GLOBAL UNIVERSITYUndergraduateForm and Style GuideSecond EditionCompiled byGlobal University Faculty1211 South Glenstone AvenueSpringfield, Missouri 65804 USA1-800-443-1083 (USA)417-862-9533 (Outside USA)Fax: 417-869-5623E-mail: [email protected]
What is new in the Second Edition?yy The electronic source examples in Appendix B were expanded and updated.yy The text was updated from Turabian Manual 7th edition (2007) to Turabian Manual 8thedition (2013).What is new in this printing?yy For citing websites in a reference list, the Turabian Manual 8th edition calls for the access date toprecede the URL rather than follow it. Examples in Appendix A and Appendix B were updated toreflect this change.yy In Appendix B the directions for using a secondary source (one source quoted in another) wereexpanded and relocated. Also, an example of citing a book review from an electronic databasewas added.yy The “Manuscript Templates Available” section (page 6) was updated.yy An error in the sample reference list was corrected.yy Spacing of text on sample title pages was adjusted.Global UniversitySpringfield, Missouri, USA 2010, 2013 Global UniversityAll rights reserved. First edition 2010Second edition 2013PN 02.16.01Printed in the United States of America
Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION.5GENERAL FORMATTING.5Typeface.5Margins.5Spacing and Punctuation.5Line Spacing.5Page Numbering.6Running Page Headers.6Paragraphs and Indentions.6Section Headings.6Title Page.6ACADEMIC INTEGRITY.7REFERENCE LIST.7Format.7Basic Elements.7Arrangement.7CITATIONS.8Citation of Sources.8QUOTATIONS.8Short Quotations.8Long (Block) Quotations.9Scripture Quotations.9ADDITIONAL ELEMENTS OF 2Point of View.13Spelling and Grammar.13
GLOSSARY.14APPENDIX A. SAMPLE REFERENCE LIST.15APPENDIX B. CITATION EXAMPLES.16Print Books.16Periodicals.17Electronic Sources.17Other Published and Unpublished Sources.20APPENDIX C. ABBREVIATIONS OF BOOKS OF THE BIBLE.22Old Testament.22New Testament.22APPENDIX D. CITATION MANAGEMENT TOOLS.23EndNote.23Zotero.23APPENDIX E. SAMPLE TITLE PAGE FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT.24APPENDIX F. SAMPLE TITLE PAGE FOR UNDERGRADUATE CRA.25REFERENCE LIST.26
Undergraduate Form and Style Guide5IntroductionAcademic writing style refers to the style accepted by a college or university for academic papers.Most universities adopt an academic style compatible with their academic disciplines and modify thatstyle to meet their specific criteria. The Global University undergraduate division has adopted theTurabian academic style, with modification, for student papers.This guide has been compiled for use as a quick reference guide for undergraduate students to followin formatting papers for all undergraduate course projects, collateral reading assignments (CRAs), andcollateral writing assignments. This short guidebook is not a comprehensive list of rules. It summarizesform and style elements considered essential for GU undergraduate writing assignments. No briefguidebook can cover all the details in the use of form and style. Students should refer to A Manual forWriters of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations, 8th ed., by Kate L. Turabian, for additional writingand formatting guidelines.General FormattingTypefaceyy The Global University undergraduate division requires academic papers to be word processed witha Times New Roman 12-point font. (Exceptions can be made for students with visual impairmentand / or lack of computer access.)yy For emphasis within the text, use italics rather than CAPS, underlining, bold, colored text, or otherspecial fonts or styles of type. Section headings are an exception. (Refer to the Section Headingssection on the next page.)Marginsyy Normal page dimensions are 8½ by 11 inches. For international students, A4 paper isalso acceptable.yy Use one-inch (2.54 cm) margins all around (top, bottom, right and left) on every page.yy Do not justify the right margin.yy Do not use hyphenation to break words at the end of lines. Let a line run short rather than break aword at the end of a line.Spacing and Punctuationyy Space once after punctuation that ends a sentence (that is, periods, question marks, orexclamation points).yy Space once after colons.yy Do not space after internal periods in abbreviations (for example, a.m., i.e., U.S.).Line Spacingyy Double-space each line of type on the page, with these exceptions: Block quotes (see explanation of block quotations) Reference lists (see section on reference list pages)
6Undergraduate Form and Style GuidePage Numberingyy Number all pages (except title page) in the upper right-hand corner with arabic numerals.yy The running page headers (see next section) should be one-half inch (1.27 cm) from the top edgeand one inch (2.54 cm) from the right-hand edge of the page. (Page headers will violate the oneinch [2.54 cm] top margin.)yy All page numbers should be flush right on the line below the running page headers. Beginnumbering with the title page (but the numeral should not appear on the title page).yy The first page of text will be page 2.Running Page Headersyy A running page header with the following student information should appear on all pages (exceptthe title page): Student Name, Student Number (justified left) Course Number, Course Title, Print Number (PN) (justified right)yy The information in the running header will violate the one-inch top margin.FirstName FamilyName, StudentNumber–OfficeCodeCourseNumber, CourseTitle, PNPageNumberParagraphs and Indentionsyy The first line of each paragraph should be indented one-half inch (1.27 cm).yy Paragraphs should be at least two sentences in length. Avoid using single-sentence paragraphs.Section Headingsyy Section headings (if appropriate to the course project or CRA) may be used.yy Some flexibility is allowed for the use of section headings: Headings may be either flush left or centered. The font may be either regular, italics, or bold. Avoid underlining headings. Use Headline Style Capitalization for headings versus Sentence style capitalization.Title PageFor an example of a title page for a project, refer to Appendix E.For an example of a title page for a collateral reading assignment (CRA), refer to Appendix F.Manuscript Templates AvailableElectronic manuscript templates for undergraduate projects and CRAs are available in English, Español,and Français from the GU Library website. To access these templates, go tohttp://library.globaluniversity.edu. Under “Quick Link” (on the left-hand side), hover your mouseover “Undergraduate Students,” choose “Project Templates” from the list, and then select theappropriate template.
Undergraduate Form and Style Guide7Academic IntegrityEthics, copyright law, and courtesy require a student to properly acknowledge the sources cited in astudent paper. Plagiarism, derived from the Latin word plagium (kidnapper), is a legal term that denotesa violation of copyright law. Literally, the concept means cheating by taking another person’s research,concepts, or ideas and attributing them to oneself. All text as well as ideas borrowed from another source(whether or not it is the original source) must be properly credited with citations.Failure to identify sources may result in a failing grade, dismissal from the university, or criminalcharges. Refer to the “Basic Standards of Academic Integrity” section of a Global University catalogfor information on the university’s policy on cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, and obtaining anunfair advantage.Reference ListFormatThe reference list is the primary medium for documentation. The in-text citation merely points the readerto the full information in the reference list. (See Appendix A for a sample reference list.)yy Start the reference list on a new page at the end of the paper.yy Type the words REFERENCE LIST in uppercase, centered at the top of the page two inches fromthe top edge of the paper.yy List all sources cited in the paper in the reference list (unless otherwise noted, such as fornewspaper articles, well-known reference works, personal communications, and Bible passages).yy Do not list sources not cited in the paper.yy Single-space reference list entries; double-space between entries.yy Use a hanging indent format of one-half inch (1.27 cm) for entries longer than one line.Basic Elementsyy Author. List the author’s full name (surname, given name, middle name or initial) first. Only useinitials for those authors who always use initials only (such as C. S. Lewis or F. F. Bruce).yy Date. Give the date immediately after the name of the author(s).yy Title. List the title after the date. Capitalize the title using Headline Style Capitalization.yy Publication information. After the title, list the place of publication and publisher for books, orperiodical title and issue information for periodicals.Arrangementyy Arrange entries alphabetically by the authors’ surnames. If no author or editor is given, alphabetizethe source by the title (excluding the articles A, An, and The).yy Place one-author entries before multi-author entries:Fee, Gordon D. 2000. Listening to the Spirit in the Text. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.Fee, Gordon D., and Douglas Stuart. 2003. How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth: A Guideto Understanding the Bible. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.yy Use a 3-em dash (———) for successive entries by the same author(s) or editor(s).yy Arrange successive entries by the same author(s) or editor(s) chronologically by year of publication.yy Arrange works by the same author in the same year alphabetically by title and distinguish them bylowercase letters a, b, c (not italicized) and so on after the date. The lowercase letter is also includedin the in-text citation.
8Undergraduate Form and Style GuideCitationsThe Global University undergraduate division requires that students use an in-text (parenthetical)citation style rather than footnotes or endnotes when citing sources.yy This citation style is comprised of two elements:1. A reference list of all sources cited or quoted2. A brief in-text citation of the author, date, and page number enclosed in parenthesesyy The reference list provides full bibliographic details of each source cited:Steyne, Philip M. 1992. In Step with the God of the Nations. Houston: Touch Publications.yy The in-text citation briefly identifies the source in the text and refers readers to the complete entryin the reference list:He states, “Biblical Christianity is not imprisoned in any culture” (Steyne 1992, 29).Citation of SourcesWriters must cite the source of a direct quotation or a paraphrase. Writers must also cite the source offacts, ideas, or opinions not commonly known. As a general rule, a universally accepted fact does nothave to be cited.yy For a direct quotation in the text of the paper, give the author’s last name, year, and page number inparentheses following the quote: (Steyne 1992, 29).yy If the author’s name appears as part of the narrative, do not repeat it in the in-text citation. Encloseonly the year of publication in parentheses and place it after the author’s name. Cite the pagenumber after the paraphrased or quoted material:Pollard (1996) argues that Paul’s purpose in Philippians is to encourage unity (45).yy For works by the same author in the same year, also include a distinguishing lowercase letter a, b,or c (not italicized) after the date in the in-text citation: (Ryken 1987b, 34). (Make sure the lettercorresponds with the one added to the source in the reference list.)yy For short quotations, place in-text citations just before a mark of punctuation:He argues that Paul’s purpose in Philippians is to encourage unity (Pollard 1996, 45).For more examples of citations, see Appendix B.QuotationsShort QuotationsIncorporate a short quotation (fewer than five lines) within the double-spaced text and enclose thequotation with double quotation marks.yy Use single quotation marks within the double quotation marks for any material that was enclosed indouble quotation marks in the original source. In the following example, dove is enclosed in doublequotation marks in the original source:Ryken (1992) states, “Even the prophet’s name is ironic: Jonah means ‘dove,’ symbol ofhope and peace, which are the farthest things from Jonah’s mind” (338).yy Use a comma after the statement that introduces the quotation. Use verbs such as stated, states,reported, reports, observes, observed, or something similar to introduce the quotation:Morgan (2003) reported, “Enrollment at the study centers increased 12 percent in 2002” (56).
Undergraduate Form and Style Guide9yy Use a colon after a more formal introduction of the quotation. A formal introduction often useswords such as thus, the following, or as follows.yy Use no punctuation before the quotation if the quotation is joined to the introductory statement withwords such as that, if, and so forth.yy Capitalize the first word of the quote if it is set off syntactically from the text by a comma or a colon(even if it is lowercased in the original source).yy Do not capitalize the first word of the quote if it is joined to the introductory text with words suchas that, if, and so on (even if it is capitalized in the original source).yy To indicate the omission of a word, phrase, or sentence, use an ellipsis—three periods with spacesbetween them: . . . Leave a space between the last quoted word or punctuation mark and the firstellipsis dot, and another space after the last dot before the next word or punctuation mark (Turabian2013, 354).yy Use four ellipsis dots for omission following a sentence. The first dot, placed immediately after thelast word of the sentence, is the sentence period.yy Place the in-text citation immediately after the quotation marks and before the mark of punctuation:He emphasizes that “structural and relational dimensions of training must be appropriate totraining goals” (Ferris 1994, 5).Long (Block) QuotationsSet off direct quotations of five or more lines in a freestanding block (or block quotation).yy Indent block quotations one-half inch (1.27 cm) from the left margin, and single-space.yy The right margin is not indented and is unjustified or “ragged.”yy Do not indent the first line of a block quotation an additional one-half inch (1.27 cm).yy Do indent the first line of subsequent paragraphs an additional one-half inch (1.27 cm) if the blockquote has additional paragraphs.yy A block quotation may be preceded by either a period or a colon.yy A colon precedes a block quotation introduced by thus, as follows, or other similar wording.yy Be consistent in using a period or a colon for those block quotations not introduced by thus, asfollows, and so on.yy Do not enclose block quotations in quotation marks.yy Do, however, retain any quotation marks within the original source.yy Place the in-text citation after the final mark of punctuation. (This differs from the short quotationformat.)Scripture QuotationsIncorporate Scripture quotations of fewer than five lines into the text.yy Follow the same rules for short Scripture quotations as for regular short quotations.yy Cite the Scripture reference in an in-text citation (b
Undergraduate Form and Style Guide 5 Introduction Academic writing style refers to the style accepted by a college or university for academic papers. Most universities adopt an academic style compatible with their academic disciplines and modify that style to meet their specific criteria. The Global U