, and by 1857 virtually controlled the entire country. The British presence with its East India Companywas a combination of political and commercial interests. India is one countrythat has on occasion responded to cultural invasion with protests and opposition from activists and politicians.Coca-Cola was forced to leave India in 1977 after pressures from socialistswho labeled the soft drink a new form of colonialism pushing the Americanculture. Coke returned to India in 1993. Kentucky Fried Chicken faced opposition to serving poultry with hormones and chemicals. Other U.S. companiesthat have met resistance in India are Pepsi, DuPont, Cargill, and Enron.China was one of Coca-Cola’s first overseas markets when bottling plantswere established in Shanghai and Tianjin in 1927. Forced to leave in 1949 by

12-Jandt Text.qxd2966/21/03 5:18 PMPage 296Chapter 12Mecca-Cola, a new soft drink and part of anti-American sentiment aroundthe world.China’s Communist Party as a symbol of U.S. imperialism, Coke returned in1979. There have been new movements in China to limit the growing sales ofU.S.-made Coke and Pepsi to protect local beverages.Barbie dolls are considered anti-Islamic and importing them into Iran is prohibited. Barbie’s makeup and “indecent” clothes are considered Western cultural influences. An Iranian government-sponsored project designed Sara andDara dolls. Sara wears long, flowing clothes and wraps. Her companion, Dara,is her brother, who comes with the long coat and turban of an Islamic cleric.Some Arabs and other Muslims boycott U.S. products over the U.S. backing ofIsrael. Sales of the Iranian soft drink Zam Zam Cola, with its name taken froma holy spring in Saudi Arabia, increased in 2002. Another, Mecca-Cola, soldin Europe, is marketed as a protest to U.S. foreign policy.In Taiwan, some are talking about a “new colonialism” and one newspapercarried the headline, “Be Careful! Your Kids Are Becoming Japanese.”Japanese television reaches 75% of Taiwanese households on cable. Japanesecomic books and trendy fashion magazines such as Non-No and Check arepopular among teens, as are Japanese merchandise and pop singers. Teens saythat Japanese popular culture is easy to relate to because the cultures are similar. Older people remember Japan’s 50-year rule of Taiwan and have called

12-Jandt Text.qxd6/21/03 5:18 PMPage 297Contact Between Cultures297for a boycott of Japanese products toI do not want my house to be walled in on allpreserve Chinese heritage.sides and my windows stuffed. I want theThe counterargument to culturalcultures of all the lands to be blown about myimperialism is that there are no surhouse as freely as possible. But I refuse to beveys showing that people are becomblown off my feet by more alike. While media flowglobally, people receive and use the—Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, quoted inmessages differently. Global marketUnited Nations Development Programme,ing may symbolize the lifestyles thatHuman Development Report, 1999people aspire to, but there is evidencethat local cultures have taken on arenewed significance as political movements promote local cultures and localidentities. Finally, there is evidence that cultures do not only flow in one direction. Salsa music originated in the Caribbean but is now known worldwide, asare Ethiopian and Thai cuisines.CULTURAL ICONSIn his book Mediamerica, Edward Jay Whetmore (1987) writes of icons andartifacts as aspects of popular culture. An icon is a special symbol that tendsto be idolized in a culture (Disney’s Mickey Mouse is a good example); an artifact is an object less widely recognized. Icons of U.S. culture are so popular forthe very reason that they represent U.S. culture.Other cultures, as well, have representative icons. For example, English gardens, golf, English tea, Winnie the Pooh, Burberry, Laura Ashley, and the BodyShop represent British culture to many. Kangaroos, koalas, and boomerangsrepresent Australia to many.A global brand carries the same brand name or logo worldwide. Its valuesand positioning are identical in all countries, and it has brand loyalty in allcountries in which it is marketed. Marlboro is an example. It is positionedworldwide as an urban premium brand appealing to the desire for freedom andopen physical space symbolized by the “Marlboro man” and “MarlboroCountry.” Global brands may be modified to meet local consumer needs andcompetitive requirements. For example, both Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Colaincrease the sweetness in the Middle East where consumers prefer a sweeterdrink. Other examples of global brands are Braun, Budweiser, Canon, Cartier,Club Med, Disney, IBM, KFC, Kodak, Levi’s, McDonald’s, Mercedes,Mitsubishi, Philips, and Sony. The majority of global brands are of U.S. originand to many represent the U.S. lifestyle and culture (d

an umbrella, invented in southeastern Asia. Upon his head he puts a hat made of felt, a material invented in the Asiatic steppes. On his way to breakfast he stops to buy a paper, paying for it with coins, an