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Unit 5: American Revolution1 A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n

Political and Economic Relationships between Great Britain and the ColoniesEngland became Great Britain in the early 1700s, and it was throughout this century that the British colonies in Americagrew and prospered. The growth of the colonies made it more and more difficult for Great Britain to remain in control.King George III decided to use politics and economics to remind the colonists that he was still in charge.Political RelationshipsThe Parliament in London was the lawmaking branch of Great Britain’s government. It passed laws for all British people,including the colonists. However, Parliament allowed the colonies to set up legislatures to make some of the laws thataffected them. For example, Virginia’s House of Burgesses was the first legislature (lawmaking body) in the Britishcolonies.Each colony also had its own governor. Although the coloniallegislature made laws for the colony, the governor kept a carefulwatch on the legislatures. All laws passed by a colonial legislaturehad to be approved by the governor. The governor monitored thecolonial legislatures to make sure that they were making laws thatthe British government would approve of. They also made sure thecolonists were obeying laws passed by the British Parliament andKing. In some colonies, the governor was appointed by the king orqueen. Those colonies were known as royal colonies. In othercolonies, the governor was named by the proprietor (owner of thecolony).Economic RelationshipsBeginning in 1651, Great Britain passed the first in a series of laws to control trade in the colonies. These laws areknown as the Navigation Acts. Through these laws, the British government imposed strict rules on colonial trade.Colonial merchants could only send their exports or goods leaving a country to Great Britain or to other British colonies.The British government also said that colonists could only buy British made imports, or goods brought into a country tobe sold. The colonies depended on trading raw materials for goods. However, the colonists could not legally trade withother countries, even if they offered better prices.Great Britain also tried to control the economy of the colonies byplacing taxes on goods traded in the colonies. A tax is moneycollected by a government to pay for government services. Forexample, Parliament placed taxes on tobacco, molasses, sugar, tea,and even paper documents to help pay the cost of fighting theFrench and Indian War and other expenses.2 A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n

Political and Economic Relationships between Great Britain and the Colonies(Continued)Political Relationships Colonists had to obey laws that were enforced by colonial. Colonial governors were appointed by the or by the . Colonial legislatures made for each colony and were by colonial governors.Economic Relationships imposed strict control over . Great Britain the colonies after the Colonies traded materials for goods.Directions: Imagine you are a reporter for the Colonial Daily Newspaper. Write an article from the colonists’ point ofview covering the political or economic relationship between Great Britain and the colonies. Add an illustration.Colonial Daily News3 A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n

Dissatisfaction (unhappiness) in the ColoniesAs Great Britain expanded control over the American colonies, many colonists became dissatisfied and rebellious. TheBritish were almost broke. They needed money for the upkeep of soldiers after the war. Why not make the colonistshelp pay?When France surrendered at the end of the French and Indian War, boundary lines were redrawn,and the colonists were thrilled. Now they could go west and take even more land from the Indians.Their happiness did not last long. Britain told the colonists that they were placing restrictions onmoving west. The Proclamation of 1763 said that territory between the Appalachian Mountainsand the Mississippi River was off-limits. The colonists were not happy. The new law said that all theIndians were now under the protection of the king and all lands within Indian Territory occupied bythe colonists had to be abandoned.Great Britain’s desire to be a world power was costing a fortune, and the French and Indian Warhad been very expensive. It took a lot of money to keep its army and navy clothed, fed, and armed. Soon after the warended, the British announced a new tax on the colonists. They thought it only fitting that the Americans pay for part ofthe cost of the war and to maintain British troops in North America.It all began with the Sugar Act of 1764. For years there had been a tax on molasses. The colonists had gotten quite goodat avoiding the tax by smuggling. The new act lowered the tax, but also gave tax agents a lot of power. The Britishbegan cracking down on the smuggling, and the new tax – levied by Parliament, not the colonial legislatures – mademany colonists angry.In 1775 another tax, the Stamp Act, was placed on paper goods such as newspapers, many kinds of books, and playingcards. This was still not the end. In 1767, yet another series of taxes was announced by Charles Townshend, the man incharge of England’s finances. The Townshend Acts placed taxes on paint, glass, and tea. Soon after, additional Britishtroops began arriving in American cities along with orders that the colonial legislatures must find places to house thesoldiers and pay their rent (Quartering Act). Tempers were beginning to boil on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.FIVE REASONS THE COLONISTS WERE ANGRY1. The proclamation of 1763 restricted the western movement of the colonists.2. The colonists opposed the endless British taxes.3. Colonists had no representation in Parliament, meaning they had no say in the new taxes.4. Some colonists began to resent the power of the colonial governor.5. Great Britain wanted strict control of the colonial legislatures.4 A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n

Dissatisfaction (unhappiness) in the Colonies (continued)Great Britain’s Reasons for Control1. Great Britain desired to be a .2. In the colonies, Great Britain’s desire to remain a resulted inconflict with the known as the French and Indian War.3. Great Britain imposed , such as the Stamp Act, to raise necessary revenue to pay the cost of theWar.Great Britain’s Reasons for Taxation1. To help the French and Indian War.2. To help with the of British troops in the colonies.Reasons for Colonial Dissatisfaction (unhappiness)1. Colonies had no in Parliament.2. Some colonies resented the power of the colonial .3. Great Britain wanted strict control over colonial .4. Colonies taxes.5. The Proclamation of , which followed the French and Indian War, the westernmovement of settlers.5 A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n

The Revolutionary WarTypes of Colonists During theRevolutionary WarColonists Speak OutAs Great Britain took steps to expand its control over the colonies, many colonistsbecome upset. Angry colonists soon began to protest or work against the StampAct. Some colonists chose not to pay the tax. Others signed letters asking KingGeorge III, king of Great Britain, to do away with the Stamp Act. Manycolonists chose to boycott, or refuse to buy, British goods. A group ofwomen called the Daughters of Liberty began weaving their own clothinstead of buying it from Great Britain.Patriot – Wanted to be free fromGreat BritainLoyalist – wanted to remain a part ofGreat BritainNeutral – Did not have a preferenceAnother group called the Sons of Liberty held protest marches against the Stamp Act. The Sons of Liberty attacked thehomes of tax collectors and other British officials. They also captured some tax collectors and chased them from townsor tarred and feathered them.So many colonists stopped buying British goods that the boycotts hurtbusinesses in Great Britain. After much discussion, Parliament (lawmakinggroup in Great Britain) voted to repeal or cancel the Stamp Act. However,new taxes were placed on goods such as glass, paint, and tea. Once again,the colonists’ protested. All the new taxes were repealed except the oneon tea!ColoniesCongressGreat BritainParliamentKing George IIIAtlanticOceanThe Boston MassacreAs protests, grew, Parliament sent more British soldiers to the colonies. Most of them were stationed in cities along theAtlantic coast. About 4,000 of the soldiers were sent to Boston.Many colonists did not want the soldiers in their towns They often shouted insults at the soldiers. They called them“redcoats” to make fun of their bright red uniforms. Some British soldiers responded by destroying the colonists’property.On the night of March 5, 1770, an angry crowd gathered near the Massachusetts StateHouse (political building) in Boston. The crowd shouted at a group of British soldiersand threw rocks and snowballs at them. As the crowd moved forward, the soldiersfired their guns. Five colonists died. Crispus Attucks, an African American sailor, wasthe first person killed. The event soon become known as the Boston Massacre eventhough the shooting was not really a massacre. A massacre is the killing of manypeople who cannot defend themselves.Boston Tea PartyIn 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act. This new law said that only the East India Company of Great Britain could selltea to the colonies. The colonists could buy the tea – Pay the tax on it – or else not drink tea. Many colonists boycottedtea.On the night of December 16, 1773, about 150 members of the Sons of Liberty dressed as American Indians andmarched to Boston Harbor. The group, led by Samuel Adams and Paul Revere, boarded three British ships. Thecolonists threw more than 300 containers of tea overboard. This angry protest becameknown as the Boston Tea Party.In March of 1774, Parliament passed a set of laws to punish the colonists after the BostonTea Party. One law closed Boston Harbor stopping trade until the colonists paid for thedestroyed tea. Another law stopped the Massachusetts colonial legislature from meeting.Parliament also ordered the colonists to quarter, or give food and housing to Britishsoldiers. Many colonists said that the new laws were intolerable, or unacceptable. Theybecame known as the Intolerable Acts.6 A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n

The First Continental CongressIn September 1774, leaders from all the colonies except Georgia met in Philadelphia. The meeting was later called theFirst Continental Congress. A congress is a formal meeting of the delegates or representatives.Delegates hoped for a peaceful solution to their problems with Great Britain. The Congress sent a petition, or a signedrequest, to King George III. The petition reminded the King of the colonists’ basic rights as British citizens. Congressvoted to stop most trade with Great Britain. It also asked the colonies to form militias, or armies of citizens.Some colonial leaders in Virginia suggested that the colonies begin preparing for war. In aspeech, Patrick Henry, an outspoken member of the Virginia House of Burgesses (groupof representatives) said, “I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give meliberty or give me death!” These words inspired other colonists and soon became afavorite patriotic slogan. A patriotic slogan is a saying that people repeat to express pridein their county.Lexington and ConcordIn April 1775, British soldiers marched toward the towns of Lexington and Concord inMassachusetts. They planned to arrest two leaders of the Sons of Liberty and capturethe group’s weapons. Paul Revere rode on horseback to warn the militia of each townto prepare for battle.Members of the Massachusetts’s militia, called Minutemen, were waiting for the Britishin Lexington. No one knows who fired first, but shots rang out. Eight Minutemen werekilled and several others were injured.The British moved on to Concord, where they faced the Minutemen again. After muchfighting, the British retreated to Boston. The fighting at Lexington and Concord turned out to be the first armed conflictin a long war called the American Revolution and “the shot heard around the world”.The Road to WarNews of the fighting at Lexington and Concord spread through the colonies. Hoping to avoid more fighting, colonialleaders called for the Second Continental Congress to meet in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775. The delegates expressedtheir desire for a peaceful end to the fighting. By June, however, the delegates agreed that the colonies should preparefor war with Great Britain.The first step was for Congress to form an army. It was called the Continental Army. Unlike the part-time militias thateach of the 13 colonies already had, the Continental Army was made up of full-time soldiers.Congress chose George Washington of Virginia as the commander of the Continental Army.Washington’s skills as a leader were well known in the colonies. Phillis Wheatley, a former enslavedAfrican American, honored George Washington in a poem. Phillis Wheatley wrote many poems andplays supporting American independence.Bunker HillThe first major battle of the American Revolution was fought on June 17, 1775 on Breed’s Hill, near Boston. (The battlewas wrongly named for nearby Bunker Hill.) The fighting was much tougher than the British has expected. Twice, theBritish were pushed back off the hill. In Boston, people watched in horror as thenearby city of Charlestown was hit and set on fire by cannonballs shot fromBritish ships in the harbor.The British eventually won the battle of Bunker Hill. However, they sufferedheavy losses. More than 1,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded. About350 colonists had been killed or wounded. The British learned that fighting theAmerican colonists would not be as easy as they had thought.7 A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n

Debating IndependenceNew ideas about government were reaching the colonies from Europe. Some European philosophers,or thinkers, such as John Locke believed that government was an agreement between people and theirrulers. Leaders had the responsibility to rule justly and people had the right to replace unjust rulers.Another philosopher was Thomas Paine. He wrote a pamphlet called “Common Sense” that helpedthe colonists shape the ideas of the Declaration.During the Second Continental Congress, June 7, 1776, held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,representatives from the colonies formed a committee to write a declaration, or statement, to the king.The major author of this official statement was Thomas Jefferson, a young lawyer and planter fromVirginia. The Declaration of Independence included why the colonists wanted independence from GreatBritain, how the colonists felt about government, a long list of grievances, or complaints, against the king and BritishParliament, and that the 13 colonies were no longer part of Great Britain.The Declaration of Independence was based upon ideas first expressed by European philosophers. Using thesephilosophies, Thomas Jefferson wrote in the Declaration of Independence that all people have rights that cannot betaken away. These “certain unalienable rights” included life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. He also wrote thatgovernments are given their power by the people and are established by the people to protect these rights and addedthe belief that the citizens of a nation have the right and the duty to change anygovernment that takes away or deprives the people of their rights.The Declaration of Independence was approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. JohnAdams, who had championed, or supported the cause of independence wrote to AbigailAdams, his wife, that Independence Day should be celebrated “from this time forward.”Ever since, Americans have celebrated the Fourth of July as a national holiday!Struggles and TriumphsThe Americans had gone to war against one of the most powerful armies in the world. Most soldiers in the ContinentalArmy had little training and many had no guns or uniforms. Early on, the British won many battles and captured severalimportant colonial cities.By December 1776, many American soldiers were ready to give up. Then, on Christmas night, the Americans made asneak attack on British soldiers near the town of Trenton, New Jersey. In a short fight, the Americans defeated theBritish army there. This victory gave the Continental Army new hope for winning the war.Earlier that year, Congress had sent Benjamin Franklin to France to try to get the French tosupport the colonists. At first, the French refused to help. Then in October 1777, theContinental Army won the Battle of Saratoga in New York. This was a turning point in the war.A turning point is an event that causes an important change. After the victory at Saratoga,Benjamin Franklin convinced France to help the Americans. The French provided guns, ships,and soldiers.Winter at Valley ForgeThe Americans were encouraged by their victories. However, they still struggled. In the winter of 1777, GeneralWashington set up his headquarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. He chose this site because it was high and flat. Fromthere, soldiers could easily watch for enemies.The weather at Valley Forge was bitterly cold that winter. The army did not have enough supplies, and diseases spreadquickly. By Washington’s own count, 2,898 men had no boots. The Continental Army was almost destroyed.However, the Continental Army got some help from some European friends. Marquis de Lafayette,from France, spent his own money to buy warm clothes for the soldiers. Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben,from Germany, taught the American troops better ways to march and fight. He showed them how towork better together and gave them confidence. By 1778, the Continental Army was much stronger.8 A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n

The War Moves SouthWhen the British learned that the French were helping the Americans, the British planned a new campaign in the South.A campaign is a series of military actions carried out for a certain goal. The British had captured many important cities inthe North. Now they wanted to defeat the Americans in the South before French help could arrive.There were many battles in the South. Some were won by the British, and some were won by the Continental Army.YorktownBy the Summer of 1781, British General Lord Charles Cornwallis had set up his headquarters at Yorktown, Virginia.Yorktown was a small town located near the Chesapeake Bay. The bay made it easy for British ships to bring in supplies.However, Yorktown’s location also meant that the town could be surrounded easily. Knowing this, the Americans andtheir French allies made a plan to defeat Cornwallis at Yorktown.Both the French and American soldiers marched south to surround Yorktown. At the same time, the French navy tookcontrol of the York River and Chesapeake Bay. Cornwallis was trapped. The French fleet blocked supplies form reachingthe British troops, and the Americans shot cannons at the town for weeks.French ships-York RiverCannons and SoldiersIn late September, Cornwallis sent word to his commander in the North. He asked for helpand extra soldiers. The 5,000 extra soldiers did not get to Yorktown in time. After beingsurrounded for weeks, Cornwallis finally gave up on October 19, 1781. The battle andsurrender at Yorktown was huge victory for the Americans and it helped end the war.The War EndsThe American victory over the forces of Lord Cornwallis marked the end of the Revolutionary War. News of GreatBritain’s surrender at Yorktown quickly spread throughout the colonies. The long fight was over. The Patriots had finallywon their independence. The United

Unit 5: American Revolution . 2 A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n Political and Economic Relationships between Great Britain and the Colonies England became Great Britain in the early 1700s, and it was throughout this century that the British colonies in America grew and prospered. The growth of the colonies made it more and more difficult for Great Britain to remain in control. King .