Strong Foundations For Quality And Equity In Mexican Schools

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Strong Foundations forQuality and Equity inMexican Schools

Strong foundations for quality andequity in Mexican schools

This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinionsexpressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD membercountries.This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty overany territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of anyterritory, city or area.The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeliauthorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights,East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. OECD 2018You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECDpublications, databases and multimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites andteaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgement of OECD as source and copyright owner is given. Allrequests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to [email protected] Requests forpermission to photocopy portions of this material for public or commercial use shall be addressed directly to theCopyright Clearance Center (CCC) at [email protected] or the Centre français d’exploitation du droit de copie(CFC) at [email protected]

TABLE OF CONTENTS 3Table of contentsAcronyms and abbreviations . 7Executive summary . 11Mexico’s recent education reform . 11Reflection for future policy development . 12Chapter 1. An overview of the education system in Mexico . 15Introduction and background of the report . 16The Mexican context shaping education. 18Main features of the Mexican education system . 21Recent education policy reforms . 33Looking towards the future . 35References. 38Chapter 2. Providing equity with quality in Mexican education . 41Introduction. 42Policy issues to provide equity with quality in education in Mexico . 42Assessment. 57Recommendations for future policy development and implementation . 68Notes . 73References. 74Chapter 3. Providing 21st century learning to all students . 81Introduction. 82Policy issues to focus the curriculum on all students’ learning . 82Assessment. 95Recommendations for future policy development and implementation . 100Note. 106References. 106Chapter 4. Supporting teachers and schools . 111Introduction. 112Policy issues on schools and teachers . 112Assessment. 119Recommendations for future policy development and implementation . 141Notes . 149References. 149Chapter 5. Focusing evaluation and assessment on schools and student learning . 155Introduction. 156Policy issues on evaluation and assessment practices to support quality and equity in education . 157

4 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSAssessment. 165Recommendations for future policy development and implementation . 174References. 185Conclusion: Building strong foundations for quality and equity in Mexican schools . 187Education reform in context. 187Mexico’s current education policy. 188Reflection for future policy development . 190General considerations for implementation . 200Annex A. OECD team members . 203Annex B. Meetings and interviews conducted by the OECD team . 205TablesTable 1.1. Key data on basic and upper secondary compulsory education in Mexico, 2016-17. 22Table 1.2. Student enrolment and completion in Mexico, 2016-17 . 30Table 3.1. Expected learning progress on the ability to summarise in Spanish . 90Table 3.2. Summary of the source of data for public consultation on the New Educational Model,2016 . 96Table 5.1. Distribution of roles for PLANEA . 162Table 5.2. Main differences between ENLACE and PLANEA for Schools . 171FiguresFigure 1.1. Share of youth as part of the population in Mexico, 2016 . 18Figure 1.2. Percentage of households with access to basic services in Mexico, 2016 . 20Figure 1.3. Composition of current expenditure in public educational institutions, 2014 . 26Figure 1.4. Educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds, 2000-2016 . 31Figure 1.5. Trends in PISA performance in Mexico, 2006-15 . 32Figure 2.1. Science performance and equity, PISA 2015 . 43Figure 2.2. Change in the percentage of the variation in science performance explained by socioeconomic status, PISA 2006-2015 . 44Figure 2.3. Enhancing equity in education while maintaining average performance in science, PISA2006-2015 . 46Figure 3.1. New curriculum for basic education: Key Learning Outcomes for Integral Education . 87Figure 3.2. Development of non-cognitive skills through subjects in curricula, 2018 . 89Figure 3.3. Correlations between the responsibilities for school governance and scienceperformance, PISA 2015 . 92Figure 4.1. Teachers’ self-efficacy and professional collaboration, 2013 . 120Figure 4.2. Index of school autonomy across OECD countries, PISA 2015 . 124Figure 4.3. Principals’ training in instructional leadership, lower secondary education, 2013 . 126Figure 4.4. PISA scores and overall teacher professionalism (ISCED 2), 2013 . 131Figure 4.5. Teachers' feedback by source of feedback, 2013 . 139Figure 5.1. Existence of standardised central assessments with no stakes for students, 2012 . 158

TABLE OF CONTENTS 5BoxesBox 1.1. OECD’s Implementing Education Policies support activities . 17Box 2.1. Delivering equity with quality in education: main abstracts from the Mexican law . 49Box 2.2. The strategy for equity and inclusion in the New Educational Model . 54Box 2.3. Chile’s formula-driven school grants. 61Box 3.1. Selected curricular reforms across OECD: focus on student learning . 85Box 3.2. The purpose of education in Mexico (final version agreed in 2017) . 86Box 3.3. Curricular autonomy in Portugal . 94Box 3.4. Curriculum design principles for change, OECD Education 2030 . 105Box 4.1. The Technical Support Service to Schools (SATE) . 115Box 4.2. Collaboration and peer learning in Asian systems . 122Box 4.3. Strengthening the role of the principal by developing school leadership standards in Chile 127Box 4.4. Developing education leadership in Ontario, Canada. 129Box 4.5. Danielson’s Framework for Teaching . 137Box 4.6. Basic principles for the development of training programmes for compulsory educationpersonnel (Estado de Puebla) . 145Box 4.7. Building capacity for peer appraisal in Chile . 147Box 5.1. Result of the Census of Schools, Teachers and Students of Basic and Special Education(CEMABE), 2013 . 165Box 5.2. Fund for Education and Payroll Operating Expenses (FONE) . 173Box 5.3. Defining and communicating the purposes of assessment. 176Box 5.4. Support for evidence-based policy making in New Zealand . 177Box 5.5. School improvement in Chile . 180Box 1. A synthetic view of Mexico’s education reforms since 2013 . 188

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSAcronyms and abbreviationsAELState Education AuthoritiesAutoridades Educativas LocalesANMEBNational Agreement for the Modernisation of Basic and TeacherEducationAcuerdo Nacional para la Modernización de la Educación Básicay NormalATPTechnical Pedagogical AdvisorsAsesores Técnico PedagógicosCAEDCentre for Disabled StudentsCentros de Atención a Estudiantes con DiscapacidadCEMABECensus of Schools, Teachers and Students of Basic and SpecialEducationCenso de Escuelas, Maestros y Alumnos de Educación Básica yEspecialCEPSESchool Councils for Social Participation in EducationConsejos Escolares de Participación Social en la EducaciónCIDE-PIPEInterdisciplinary Programme for Education Policy and Practices ofthe Centre for Economic Studies and ResearchPrograma Interdisciplinario sobre Política y PrácticasEducativas del Centro de Investigación y Docencia EconómicaCNSPDNational Coordination of the Teacher Professional ServiceCoordinación Nacional del Servicio Profesional DocenteCONACYTNational Council of Science and TechnologyConsejo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologíaCONAEDUNational Council of Education AuthoritiesConsejo Nacional de Autoridades EducativasCONAFENational Council for Education DevelopmentConsejo Nacional de Fomento EducativoCONAPASENational Council of Social Participation in EducationConsejo Nacional de Participación Social en la Educación 7

8 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSCONEVALNational Council of Social Development Policy EvaluationConsejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de DesarrolloSocialCONPEEPedagogical Council of Education EvaluationConsejo Pedagógico de Evaluación EducativaCTESchool Technical CouncilConsejo Técnico EscolarCTZZone Technical CouncilConsejo Técnico de Zona.ECEAEvaluation of Basic Conditions for Teaching and LearningEvaluación de Condiciones Básicas para la Enseñanza y elAprendizajeECIENSchools on Certificates of National Education InfrastructureEscuelas al CIEN (Certificados de Infraestructura EducativaNacional)EDCDiagnostic Census AssessmentEvaluación Diagnóstica CensalELCEEvaluation of SchoolsEvaluación del Logro Referida a los Centros EscolaresELSENEvaluation of the National SystemEvaluación de Logro Referida al Sistema Educativo NacionalEMSUpper Secondary EducationEducación Media SuperiorENLACENational Assessment of Academic Achievement in SchoolsEvaluación Nacional del Logro Académico en Centros EscolaresETC (PETC)Full-time schooling (programme)(Programa) Escuelas de Tiempo CompletoEXCALEExaminations of Education Quality and PerformanceExámenes de la Calidad y el Logro EducativoFAEBContribution Fund for Basic EducationFondo de Aportaciones para la Educación Básica y NormalFAMMultiple Contribution FundFondo de Aportaciones Múltiples

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSFONEFund for Education and Payroll Operating ExpensesFondo de Aportaciones para la Nómina Educativa y GastoOperativoINEENational Institute for Education EvaluationInstituto Nacional para la Evaluación de la EducaciónINEGINational Institute of Statistics and GeographyInstituto Nacional de Estadística y GeografíaINIFEDNational Institute for Education InfrastructureInstituto Nacional de la Infraestructura Física EducativaLGEGeneral Law of EducationLey General de la EducaciónLGSPDGeneral Law of the Teacher Professional ServiceLey General del Servicio Profesional DocenteNMENew Educational ModelNuevo Modelo EducativoPEEMEState Programmes for Educational Evaluation and ImprovementProgramas Estatales de Evaluación y Mejora EducativaPIEEProgramme for Inclusion and Equity in EducationPrograma para la Inclusión y la Equidad EducativaPLANEANational Plan for Students’ Learning EvaluationsPlan Nacional para la Evaluación de los AprendizajesPNBNational Scholarship ProgrammePrograma Nacional de BecasPNEENational Policy on Education EvaluationPolítica Nacional de Evaluación de la EducaciónPREEducation Reform ProgrammePrograma de la Reforma EducativaPyPEStudy Plan and Programmes for Basic EducationPlan y Programas de Estudio para la Educación BásicaSATETechnical Support Service to SchoolsServicio de Asistencia Técnica a la EscuelaSEDESOLSecretariat of Social Development (Ministry)Secretaría de Desarrollo Social 9

10 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSSEPSecretariat of Public Education (Ministry)Secretaría de Educación PúblicaSERCE(UNESCO)Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory StudySIGEDSystem of Educational Information and ManagementSegundo Estudio Regional Comparativo y ExplicativoSistema de Información y Gestión EducativaSIREIntegral System of Evaluation ResultsSistema Integral de Resultados de las EvaluacionesSNEENational System of Education EvaluationSistema Nacional de Evaluación EducativaSNTENational Union of Education WorkersSindicato Nacional de Trabajadores de la EducaciónSPDTeacher Professional ServiceServicio Profesional Docente

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYExecutive summaryMexico has taken important steps to improve the coverage and quality of its educationsystem and is moving from a system that is driven by inputs and numbers towardsone based on quality of education, and more focused on student learning. To progressfurther on this path, it is important for the Mexican education system to continueinvesting efforts in strengthening the delivery of basic education in its schools with thegoal of improving student learning. This report presents an assessment of the country’seducation reforms in light of international evidence, remaining challenges and possiblenext steps to achieve the consolidation of a system that delivers educational improvement.Mexico’s recent education reformMexico has been undertaking important reforms that have achieved much progress in arelatively short period of time. From an education system that prioritised governance andvested interests, where there was lack of transparency in a number of areas, the Mexicangovernment made a series of commitments to improve the quality and equity in educationfrom 2012-2013. A constitutional reform in early 2013 and subsequent legislation have: Made quality education (educación de calidad) a right for all Mexicans byincluding it in the Constitution. Made equity both a priority across the education system and a transversalprinciple in the new educational model and targeted programmes for specificpopulation and indigenous groups. Introduced a new curricular reform based on the vision for the Mexica

goal of improving student learning. This report presents of the an assessment country’s education reforms in light of